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Examining the Context of E-Dictionary Use in Language Studies

Examining the Context of E-Dictionary Use
in Language Studies
Tetiana Vakaliuk1,* Oksana Chernysh1 Karaferye Figen2 Raul Ferrer-Conill3
1 Zhytomyr Polytechnic State University, Ukraine
2 Kutahya Dumlupinar University, Turkey
3 University of Stavanger, Norway
*Corresponding author. Email:
E-learning industry is constantly expanding, offering an increasing array of E-learning tools to meet learners’
needs and bridge the education gap. Convenience and accessibility make E-learning a significant global
educating force. It is widely accepted that E-learning greatly contributes to life-long learning, providing access to
the world-class educational resources, thus becoming a leafing type of education in the 21st century. Drawing on
E-learning industry, this article emphasizes the significance of electronic academic and educational resources use
in the era of digitalization of the system of education. The survey used in the article reviews classification
features of computer programs for educational purposes in which particular attention is attributed to E-
dictionaries. Since E-dictionaries have gained popularity as a user-friendly comprehensive source of meaningful
data and proved to increase learners’ productivity and boost their knowledge, in the article we investigate the
distinctive features of E-dictionaries and highlight the importance of E-dictionaries in mastering professional
skills and fostering international scientific cooperation. Furthermore, the investigation analyzes different
approaches to the notion “E-dictionary”. It proposes a critical review of characteristics of E-dictionaries. Our
findings stress the importance of such parameters as the range and scope of dictionary material, information type
of lexical units, peculiar patterns of dictionary arrangement, dictionary purposes as well as the arrangement of
polysemous word meanings. Moreover, the findings highlight the key challenges in the compilation of E-
dictionaries. We believe the study contributes to the field by providing a comprehensive account of the most
significant distinctive features & productivity of E-dictionaries, which are among the widely-used educational
resources in the era of digitalization.
Keywords: E-dictionary, E- dictionary compilation, Distinctive features, E-learning, Computer programs,
Information technologies.
The 21st century world has already been changing
to a more knowledge-based society. Due to the era of
digitalization, the system of education needs
renewing academic content as well as enriching it by
means of electronic academic and educational
resources, applications, podcasts etc. The rise of
pocket electronic dictionaries (PEDs) in the early
2010s [1] and the current dominance of online
electronic dictionaries (EDs) has critically shaped
how the public learn or expand their vocabulary [2;
3]. To meet the requirements set by the world
scientific and educational community, we should
focus on the constant improvement of electronic
resources. Moreover, we should take into
consideration not only educational needs of the 21st
century learners, but also psychological features of
the learning process itself [4; 5].
This study aims to assess the academic efficiency
of EDs as educational resources regarding their
standards and defining qualities. We believe that
investigating the distinctive features EDs highlights
their important role in mastering professional skills
and fostering international scientific cooperation.
Therefore, in this research, we highlight the
characteristic features of EDs and emphasize the
value of their compilation considering ED as an
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 557
Proceedings of the International Conference on New Trends in Languages,
Literature and Social Communications (ICNTLLSC 2021)
Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Atlantis Press SARL.
This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license - 42
inevitably important source of encyclopedic as well
as linguistic origin.
To account for the advancements in language
information processing technology, to facilitate
international cooperation, and to foster scientific
development, the world community invests time and
money in developing language databases (Academic
Search Complete, American and French Research on
the Treasury of the French Language, China
Academic Journals Full-text Database, Linguistics
Collection, MLA International Bibliography, Oxford
Dictionaries Online, ProQuest Research Library Plus,
etc.). Consequently, a compilation of EDs is viewed
as one of the steps towards economic and scientific
1.1. Theoretical background
In recent years, researchers have become
increasingly interested in computer programs for
educational purposes [6]. The programs have already
become greatly valued in teaching as well as self-
learning. For instance, due to the benefits that
computer software contributes to language learning,
classroom management, self-assessment etc. and
makes the process of education effective and efficient
It is commonly suggested that E-learning industry
contributes profoundly to better understanding of a
learning material. Due to integration of multimedia
content and highly interactive content of the lessons,
learners become more engaged in their study. E-
learning keeps them interested in the material and
promotes a productive learning environment.
Moreover, the use of ICTs in education boosts
learners’ curiosity, improves their skills and
motivates to study further. In addition, it helps to be
up-to-date and stay aware of all current trends in any
field of science.
Furthermore, the use of information and
communication technologies (ICTs) in education
makes every type of learners engaged. To illustrate,
audio learners can benefit from listening to topical
podcasts; visual learners can appreciate a variety of
pictures and photos and use them as prompts to
facilitate their speaking skills; kinesthetic learners
may find typing activities productive, thus improving
their writing [8].
When E-learning turns into the object of study, it
presupposes learners are familiar with the
environment, and enables them to rediscover their
identity while giving them the opportunity to
communicate in linguistic and cognitive sense of
meaning. Consequently, it helps to keep the right
balance in learners’ skills development.
Several studies suggest that according to their
functions and educational purposes, all computer
programs fall into several groups (see fig. 1) [9].
According to the type of educational activity, we
differentiate among new material presentation, new
material retention, and assessment and evaluation
groups. According to metadata features, new material
presentation group includes educational and
demonstration sources. Educational sources include
electronic course books, online tutorials and lectures
as well as distance courses. Demonstration sources
comprise electronic atlases, museum guides, video
and slide shows, albums and photo galleries and
Figure 1. Classification of Electronic Resources for
Educational Purposes. Adapted from [10]
New material retention group is divided into
encyclopedic, additional, modeling and training
(practical) sources. Encyclopedic references comprise
E-dictionaries, encyclopedias and course books.
Additional sources include books, articles, and
theses. Training sources include electronic
assignments, expert systems, simulators and
Computer Programs for
Educational Purposes
New Material
New Material
and Evaluation
electronic course books
online tutorials
online lectures, distance courses
electronic atlases
electronic museums
slide shows, albums, photo galleries, audio
collections of models
electronic dictionaries, encyclopedias
electronic course books, articles
imitation models
dynamic managed models
laboratory workshops
electronic course
books, electronic assignments, expert
systems, simulators, software programs
online tests
surveys, online assessment
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 557
educational software. In addition, educational
software has its own classification, where expert
system for educational purpose stands out [10].
An expert system is viewed as a system that
manages the process of studying a particular subject
by means of providing a set of educational
assignments and guidelines, error correction and
knowledge assessment 10. The example of such a
system is an expert language training system (a
translation system) which is aimed at studying all
language aspects, vocabulary replenishment, word
combinations, set phrases and speech patterns,
automatic translation in particular [11].
Assessment and evaluation group includes online
tests, quizzes, questionnaires etc. [12].
In the past few decades there has been a growing
interest in the study of ED features. In other words, in
the era of digital revolution, ED is steadily gaining
popularity and has already become one of the most
important tools to facilitate cross-cultural
communication [13]. The beginning of E-dictionary
era dates back to the late 1960s, when Webster’s
Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary was created with
the purpose of computational exploration. At the
same time a prototype of a modern ED was created
by means of an electronic punch-card machine first
use. It was an electronic lexicographical edition by
Roberto Busa, who used automatic linguistic analysis
and highly estimated its contribution to computer
Science computer lexicography has been rapidly
developing over the last several decades, though and
has undergone three phases as the research puts it
forth [14]:
computer assisted paper lexicography;
transfer of paper lexicographical editions to
electronic media;
E-dictionaries initially conceived for electronic
Meanwhile, ED compilation has always been in
the focus of such linguists as David Barnhart (2016),
Grant Barret (2016), Barbara Kipfer (2019), Erin
McKean (2013), Iwo Pogonowski (1997), Jesse
Sheidlower (2012), Adeline Smith (2012), Ladislav
Zgusta (2006), Edmund Weiner (2006) and many
others. Recent publications give an overview of
different approaches to the notion “E-dictionary” 15,
16, advantages and disadvantages of its use 17; 18,
the specifics of its compilation 19 etc.
Moreover, dictionary publishers have created
genuine databases for data storage and manipulation
(B+tree, ISAM). Consequently, in some works of
metalexicographic research, the appropriateness of
the term “E-dictionary” is questioned. As a result, to
highlight the difference between printed dictionaries
and digital lexicographic information systems such
alternative terms as “leximat” 20, p. 121,
“multifunctional lexicographic database” 21, p. 327,
“vocabulary information system” 22, p. 147 are
Nevertheless, the term “E-dictionary” is still
widely used to refer to any reference material stored
in an electronic form that provides information about
spelling, meaning and usage 23. Nowadays, ED is
defined as a reference tool which is viewed as a
collection of electronically structured data accessed
with multiple devices, enhanced with a wide range of
functionalities, and used in various environments 24,
p. 146. Such a dictionary means a computer database
of the specifically coded entries to enable quick word
search with regard to morphological form, and with
the possibility of searching word combinations and
changing translation direction 25, p. 67. It is a new
structured text including data represented in different
media such as audio files, videos, graph-based views
etc. that has a definite volume, a clear aim and serves
a specific idea 26, p. 54. Thus, the most
characteristic features of ED are gathered as the
a specific combination of text and hypertext
form of lexical material representation 25,
availability of verbal as well as non-verbal
means of lexical unit description 22;
sufficient search facilities within dictionary
wordlist as well as in various Internet
sources 25.
Every ED has a different interface and
incorporates various advanced search techniques,
which makes the process of finding lexical data
quicker and more flexible. ED designs including the
use of hyperlinks, images and graphics, access to
corpora concordances, availability of search functions
by inverse indexes, anagrams, and phonetic
similarities allow more complex search. Some
scientists anticipate the possibility of simultaneous
searches in different ED 23, searching for a word
from its phonetics, spelling similarities, etymology,
thematic area, semantic relations with other words
(synonymy, antonymy, hyponymy) 27, p. 89, a part
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 557
of speech etc. The inclusion of all these in ED is a
very useful complement to linguistic information.
In addition, ED is interactive. The user can add a
comment, such as a usage note, a context or a
translation to a dictionary entry, which may be useful
in future searches [11].
The modification of lexical data is typically a
constant and continual process started again and
again in the course of ED use. Moreover, it is also
possible to copy lexical data directly from the
dictionary, which is quite convenient and greatly
simplifies the work on lexical material.
Furthermore, ED is greatly valued for their quick
translation capability, data transport, thesaurus and
even learning programs. The user can also obtain the
necessary information through complementary
dictionary attributes such as images and audio files.
The use of those images and audio files is becoming
common for ED since they help the user to
understand the meaning of a word better and create a
general mood of the user involvement. What is more,
ED can be loaded onto personal computers, e-readers,
tablets, smart phones etc. Such an advantage makes
them a universal tool for professional advancement.
Due to the characteristics mentioned above,
interactivity, variety and flexibility in particular, ED
has already become a multidimensional global
information resource providing access to the lexical
data required and considerably reducing search time.
Contrary to conventional paper dictionaries, which
are viewed as static and out-of-date content in 5-6
years’ time after they are published 14, 28, ED can
easily be updated, which guarantees a quick, precise
and exhaustive search with a variety of search criteria
combined. This feature is very significant, as accurate
and precise presentation of linguistic data is of crucial
importance for constant professional language work
including domain expertise, documentation authoring
and translation, professional communication.
It makes sense, therefore, to consider ED as a
special lexicographic resource which is characterized
by non-linear textual structure inside and outside
search, verbal and non-verbal information
representation means, a compendious combination of
phonetic, semantic, encyclopedic etc. information
types and an easy access to other information
resources. Therefore, here we aimed to investigate
the distinctive features of ED that will contribute to a
quality ED compilation.
Based on the facts presented above, the
significance of ED compilation is undisputable.
However, it requires considerable efforts. It is a
meticulous, time-consuming multistep procedure
which requires the use of innovative methods and
techniques, though, the results of it are inevitably
important and fruitful for the society.
Our study was conducted in three stages. The first
stage was the interview. In order to better understand
the needs of ED users, we designed a questionnaire
that included 9 questions. The questionnaire was
proposed to 126 respondents, namely
105 undergraduate students who do Applied
Linguistics, IT, Economics, Law, Finance and
Accounting, and Engineering courses and form 88%
of all the participants and 21 teachers
(12% correspondingly). All the participants have at
least upper intermediate English level. They can
communicate easily and spontaneously in a clear and
detailed manner. The results of the questionnaire are
illustrated in Table 1. In the questions suggested, the
respondents were asked to select from a list of
possible answers. Whenever appropriate, a write-in
option was included and the respondents could voice
their opinion on the issue.
Table 1. Questionnaire on ED use
Do you use
Why do/don’t you use
How much time do you usually spend on looking up a
word in
How often do you use E
dictionaries do you usually use?
a PC based
a smartphone based
an electronic
What are the advantages of E-
dictionaries that you use?
Name at least 3,
What are the disadvantages of E-
dictionaries that you
use? Name at least 3, please.
What other features of E-
dictionaries would you like to
grammar supplements, exercises, tests and quizzes
topical vocabulary sets, topical podcasts
others (please, specify)
Rate existing
very good good bad
very bad
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 557
126 respondents were first asked if they use ED
or not. Those who do had to clarify then a dictionary
type, its model and features, state what they use it for
and how often, as well as specify its advantages and
disadvantages. Those who do not use ED were asked
to give a reason.
The second stage of our study was to compare
and critically analyze the data. To add objectivity to
our study, we used the elements of numerical
computing, to receive objective and relevant data.
The analysis of our respondents’ answers proves
that the majority of them prefer to use ED. However,
some people prefer to refer to traditional paper
dictionaries to thoroughly analyze linguistic data and
not to be distracted by ED interactivity and
hypertextuality (see fig. 2). Moreover, it spares their
Figure 2 ED versus paper dictionary use
The most popular EDs are found to be The
Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current
English (OALDCE), The Cambridge Advanced
Learner’s Dictionary (CALD), The Longman
Dictionary of Contemporary English (LDOCE), The
Collins English Dictionary (CED),The Merriam-
Webster’s Learner’s Dictionary (MWLD), and The
Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced
Learners (MEDAL) (see fig. 3).
Figure 3 ED use
To look at each of the ED stated by our
respondents briefly; OALDCE by Oxford University
Press is one of the oldest EDs 29. Its printed
editions date back to 1478 and have always been
academic and educational resources of exceptional
quality. Nowadays, the range of its editions includes
dictionaries, English language teaching materials,
university textbooks and many others.
CALD by Cambridge University Press is one of
the most reputable EDs 30. Cambridge University
Press started functioning in 1584 and has been
publishing dictionaries since 1995. In 1998, it offered
its dictionary online which was completely free of
LDOCE by Pearson Education Press is widely
popular for The Longman Communication 9000 31.
The Longman Communication 9000 represents the
core of English language which is divided into high,
medium and lower frequency words’ bands, thus
providing the users with the most significant lexical
units for effective communication.
CED by Harper Collins Publishers is one of the
largest publishing companies in the world 32. CED
is based on the Bank of English, the largest corpus of
contemporary English texts. It has always been
famous for providing thorough contextual usage of
lexical items.
MWLD by Merriam-Webster FAQ is greatly
valued for providing one of the best digital language
references 33. Merriam-Webster first printed
dictionary was published in 1847. Since then, the
company has significantly upgraded and expanded.
Currently, MWLD is a unique online-only reference
which is regularly updated.
Lastly, MEDAL by Macmillan Publishers was
first launched in 2009, though its printed version was
issued in 2002 34. MEDAL was compiled by
British and American lexicographers and now is
widely known for its Open Dictionary that enables
users to submit words.
All the EDs mentioned above are sufficient
lexicographical editions known all over the world.
They are highly rated by the scientific community
and extensively used by online visitors.
Consequently, these EDs of well-known reputable
dictionary brands annually take leading positions in
dictionary top lists 35.
Secondly, the respondents agree that EDs are
rather convenient.
ED users as a rule need up to 15 minutes to get a
detailed word profile, which is rather time-efficient
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 557
(see fig. 4). In the analysis findings, the respondents
believe that EDs are good. They are user-friendly,
highly interactive, provide better visual prompts and
make the process of finding the necessary material
quicker (see fig. 5). Moreover, EDs simplify the
process of editing text files and allow comparing the
data. Furthermore, ED grammar supplements,
exercises, tests, quizzes and topical podcasts are of a
great benefit. It is obtained that EDs do not only
explain the material better, but also provide some
entertainment, turning the process of education into
Figure 4 Time spent working with the dictionary
Figure 5 ED assessment
However, sometimes the users need more time to
get used to a dictionary interface. In addition, it is
rather preferable to get the main material first and
then proceed to the additional one, though in some
EDs the structure is opposite to that. What is more,
ED hypertextuality interferes with the work and
usually distracts the users, thus users’ attention
wanders and it becomes difficult to concentrate on
the task.
Then, we turned to the third stage of our study. To
better understand the nature of EDs, we decided to
further investigate linguistic features of OALDCE,
The analysis of ED linguistic features contributes
to better understanding of its advantages and
disadvantages. To analyze ED characteristics, we
have considered the following parameters 36, 37:
range and scope of ED material;
information type of ED items;
patterns of ED arrangement;
arrangement of polysemous word meanings;
ED purposes (prescriptive versus descriptive,
productive versus receptive).
The range and scope of ED material presupposes
the analysis of entries density; temporal, spatial,
social and frequentative presentation of the lexical
material; type of language items registered; extent of
concentration on lexical and encyclopedic data, and
the number of languages involved 36, p. 31-32.
Firstly, entry density is a quantitative property of
a dictionary, the precise size of the whole lexicon.
The results of our investigation prove that paper
dictionaries differ in wealth of recorded meanings,
consequently, entry density could be used for their
typological classification. The results are illustrated
in Table 2. However, EDs have unlimited storage
capability. As a result, it is not possible to consider
the parameter in full.
Nevertheless, we will specify some other EDs’
entry peculiarities. EDs cover a broad academic and
educational spectrum, making their content available
in different languages. To start with, OALDCE
presents the material in more than 40 languages.
CALD entry variety encompasses 20 languages.
LDOCE, MWLD and MEDAL, on the contrary,
publish their material in not so many languages. The
list of languages include English, French, German,
Italian, Spanish, Russian, Polish, Chinese, Japanese,
Korean, Portuguese, Catalan, Czech, Turkish and
other languages.
Secondly, temporal, spatial, social and
frequentative presentation of the lexical material
enables synchronic and diachronic language study, its
national standard and regional varieties as well as its
frequency. The study proves that the ED’s coverage
is predominantly restricted by time period. EDs tend
to constantly update language material providing
lexical items with wide usage.
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 557
Table 2. The range and scope of ED material
Further subdivision
Range and Scope of ED Material
entries density 40 20
4 14
3 1
social and
n of the
+ + + + + +
+ + +
+ + + + + +
+ + +
frequency + + +
type of
pure words
idioms, set
phrases, word
and phrases,
+ + + + + +
extent of concentration on
lexical and encyclopedic
+ + +
number of
However, some EDs include the elements of
diachronic language analysis, which may be of great
importance for the readers interested in diachronic
language studies. For example, CED demonstrates
words’ recorded usage by years. ED users have the
possibility to track the word usage and consider its
importance in modern English (see fig. 6).
Figure 6 Word Recorded Usage by Years
EDs focus on national standard language, though
some EDs also register regional varieties that may be
needed for a further study.
Moreover, it contributes to effective cross-cultural
communication and definitely widens ED users’
horizon. It may be done with the help of a footnote or
a remark to a word definition, for example:
“chamber: (Indian English)
an office, especially of a person in
an important position” (CALD).
Word frequency, territory and social environment
of lexical items are rarely stated (see fig. 7) [37].
Nevertheless, it becomes possible to track all the
above mentioned characteristics with the word
recorded usage. Furthermore, some EDs state word
frequency with the help of a word frequency sign, for
instance let’s consider CED word frequency
Figure 7 Word frequency
Thirdly, EDs may record not only isolated words,
but also collocations, phrases, idioms, set phrases,
and sometimes even speech patterns. They present
synonyms and antonyms, highlight derivatives,
divide lexical items into topical groups etc. EDs
provide a detailed word profile that greatly
contributes to users’ vocabulary skills improvement.
Moreover, some EDs include unique treatment of
metaphor, emphasizing that ordinary familiar words
may have metaphorical meanings that users do not
always realize. For example, MEDAL illustrates
metaphorical meaning of the words related to the
topic ‘Illness’:
Trying to recover from an illness or trying to stay
healthy is like fighting a battle, with an illness as
your enemy. Dying from an illness is like losing a
Simple hygiene measures can help guard against
I’ve been fighting off a cold all week.
The company is developing a new drug to combat
malaria.” (MEDAL)
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 557
Furthermore, all EDs highlight word contextual
usage, thus providing users with the rules of a lexical
item usage. In addition, contextual usage accentuates
regional and social environment characteristics,
which makes a word profile full. What is more, EDs’
hypertextuality makes it possible to include grammar
reference with practical language usage, grammar
exercises, tests, quizzes and even games. EDs offer
topical word lists, text-checkers, diagnostic tests to
assess users’ reading level (OALDCE), translate
option, a blog, word of the day section (CALD), hot
topics section, vocabulary quizzes and exercises
(LDOCE), trending words, latest words submission
(CED), words trending now section (MWLD),
synonyms of the month, buzzword section
(MEDAL) and many others.
In addition, EDs may also have encyclopedic
entries, such as proper names or geographical
descriptions, hot social issues discussions, mass
media reviews etc. This piece of information
contributes not only to better understanding of a
dictionary item, but also users’ intelligence and
general outlook.
According to the number of languages involved,
EDs may be monological, bilingual, trilingual and
multilingual (polyglot). Each ED type is unique for a
language phenomenon study; for instance,
monological dictionaries are often used for sufficient
academic language study, whereas bilingual ones
usually serve as translation dictionaries. The ED
being analyzed may be either monological or
bilingual depending on the option you choose.
Much prominence is given to the information type
of ED items. The results are illustrated in Table 3.
Table 3. Information type of ED items
Criterion Further subdivision
Information Type
of ED items
word definition + + + +
syntactic, stylistic
+ + + +
semantically related
+ + + +
The results of the survey demonstrate that all EDs
under analysis record spelling and pronunciation.
Moreover, EDs offer both English and American
variants of spelling and pronunciation providing it
with audio prompts, for example, as it is done in
UK /ˈʃedʒ.uːl/ US /ˈskedʒ.uːl/”
EDs give a word definition and emphasize its
morphological, syntactic and stylistic properties, for
instance, such a word profile we may find in CED:
(pəliːs )
Word forms: 3rd person singular present
tense polices , present participle policing , past
tense, past participle policed
Moreover, EDs provide derivatives and
semantically related words etc, for example, LDOCE
Word family (noun) happiness unhappiness (adj
ective) happy unhappy
(adverb) happily unhappily”
Word etymology is quite rarely emphasized in
EDs. However, MWLD has a special section for that:
“History and Etymology for nature
Middle English, from Middle French, from
Latin natura, from natus, past participle of nasci to
be born — more at NATION”
Furthermore, EDs may provide illustrative
examples to specify word meaning and usage. Such
examples may be taken from literary sources, any
written or recorded data, and even created
simultaneously for the author’s need. It greatly
diversifies the content of the ED’s entry. This
information may also be a criterion for further ED
In addition, there are several patterns of ED
arrangement, such as:
alphabetical arrangement, which is the most
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 557
widely used one [38];
semantic arrangement that presupposes the
organization according to bonds of lexical
item meaning. Thus, we have ED of
synonyms, systematic ED etc.;
casual arrangement, which creates a mixture
of alphabetical and semantic ones.
The results are illustrated in Table 4.
Table 4. Pattern of ED arrangement
Criterion Further
Patterns of
The results demonstrate that all EDs analyzed
have alphabetical arrangement pattern, which is
rather convenient and contributes to a quick word
What is more, the significance of polysemous
word meanings arrangement in ED should be
emphasized. The arrangement can be done according
historical order, when the meanings are
put in the sequence of their historical
frequency, when the most common
meanings come first;
logical order to reflect the hierarchical
relations between the meanings [39].
The table presents data on polysemous word
meanings arrangement proving that predominantly
EDs have the arrangement according to the frequency
of polysemous word meanings. This makes the most
significant information stand out.
The last criterion concerns ED functions
(purposes), which is that EDs may have prescriptive
(normative), descriptive, productive and receptive
purposes. The results are illustrated in Table 6.
Prescriptive (normative) purpose means that an
ED does not only provide information about a word,
but also emphasizes its correct usage in context.
Descriptive purpose states that an ED records both
standard language and dialectal words, archaisms,
author's neologisms etc. thus, highlighting the whole
spectrum of language varieties. It is obtained that all
EDs under analysis perform the functions stated.
Table 5. ED purposes
Criterion Further
+ + + + + +
Productive purpose is realized by active EDs [40,
p. 106] dealing with encoding tasks. On the contrary,
receptive purpose concerns passive EDs aimed at
decoding tasks. Our EDs are active. We believe that
the results of EDs’ distinctive features analysis may
contribute to the compilation of a model ED.
From the research that has been carried out, it is
possible to conclude that EDs are efficient academic
and educational resources with high standards, and a
set of defining qualities. They record language data,
emphasize morphological, syntactic and stylistic
characteristics of lexical units, highlight their
regional and social environment features, provide
contextual usage, thus enabling ED users to get a
detailed word profile. Moreover, EDs offer a great
variety of synonyms, antonyms, collocations, idioms,
set phrases related to the search word. EDs perform
prescriptive, descriptive and productive functions
providing users with the necessary language data. In
addition, EDs greatly contribute to the development
of users’ language competencies, widen users’
outlook and facilitate further language study.
Prospects for further research presuppose a
profound study of technical features of ED
architecture. It is now clear that we need to advance
our understanding of ED software design adjusted to
users’ needs not just educational but also
psychological as stated to provide more support to
continuous learning of the (potential) users.
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Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 557
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... The primary purpose of using EDs is for vocabulary learning (Alhaisoni, 2016;Ambarwati & Mandasari, 2020;Amirian & Heshmatifar, 2013;Ayed, 2020;Barham, 2017;Chaima & Nouredine, 2022;El-Sawy, 2019;Mohamad et al., 2017;Nugraha et al., 2019;Trinh et al., 2021). This is an obvious purpose when EDs are intended to provide learners with a huge amount of information (Zamkova et al., 2023;Zheng & Wang, 2016), and EDs can offer almost all semantic features like collocations, idioms, antonyms, and synonyms (Hilary & Warwick, 2000;Vakaliuk et al., 2021). For this use, learners would like to check word meanings (Alhaisoni, 2016;Barham, 2017;Hilary & Warwick, 2000;Trinh et al., 2021), look for word family (Zamkova et al., 2023), examine word spelling (Alhaisoni, 2016;Barham, 2017), and find illustrations for correct word use (Zamkova et al., 2023). ...
... The primary purposes lie in meaning checking (Alhaisoni, 2016;Barham, 2017;Hilary & Warwick, 2000;Trinh et al., 2021) and pronunciation (Ambarwati & Mandasari, 2020;Barham, 2017;Hakim et al., 2020;Trinh et al., 2021;Zamkova et al., 2023). Some other usual situations, like looking for collocations, antonyms, and synonyms, were also found in this study and support Hilary and Warwick (2000) and Vakaliuk et al. (2021). Less frequent use, like looking for word family, examining word spelling, and finding examples, was also found. ...
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Vocabulary is a crucial part of effective communication. This aspect is closely related to dictionaries, the most popular type of which is electronic dictionaries (EDs). Different studies have taken a strong interest in exploring EDs and their role in language learning, but few have been done in the Vietnamese context. This study is going to examine Vietnamese English as a Foreign Language Learners' perceptions and practices of EDs, from which suggestions are made for their effective use. The research took place at a university in Vietnam, with the participation of 12 English majors. The study used a semi-structured interview to collect qualitative data with the utilization of thematic analysis. The results found that Vietnamese EFL learners use monolingual and bilingual electronic dictionaries very often, both inside and outside the classroom. The purposes for their use are also varied, two primary ones of which are checking meaning and practicing pronunciation. Moreover, it was found that they have a positive attitude towards EDs with different beneficial elements. They also addressed a few problems using EDs and made some recommendations for better use.
... Nilai rata-rata yang diperoleh 72% maka berdasarkan kriteria validasi pada Tabel 3, prototipe ini direvisi dan dilakukan refine. Evaluasi pertama ini karena ditemukan pada fitur kamus fonetis tidak terdeteksi sesuai International Phonetic Alphabeth (IPA) sementara fonetis penting dalam sebuah kamus, fonetis adalah fitur khas pada sebuah kamus [25] serta penyajian lema yang tampil pada contoh penggunaan kata belum sesuai dengan Pedoman Umum Ejaan Bahasai Indonesia yang Disempurnakan. Temuan ini di analisa dan hasilnya perlu ditambahkan style font ke website, dilakukan deklarasi variabel terlebih dahulu di CSS dengan kode sebagai berikut. ...
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Kamus digital bahasa daerah merupakan upaya pemertahanan, pelestarian dan mempermudah masyarakat dalam pencarian sumber kosakata khususnya kosakata bahasa daerah secara cepat. Kamus digital bahasa daerah saat ini yang telah banyak diimplementasikan belum memiliki fitur khas Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (KBBI) yaitu tulisan fonetis. Fitur penulisan fonetis atau fonetik berfungsi dalam mempelajari bunyi bahasa (pengucapan). Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menghasilkan aplikasi kamus dwibahasa daerah Papua sesuai KBBI berbasis website menggunakan metode Rapid Application Development (RAD). Kamus digital dwibahasa ini dilengkapi dengan fitur tulisan fonetis internasional, cara penulisannya disesuaikan dengan International Phonetic Alphabeth (IPA) yang belum terdapat pada kamus digital lain. Pada eksperimen implementasi fitur penulisan fonetis, agar gaya penulisan sesuai dengan standar IPA dilakukan analisis yang berkaitan erat dengan penggunaan desain pada database, Cascading Style Sheet (CSS), dan pengkodean Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML). Hasil pengembangan kamus digital ini mendapatkan nilai validasi oleh 3 ahli dari BBPP dan 4 pengguna adalah sebesar 89% yang artinya sangat layak untuk diimplementasikan.
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Purpose This article develops a conceptualization of language pedagogy that engages the whole student. Instead of teaching language as if it were just a collection of grammar and vocabulary, we need to think about language as extending into many aspects of life and engaging whole people. Design/Approach/Methods This article builds an original conceptualization of language learning and teaching that imagines language learning as a tool for developing whole people. It brings together research on learning culture through language, together with cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), to develop a vision for language learning and human development. Findings When we teach language, we should be helping people participate in ways of life. This goes beyond knowledge of subject matter, and it goes beyond any simple type of well-being. Language learning can immerse students in others’ worlds, and it can foster empathy and understanding across social and political divides. But it can do so only if we base our research and pedagogy on an adequate account of language and culture. Originality/Value In our rapidly changing, increasingly interconnected contemporary world, we need a more dynamic conception of culture than has typically been used to design language teaching and learning. This article draws on CHAT, especially the ideas of dialogue and critique, to develop an account of language pedagogy that can engage the whole student.
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In this study, we analyse the impact of dictionary use training in students who took their BA in foreign language teaching degree and are training to become teachers in the MA programme. A dual perception is tackled here: (1) Students as users of dictionaries in their degree studies, after getting some training in dictionary use (2.a) the same students as teachers-in-training considering how they envision the use of dictionaries in their future classroom (2.b) teachers-in-training as observers of dictionary use in their practicum classroom experience with other younger students There is still controversy in the use of (e) dictionaries in the classroom as well as the use of dictionaries in tests and examinations. For some, classroom use promotes vocabulary learning. However, teachers do not always agree on the best dictionary to use (monolingual or bilingual). From an electronic dictionary format perspective, the limits between monolingual and bilingual are blurred, since most dictionary sites and tools are may be customised or have the option of choosing one option or the other (monolingual or bilingual, even bilingualized). For most teachers, dictionary use for tests should be avoided. However, e-dictionary use in formative assessment could be a good option in the students' learning path (in contrast to final or summative tests). The online dictionary panorama, thus, makes us revisit the position of dictionary use in the classroom from a virtual environment perspective. A total of 25 teachers-in training were interviewed by means of electronic semi-structured interviews and data from questionnaires are analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively to ascertain the vision of future teachers regarding e-dictionary use in the classroom. The study presented here reveals tendencies related to online dictionary preferences, e-dictionary skills difficulties, problems and benefits of using e-dictionaries in the classroom as part of the language learning tools and methods implemented in the classroom sessions.
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By means of an overview of certain aspects of article structures in printed dictionaries and with reference to some examples from e-dictionaries a number of features of article structures in e-dictionaries are discussed. Reference is made to the positioning of articles in article stretches and functional partial article stretches. Different structural components of articles, i.e. text segments, comments and search zones are distinguished. The increased role of data-identifying entries as a type of non-typographical structural indicator in e-dictionaries receives attention as well as the fact that the traditional division of an article in two comments, typically a comment on form and a comment on semantics, cannot merely be maintained. The value of the cohesion resulting from the use of comments in printed dictionaries is much more restricted in e-dictionaries. The use of search zones and rapid access to these zones have a much more important role in the article structure of edictionaries. In the planning of e-dictionaries provision needs to be made for a multi-layered article structure with screenshots that display the data in a variety of search zones. Access to these search zones goes via structural indicators in an opening or further screenshot. Provision needs to be made for one lemma to occur in a comprehensive article but also in a number of restricted articles that can be retrieved from the same database. Users should also have the opportunity to design their own user profile that will allow them to consult dictionary articles structured according to their specific needs.
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The purpose of this study is to establish differences and similarities between linguistic characteristics of English and Russian dictionaries. Two dictionaries were selected for the study – electronic version of the 8th edition of Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (OALD) and the online version of Ozhegov’s explanatory dictionary. The methods chosen for the study were descriptive, comparative and contrastive analysis. Linguistic characteristics of the dictionaries were analysed and compared. The research showed that both reference books provided different linguistic information on the headwords. OALD provided exhaustive phonetic information, which Ozhegov’s dictionary lacked. The two dictionaries provided different orthographic information. OALD disclosed semantic information via various tools available in the electronic version; these were unavailable in Ozhegov’s dictionary. Both dictionaries used similar stylistic labels.
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The arrival of the modern computer set in motion a series of lexicographers' dreams without equal in the history of dictionary making. Achieving the wildest of those electronic‐dictionary vistas has the potential to result in reference works beyond all recognition. This potential, alas, remains to be realised. The aim of this article is to analyse the major achievements and future prospects when it comes to ‘human‐oriented electronic dictionaries’ (for short EDs). In the first two sections the scene is set by revisiting this article's title. In the third section various ED typologies are presented, including a new three‐step access dictionary typology. The latter is used as a frame in section four, where forty pros and cons of paper versus electronic products are reviewed. This study clearly shows that ED dreams are indeed not without a solid basis. The next two sections then deal with the ED dreams proper, first in the form of a brief diachronic perspective singling out main dreams and main actors (section five), then in a much more detailed fashion sorting and scrutinising one hundred and twenty dreams found throughout the literature (section six). Section seven concludes with some observations on the way ahead.
Transformation in language education
  • B Filer
B. Filer, Paper or Electronic Dictionaries: A Comparison, in: P. Clements, A. Krause, H. Brown (Eds.), Transformation in language education, JALT, Tokyo, 2017, pp. 235-242.
How to teach vocabulary
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S. Thornbury, How to teach vocabulary. Harlow, England: Pearson Education, 2008.