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Biological Activities of Laetiporus Species as a Functional Food



Laetiporus name is a combination of two words “laeti” (Lat.) and “por” (Lat.) and refers to a hymenial layer and the size of the specifically shaped fruiting bodies [30]. The genus Laetiporus was described by Murrill (1904) and typified by Agaricus speciosus [=Polyporus sulphureus (Bull.) Fr.] as a monotypic genus [30,31]. It causes decay especially in oak (Quercus sp.) trees, hardwood and conifers. The mature mushroom is yellow-orange [32].
Open Access Journal of Mycology & Mycological Sciences
ISSN: 2689-7822
Commied to Create Value for Researchers
Biological Activities of Laetiporus Species as a Functional Food J Mycol Mycological Sci
Biological Activities of Laetiporus Species as a Functional Food
Sevindik M*
Department of Food Processing, Osmaniye Korkut Ata University, Turkey
*Corresponding author: Mustafa Sevindik, Department of Food Processing, Osmaniye Korkut
Ata University, Bahçe Vocational School, Osmaniye, Turkey, Email:
Mini Review
Volume 4 Issue 1
Received Date: May 11, 2021
Published Date: May 28, 2021
DOI: 10.23880/oajmms-16000138
Mini Review
In recent years, the increasing interest in human health,
nutrition and prevention of diseases led to the popularity
of functional foods among consumers. Several researchers
attempt to obtain potential natural bioactive components
from various natural sources using different methods [1-4].
Mushrooms, which are rich in organic and inorganic content,
are also natural products that have various effects. As a
result of metabolic and physiological processes, secondary
metabolites produced continuously in organisms lead to
various biological activities both for the organisms they are
synthesized in and for other groups of living organisms that
consume these natural products [5,6]. Mushrooms create
a strong defense mechanism in their organism due to the
secondary metabolites they synthesize. Furthermore, they
have a high nutritional value and bioactive potential both in
the defense mechanism and as nutrients in the organisms
that consume these natural materials [7-9]. Cosmopolitan
macro-mushrooms are considered to span 53-110 thousand
species in nature [10]. Since ancient times, humans have
collected and consumed several mushroom species that were
available in their natural habitat as nutrients. In addition to
their nutritional properties, natural mushrooms contain
many various active biological compounds. Due to these
properties, they are also considered important medical and
pharmacological sources [11-13].
Previous studies reported various biological activities of
 
protective, antioxidant, anti-androgenic, antimicrobial,
cytotoxic, ant-cancer, antiemetic, antiallergic, antiparasitic,
sedative, anti-cholinesterase, hepatoprotective, and acute
toxicity, anti-mutagenic, cardiovascular and anti-tumor
effects [14-29].
The studies conducted on these living organism groups
 
is very limited. In the present paper, biological activity
data for Laetiporus species, which exhibit cosmopolitan
distribution in natural ecosystems, are presented.
Laetiporus species
Laetiporus name is a combination of two words “laeti”
(Lat.) and “por” (Lat.) and refers to a hymenial layer and the
Laetiporus 
Agaricus speciosus [=Polyporus sulphureus (Bull.) Fr.] as a
monotypic genus [30,31]. It causes decay especially in oak
(Quercus sp.) trees, hardwood and conifers. The mature
mushroom is yellow-orange [32].
Figure 1: Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.) Murrill.
Open Access Journal of Mycology & Mycological Sciences
Sevindik M. Biological Activities of Laetiporus Species as a Functional Food. J Mycol Mycological Sci
2021, 4(1): 000138.
Copyright© Sevindik M.
Biological Activities
In previous studies conducted on Laetiporus species,
several biological activity tests were conducted using different
methods and solvents. These studies reported antioxidant,
antimicrobial, anticancer, hepatoprotective, antiproliferative,
antitumor, immune-stimulating, mutanase, enzymatic, anti-
   
anticoagulant, acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities,
reverse transcriptase of HIV-virus inhibitors, anti-thrombin
effects and hypoglycemic activities in Laetiporus species [33-
71] (Table 1).
Laetiporus species Biological Activity Extraction
L. sulphureus
Antioxidant [33,35,38,39,41,43,44,46,51,55,59-
61,69,70], Antimicrobial [33,36,38-
41,44,45,50,52,53,55,61,70], Anticancer
[34], Hepatoprotective [35], Antiproliferative
[38,39,48,64,65,67,68], Antitumor [42,57],
Immunostimulating Activity [42], Mutanase
activity [47], Enzymatic activity [49], Anti-
[62], Acetylcholinesterase inhibition [69], Reverse
transcriptase of HIV-virus inhibitors [71]
Ethanol [33,34,41,44,60,51,61,69], Aqueous
[36], Cyclohexane [38], Dichloromethane
[38,40,53,71], Methanol [38-41,44,55,60,70,71],
Polysaccharidic extract [35,39,42,43,46-48],
Acetone [40], Water [41], Strains [45,49],
Hot water extract [46,56], Hydroalcoholic
extract [52], Heptane [53], Diethylether [53],
Chloroform [53,70], Ethyl acetate [53,59],
Metabolites [57,64, 65,67,68], Crude extract [62]
L. sulphureus var.
thrombin effects [54], Antiproliferative [54,66],
Hypoglycemic [63]
Polysaccharidic extract [37,63], Hexane [54],
Chloroform [54], Metabolites [66]
L. baudonii Antimicrobial [58] Dichlormethane [58], Methanol [58], Water [58]
Table 1: Biological Activity of Laetiporus species.
In addition to being a source of nutrients for human beings,
mushrooms are also used in supplamentary and supportive
      
In the current study, biological activities of Laetiporus
species are presented. In this context, it was suggested that
Laetiporus species could be used as supplementary agents in
treatment of various diseases in addition to their nutritional
properties and they would occupy an important place in the
development of new pharmacological new agents due to
their active components. The potential of Laetiporus species
for use in design of modern medicines by determination
of their phytochemical content and isolation of these
compounds is noteworthy. Furthermore, it can be stipulated
that the adverse effects of current medical drugs could be
eliminated as a result of the above-mentioned designs. In
conclusion, it was considered that the use of Laetiporus
species in complementary medicine is very important and
       
natural agents in development of pharmacological drugs.
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Open Access Journal of Mycology & Mycological Sciences
Sevindik M. Biological Activities of Laetiporus Species as a Functional Food. J Mycol Mycological Sci
2021, 4(1): 000138.
Copyright© Sevindik M.
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Open Access Journal of Mycology & Mycological Sciences
Sevindik M. Biological Activities of Laetiporus Species as a Functional Food. J Mycol Mycological Sci
2021, 4(1): 000138.
Copyright© Sevindik M.
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Full-text available
Since ancient times, people consumed mush-rooms as nutrients, especially during the rainy sea-son. The present study aimed to determine the therapeutic potential of an edible mushroom, Lae-tiporus sulphureus (Bull.) Murrill. Thus, its antioxi-dant activity was determined by DPPH method and antimicrobial activity was determined with modi-fied agar dilution method. TAS (total antioxidant status), TOS (total oxidant status) and OSI (oxida-tive stress index) values were determined using Rel Assay kits. PBR 322 supercoiled DNA was used to identify the DNA protective activity. Heavy metal content was determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometry using the wet decomposition method. In conclusion, it was determined that L. sulphureus demonstrated high biological activity and it was considered that the mushroom can be used as a natural resource in alternative medicine.
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In order to contribute to the exploitation and utilization of spent mushroom substrates (SMS) of Laetiporus sulphureus , hot-water-extractable polysaccharides (H-SMPS) and enzymatic-extractable polysaccharides (E-SMPS) were successfully isolated from SMS of L. sulphureus . Both H-SMPS and E-SMPS were found to have high reducing power and potential scavenging activities against hydroxyl, DPPH, and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo assays showed that the administration of H-SMPS and E-SMPS has potential hepatoprotective effects against alcohol-induced alcoholic liver disease (ALD), possibly brought about by improving liver function, increasing antioxidant status, and reducing lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, monosaccharide composition analysis showed that fucose may play a vital role in guaranteeing stronger hepatoprotection. These results may provide references for the exploitation of the SMS of L. sulphureus as a source of H-SMPS and E-SMPS, which in turn can be used as functional foods or natural drugs for the prevention of ALD and other liver diseases.
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Cyclohexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts of the medicinal mushroom Laetiporus sulphureus were tested for their anti microbial cytotoxic, and radical scavenging activities. Total polyphenol content was also determined. Regarding the amount of the phenolic compounds in the methanol extractthere were 14.1 ± 0.6 mg gallic acid/g dry extract and a concentration of 0.66 ±0.15 mg/mL resulted in the removal of 50% of the DPPH radicals (half-maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50]). The average minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against a select panel of microorganisms were between 125 and 250 μg/mLand the methanolic extract significantly inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (MIC31.25 μg/mL). Alsocyclohexane and dichloromethane extracts inhibited the growth of Helicobacter pylori (MIC62.5 μg/mL). Cyclohexane and dichloromethane extracts showed higher antiproliferative action compared with the methanol extract. The lowest IC50 was induced on HeLa cells by dichloromethane extract (IC5067.20 ± 5.49 μg/mL)followed by cyclohexane extract (IC50 75.91 ± 1.57 μg/mL). The tested cyclohexane and dichloromethane extracts possessed moderate antibacterial and significant cytotoxic activity against both malignant (HeLa and N87) and healthy (MRC5) cell lines. Methanol extracts exhibited promising anti-Helicobacter activity without cytotoxicity against N87 and MRC5 cell lines.
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p class="Abstract">A drimane type sesquiterpenoids, sulphureuine B was isolated from the edible mushroom Laetiporus sulphureus and its antiproliferative properties were investigated using U-87MG glioma cells. It was observed that sulphu-reuine B-induced apoptosis in U-87MG cells and the mechanisms involved are endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial and death receptor mediated pathways. Endoplasmic reticulum stress was identified from the results of enormous cytoplasmic vacuolation, CHOP elevation and caspase-12 cleavage. Further, we found that treatment of sulphureuine B-induced PERK, IRE1α, and ATF6α activations. In addition, sulphureuine B-induced Bcl-2 down-regulation, cleavage of PARP, and caspase-8 activation were also affected. All these experimental results clearly revealed that sulphureuine B-induced apoptosis mediated through endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial, and death receptor signaling pathways. </p
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Laetiporus sulphureus (chicken of the woods) is a wood decaying mushroom with positive medicinal and biological effects. The aim of this study was to determine its chemical composition including the main organic components (protein, fat, fibre, and ash contents, different protein fractions, the free amino acid level, soluble oligo- and polysaccharides, phenolics), the in vitro digestibility, the free radical scavenging activity, and twenty mineral elements. Our data demonstrate the characteristic in general valuable chemical composition of the mushroom Laetiporus sulphureus. Protein content in fruiting bodies is not too high (10.6% d.m.), but the biological value (in vitro digestibility, rate of protein fractions, free amino acid content, etc.) is good (including fat and energy levels). Occurrence of "bioactive" components (phenolics, soluble oligo- and polysaccharides) and the measured free radical scavenging activity are similar to these parameters in Pleurotus (oyster) species. Potassium and phosphorus contents are remarkable (28 940 mg kg(-1) d.m. and 4890 mg kg(-1) d.m., respectively); levels of some poisonous microelements (As, Cd, Cr) are very low or undetectable. Chicken of the woods (Laetiporus sulphureus) is not only a suitable species for human consumption, but can be a new cultivable mushroom of valuable bioactive substances.
The aim of the study was to estimate the content of the macroelements (Ca, K, Mg, Na), ergosterol, ascorbic acid, and the profile of phenolic compounds in seventeen wild growing edible mushrooms from Poland. Mean content of Ca, K, Mg, Na in wood‐growing mushrooms was 315, 12,402, 597, and 130 mg/kg DM. Soil‐growing species contained 246, 15,586, 531, and 114 mg/kg DM, respectively. The highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents were confirmed for Leccinum scabrum (9.24 and 0.77 mg/g DM). The highest content of ascorbic acid was indicated in Calvatia gigantea (108.11 mg/kg DM). The richest in phenolic compounds were Lepista gilva and L. scabrum. The soil‐growing mushrooms possessed a better scavenging activity in comparison to wood‐growing varieties, with L. scabrum as the species with the greatest antioxidant properties. EC50 value was correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents. The content of ergosterol reached 0.540 mg/g DM for Laetiporus sulphureus. Practical applications Consumers appreciate wild edible mushrooms mainly because of the taste and aroma. This research on both popular and rare edible wild growing mushrooms shows that they are a good source of bioactive compounds including macroelements, phenolics, and ergosterol. This knowledge influences consumers' awareness by enabling them to better match the products of the daily diet, which in consequence can improve well‐being and health quality. The results are also valuable for other applications of mushrooms, for example, as extracts or other forms of supplements.
Wood-rotting basidiomycete, Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.: Fr.) Murill., also known as chicken of the woods, is known for its nutritional value. In this study, aqueous extract obtained from L. sulphureus was investigated for its antimicrobial properties using microdilution in vitro assay. Plant, animal and human pathogens, as well as food spoilage agents, were tested. Aqueous extract obtained from L. sulphureus showed strong activity against the tested microorganisms in a dose dependent manner. Considering that there is a constant emerging of pathogen resistance to the known synthetic agents, there is an undeniable need for new therapeutical drugs and preservatives in food industry. Thus, these results that indicate activity of natural products may be of practical use.
In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and tumor-inhibiting effects of eburicoic acid, the main bioactive component in the Laetiporus sulphureus, on gastric ulcers. A total of 48 Kunming mice were randomly divided into six groups: control, model, OL (omeprazole, 20 mg/kg/day, orally), EA-L (eburicoic acid, 10 mg/kg/day, orally), EA-M (eburicoic acid, 20 mg/kg/day, orally), and EA-H (eburicoic acid, 40 mg/kg/day, orally). Gastric ulcers were induced in mice by administering 80% ethanol containing 15 mg/mL aspirin (10.0 mL/kg, i.g.) 4 hours after drug administration on day 5. The ulcer index and H+/K+-ATPase activity were evaluated in vivo. Computer-aided molecular docking simulated the interaction between eburicoic acid and H+/K+-ATPase. The results showed that the oral administration of eburicoic acid protected the gastric mucosa from gastric lesions morphologically and especially attenuated H+/K+-ATPase activity. The results of this study indicate that the gastric protective effect of eburicoic acid might inhibit gastric acid.
Intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) and exopolysaccharides (EPS) are isolated respectively from mycelia and filtrates of submerged culture by Laetiporus sulphureus in a 20-L stirred tank bioreactor with corresponding antioxidant properties investigated. Effective productions of IPS and EPS by submerged cultures of L. sulphureus are available. Number of average molecular weights (Mn) and protein/polysaccharide ratios are 1.29×10,sup>6 Da and 8.24% for IPS and 3.95×10 6 Da and 2.38% for EPS. IPS shows an excellent antioxidant property in reducing power and scavenging effect on superoxide anion, whereas EPS has a powerful antioxidant activity in reducing power, chelating effect on ferrous ions and scavenging effect on superoxide anion, as evidenced by their quite low EC 50 values below 5 mg/ml. Confirmed by the result is the potential antioxidant application of fermented L. sulphureus polysaccharides in health-promoting functional food and pharmaceutical industries. Key words: Laetiporus sulphureus, intracellular polysaccharide, exopolysaccharide, antioxidant activity.