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What tactical repertoire to use in strikes and when to use it? Strategies of workers and their mobilization power in Chile (2010–2018)

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Abstract

This research analyses workers’ mobilization power in Chile through the joint-cost model, suggesting that wider tactical repertoires, and especially transgressive ones, tend to result in shorter strikes, as a proxy of relative success against the employers. Using the Labor Strike Observatory’s original dataset, we study this relation in the Chilean case, where neoliberalism has weakened unions and constrained the occurrence of strikes at the workplace level. We advanced two quantitative methods of analysis. First, using latent class analysis, we identify the tactical repertoires used by strikers. Second, following an event history methodology, we estimate the contribution of each repertoire to the risk of ending the strike. This paper analyses the strategies and milestones of strikers’ actions, shows the greater power of violent tactics compared to peaceful ones at the beginning of the conflict and finally discusses some limitations of the joint-cost model in the capital– labour relation.

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... en el incremento de las huelgas o acciones contenciosas por parte de los trabajadores (OHL 2017;Pérez, Medel, and Velásquez 2017;Velásquez Orellana, Pérez, and Link 2021). ...
... Diversos estudios recientes han analizado la naturaleza de la huelga en Chile. Estos estudios han permitido entender las variaciones sectoriales de las huelgas, las demandas (económicas y políticas) que mueven a los y las huelguistas, así como la manera en que la huelga es complementada con otras formas no disruptivas de movilización (Pérez, Medel, and Velásquez 2017;Velásquez Orellana, Pérez, and Link 2021;Gutiérrez Crocco 2020;Medel, Velásquez, and Pérez 2021). A pesar de esto, pocos estudios han analizado sistemáticamente cómo aspectos específicos del modelo de relaciones laborales chileno, derivados de la legislación vigente, permiten explicar las huelgas o acciones contenciosas ocurridas en las empresas. ...
... Éste se expresó particularmente en los años 2011 y 2019, en donde la cantidad de días-personas de trabajo perdidos cuadruplicó los niveles observados a inicios de los años 90. En línea con lo demostrado en investigaciones recientes (Medel, Velásquez, and Pérez 2021;Velásquez Orellana, Pérez, and Link 2021), este incremento de la capacidad disruptiva de los sindicatos demuestra que los/as trabajadores/as chilenos/as han sido capaces de organizarse y actuar colectivamente, a pesar de las limitaciones del código laboral. This article is protected by copyright. ...
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... women with children in a position of economic dependence on their partners (Rivera and Castro, 2021). ...
... gal strikes. Indeed, in 2020, the duration of these strikes reached its highest level since the OHL began recording this data. In contrast, the duration of extra-legal strikes was significantly shorter, and grew shorter still during 2020. These trends could be associated with a loss of legal strike power and an increase in extra-legal strike power (Velásquez et. al., 2021). Finally, during the pandemic, strikes over wage demands remained by far the most relevant in the national landscape. ...
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... gales. En efecto, en 2020 la duración de estas huelgas llegó a su mayor nivel desde que el OHL registra este dato. Por el contrario, la duración de las huelgas extra-legales fue sensiblemente menor y se acortó durante el 2020. Estas tendencias podrían estar asociadas a una pérdida de poder de la huelga legal y un aumento de poder en la extra-legal (Velásquez et. al., 2021). Por último, durante la pandemia las huelgas por motivos remuneracionales siguieron siendo, por lejos, las más importantes en el panorama nacional. ...
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Technical Report
El presente informe analiza el panorama de la actividad huelguista en Chile durante el 2020, examinando su comportamiento general y el impacto que ha tenido la pandemia de COVID-19 en ella. Para ello, utiliza los datos nuevos del Observatorio de Huelgas Laborales (OHL), iniciativa de las Facultades de Economía y Negocios y de Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad Alberto Hurtado (UAH) y del Centro de Estudios de Conflicto y Cohesión Social - COES - ANID/FONDAP/15130009.
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Research on social movements has usually addressed issues of movement emergence and mobilization, yet has paid less attention to their outcomes and consequences. Although there exists a considerable amount of work on this aspect, little systematic research has been done so far. Most existing work focuses on political and policy outcomes of movements, whereas few studies address their broader cultural and institutional effects. Furthermore, we still know little about the indirect and unintended consequences produced by movements. Early studies have dealt with the effectiveness of disruptive and violent actions and with the role of several organizational variables for movement success. More recently, scholars have begun to analyze movement outcomes in their political context by looking at the role of public opinion, allies, and state structures. A comparative perspective promises to be a fruitful avenue of research in this regard.
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Strikes became legal in France more than a century ago. Since their first partial legalization in 1864, the right to strike has waxed and waned, the great federations of labor have sprung from conflicts within France's modern industries and bureaucracies, and the proportion of strikes leading to shootings, beatings, sabotage or imprisonment has diminished. The strike has appeared to modernize, to take on new sophistication as a means of regulating conflict, to go from savage to civilized.
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Often quantities of interest in psychology cannot be observed directly. These unobservable quantities are known as latent variables. By using multiple items as indicators of the latent variable, we can obtain a more complete picture of the construct of interest and estimate measurement error. One approach to latent variable modeling is latent class analysis, a method appropriate for examining the relationship between discrete observed variables and a discrete latent variable. The present chapter will introduce latent class analysis, its extension to repeated measures, and recent developments further extending the latent class model. First, the concept of a latent class and the mathematical model are presented. This is followed by a discussion of parameter restrictions, model fit, and the measurement quality of categorical items. Second, latent class analysis is demonstrated through an examination of the prevalence of depression types in adolescents. Third, longitudinal extensions of the latent class model are presented. This section also contains an empirical example on adolescent depression types, where the previous analysis is extended to examine the stability and change in depression types over time. Finally, several recent developments that further extend the latent class model are introduced. Keywords: categorical variables; depression types; latent class analysis; latent transition analysis; latent variables; longitudinal
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This paper develops new evidence on the hazard function for strike duration, and on cyclical changes in this function, using data on contract strikes in U.S. manufacturing industries. A flexible duration model is estimated, and it is found that the hazard rate is generally a U-shaped function of strike age. The level of industrial production is found to have a significant positive effect on the hazard rate: strike duration is countercyclical. A convenient parametric model of heterogeneity and duration dependence is introduced, in which the logit of the hazard rate is a polynomial function of strike age, up to a random individual effect drawn from a beta distribution. Estimates of this ‘beta-logit’ model indicate that it is difficult to detect the influence of unobserved heterogeneity on the aggregate hazard function for strike duration.
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Analyses of strike behavior rarely take account of prior learning and experience of bargainers. We show that experienced bargainers have fewer strikes than others and that differences in strike activity across U.S. manufacturing industries vary inversely with the estimated cost of striking. The cost of striking is measured as an inverse function of the ease of substituting pre- and poststrike production for strike-inhibited output. The occurrence of strikes, among rational and experienced bargainers, is attributed to the cost of designing contingent contracts applicable to unlikely circumstances, relative to the expected cost of strikes in such circumstances, absent contingent contracts.
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This study analyzes the relationship between strike activity and output among disaggregated manufacturing industries. A major finding is that in many manufacturing industries, strikes have no discernible effect on industry output. Even when strikes are found to have a statistically significant effect on output, the net loss of output appears to be small. Overall, the evidence suggests that the ability of nonstruck firms to increase their output, and of struck firms to draw on inventories, makes it highly unlikely that strikes in manufacturing will cause a national emergency. (Abstract courtesy JSTOR.)