Article

Energy content of intact and heat-treated dry extruded-expelled soybean meal fed to growing pigs

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Abstract

An experiment was performed to evaluate the energy content of extruded-expelled soybean meal (EESBM) and the effects of heat treatment on energy utilization in growing pigs. Eighteen growing barrows (18.03 ± 0.61 kg initial body weight) were individually housed in metabolism crates and randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments (six replicates/treatment). The three experimental diets were: a corn-soybean meal-based basal diet and two test diets with simple substitution of a basal diet with intact EESBM or heat-treated EESBM (heat-EESBM) at a 7:3 ratio. Intact EESBM was autoclaved at 121°C for 60 min to make heat-treated EESBM. Pigs were fed the experimental diets for 16 d, including 10 d for adaptation and 6 d for total collection of feces and urine. Pigs were then moved into indirect calorimetry chambers to determine 24-h heat production and 12-h fasting heat production. The energy content of EESBM was calculated using the difference method. Data were analyzed using the Mixed procedure of SAS with the individual pig as the experimental unit. Pigs fed heat-EESBM diets showed lower (P < 0.05) apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter (DM), gross energy, and nitrogen than those fed intact EESBM. A trend (P ≤ 0.10) was observed for greater heat increments in pigs fed intact EESBM than those fed heat-EESBM. This resulted in intact EESBM having greater (P < 0.05) digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) contents than heat-EESBM. However, no difference was observed in net energy (NE) contents between intact EESBM and heat-EESBM, showing a tendency (P ≤ 0.10) toward an increase in NE/ME efficiency in heat-EESBM, but comparable NE contents between intact and heat-EESBM. In conclusion, respective values of DE, ME, and NE are 4,591 kcal/kg, 4,099 kcal/kg, and 3,189 kcal/kg in intact EESBM on a DM basis. It is recommended to use NE values of feedstuffs that are exposed to heat for accurate diet formulation.

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... However, information on the effect of heating on energy utilization in poultry meal fed to pigs and broiler chickens is limited. Autoclaving, a way of sterilizing materials using a high-temperature pressured steam, is widely used to sterilize animal byproducts during rendering and to induce heat damage of feeds in animal nutrition studies (González-Vega et al., 2011;Koo et al., 2021). For these reasons, the objective of the current study was to test the hypothesis that metabolizable energy (ME) in autoclaved poultry meal is affected by species (growing pigs or broiler chickens) and autoclaving time. ...
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Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that both the degree of heating and the time heat is applied will affect standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA), and concentrations of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in soybean meal (SBM) fed to growing pigs. One source of SBM was divided into 9 batches and used in 2 experiments. One batch was not autoclaved and considered the control. Two batches were autoclaved at 110 °C for 15 or 30 min and 6 batches were autoclaved at 150 °C for 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, or 18 min. In Exp. 1, a corn-based diet and 9 diets based on corn and each source of SBM were fed to 20 barrows (43.6 kg) that were used in a replicated 10 × 4 Youden square design. Urine and fecal samples were collected for 5 d after 7 d of adaptation. In Exp. 2, nine cornstarch-based diets included 400 g/kg of each of the 9 sources of SBM. An N-free diet was also used. Ten growing barrows (36.8 kg) with a T-cannula installed in the distal ileum were allotted to a 10 × 7 Youden square design with 10 diets and 7 periods. Ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each 7-d period. Results from the experiments indicated that the ATTD of GE, and the DE and ME, the SID of crude protein (CP) and all AA were less (P < 0.001) if SBM was autoclaved at 150 ºC than at 110 ºC. The ATTD of GE, the DE and ME, and the SID of CP and AA were not affected by increasing duration of autoclaving at 110 °C, but there were linear reductions (P < 0.001) in ATTD of GE, in DE and ME, and in SID of all AA if duration of autoclaving was increased at 150 ºC. These observations demonstrate that over-heating of SBM not only results in reduced SID of AA, but ATTD of GE will also be impaired with a subsequent reduction in concentrations of DE and ME.
Article
The Maillard Reaction (MR) is a non-enzymatic chemical reaction which results in the linkage between the amino group of amino acids and the carbonyl group of reduced sugars. MR products (MRPs) are common components of processed foods, mainly as a result of heating, especially in the Western diet. MRPs are classified as into three stages: initial, intermediate, and final stages, indicative of increased complexity and size, incurring different flavor, aroma, and texture. MRPs presence is known to reduce the nutritional quality of foods, particularly by reducing protein digestibility. Early reports have linked MRPs, especially advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) present in high concentration in the typical Western diet, to health conditions and diseases. However conflicting data has since been reported, and only a few (acrylamide, heterocyclic amines and 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural) MRPs have documented potential toxic or carcinogenic effects. High molecular weight MRPs are not available for direct absorption in the higher gastrointestinal tract, and are thus mostly metabolized by resident colonic microbes. MRPs have been the subject of sparse research interest in comparison with other non-digestible dietary elements. In this review, we outline the state of knowledge on MRPs in nutrition and health, and highlight the need to develop the limited knowledge on their impact on the gut microbiota and which metabolites derive from MRPs fermentation.
Chapter
This chapter reviews the current status of research on feed enzymes with an emphasis on identifying the key challenges researchers face in terms of current trends in enzyme development, mechanism(s) of action and enzyme efficacy. It also addresses new research directions and the development of consensus protocol and/or research approaches to prevent potential duplication of effort and to aid coordinated research and collaboration. Sections cover the key drawbacks and opportunities in the application of phytase, non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and NSP enzymes, β-mannanase, supplemental α-amylase and protease, with a focus on achieving effective use of feed ingredients and more sustainable production of poultry meat.
Article
Background Soybeans are an essential source of low cost protein. They are widely consumed due to their functionality and nutritive value. Recently, the consumption of soybeans has been increasing due to its beneficial effects on human health such as prevention and treatment of various chronic illnesses which include cardiovascular diseases and various forms of cancer. Scope and approach However, they contain a variety of bioactive anti-nutritional compounds including protease trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid and isoflavones that exhibit undesirable physiological effects and impede their nutritional quality. Inactivation of these trypsin inhibitors, along with deleterious enzymes, microbes, bioactive components and increasing the protein quality by improving its texture, colour, flavour, functionality and digestibility are the most important factors to be considered in crucial stage in manufacturing of soy products. Key findings and conclusion This review discusses the principal methods (physical and chemical) adopted by food researchers and industrialists to improve the nutritional and functional properties of soybeans and to eliminate the trypsin inhibitors present in them. Discussions also includes the innovative ways of using molecular modelling simulations for studying proteins and enzymes.
Conference Paper
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a multi-enzyme complex (MC) on the net energy (NE) content of dry extruded-expelled soybean meal (DESBM) fed to growing pigs. Twenty four barrows (16.9 ± 0.76 kg) were allotted in a completely randomized design to 4 dietary treatments to give 6 replicates per treatment. Dietary treatments were; a corn soybean meal basal diet (Diet A), a diet containing Diet A and DESBM in a 80:20 ratio with a constant corn:soybean meal ratio (Diet B), Diet B + 0.05% MC (Diet C) and Diet B + 0.1% MC (Diet D). The MC used was a mixture of carbohydrases and phytase (Superzyme OM). Pigs were fed in metabolism crates for a period of 16 d at 550 kcal of metabolisable energy (ME)/kg BW0.60/d to determine digestible energy (DE) and ME contents using total collection method. Thereafter, pigs were moved into an indirect calorimeter (IC) where heat production was measured over a 36-h period based on O2 consumption and CO2 production. The energy content of DESBM was calculated using the difference method. The DE and ME contents obtained were 3,365, 3,361, 3,401 and 3,381 kcal/kg DM and 3,260, 3,245, 3,295 and 3,283 kcal/kg DM for Diet A, B, C, and D, respectively. Corresponding values for NE were 2,897, 2,823, 2,848 and 2,842 kcal/kg DM. The heat production values among treatments (i.e., A, B, C and D) were 1,595, 1,606, 1,602 and 1,595 kcal/kg DM and those for fasting heat production were 1,231, 1,184, 1,173 and 1,154 kcal/kg DM, respectively. Thus, the NE content of DESBM was determined to be 2,527, 2,652 and 2,621 kcal/kg DM in treatment B, C and D, respectively. Respective values obtained with published equations were 2,305, 2,435 and 2,362 kcal/kg DM. Data was analysed using mixed procedure of SAS 9.2. The results demonstrated that enzyme supplementation improved (P < 0.0001) the energy content of both diet and test ingredient. In conclusion, supplementation with MC at 0.05% and 0.1% of the diet improved NE values of DESBM by 4.9 % and 3.7%, respectively. Key Words: Dry extruded expelled soybean, net energy, pig.
Article
A study with growing barrows was conducted to evaluate of variations in particle size and degree of heat treatment during processing on standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in soybean (Glycine max) meal (SBM). A commercial SBM batch was visually identified as being overtoasted due to its brownish color and was separated into small and large particles using a 1-mm sieve. In addition, 3 SBM were produced from 1 batch of soybean and exposed to different processing conditions (temperature and direct steam contact) referred to as mild (105 degrees C; 34 min), medium (115 degrees C; 45 min), and strong (139 degrees C; 7 min). In total, 5 SBM-corn (Zea mays) starch-based diets were formulated to contain SBM as the sole protein source. This experiment was conducted according to a 6 x 6 Latin square design using 6 barrows (23 kg initial BW) fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum. With increasing particle size, SID of His and some dispensable AA increased (P < 0.05). Lower SID values in small compared to large SBM particles indicate more pronounced heat damage possibly due to increased surface area. The SID of CP and AA was lowest in the mild, intermediate in the strong, and highest in the medium toasted SBM (P < 0.001). These differences in SID are reflected in varying contents of trypsin inhibitors, Lys, reactive Lys, and NDF. In conclusion, both differences in particles size and variations in thermal processing conditions of SBM may affect SID of CP and AA.
Article
The Maillard reaction is one of the most important phenomena occurring spontaneously during food processing and storage. However, research on the effects of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) on starch hydrolysis remains insufficient. To investigate the effects of MRPs on in vitro starch digestibility, the characteristics of glucose–glycine model system containing MRPs and digestive enzyme activities by MRPs were measured. MRPs were prepared by heating of glucose–glycine mixture solution at 90°C for different times (0, 1, 3, 9, 18, 24, and 48 h). As the Maillard reaction proceeded, browning intensity, and furosine and hydroxymethylfurfural content increased, whereas pH value decreased. The reducing power of MRPs was increased as the Maillard reaction progressed, and MRPs produced in 18 and 24 h showed the highest values (both 1.2). In MRPs heated for 48 h, the reducing sugar content and hydrolysis index were lowest values (88.6 and 87.0%) among the samples. The activity of digestive enzymes significantly decreased by adding of MRPs, as the browning of added MRPs increased. Therefore, MRPs seem to be contributed to decrease in starch digestibility, as shown by an enzymatic digestion result.
Article
An experiment was conducted to determine effects of heat damage on the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in canola meal fed to growing pigs. The second objective was to develop regression equations to predict the concentration of SID AA from the nutrient composition of canola meal. Ten growing pigs (initial body weight: 26.5 ± 0.7 kg) were surgically equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a replicated 5 × 5 Latin square design with 5 diets and 5 periods in each square. One batch of canola meal was divided into 4 batches that were either not autoclaved or autoclaved at 130 °C for 20, 30, or 45 min. Four diets were formulated with canola meal being the only source of AA and CP in each diet. A N-free diet also was formulated and used to determine the basal endogenous losses of CP and AA in the pigs. The AID of CP and all AA was reduced (quadratic, P < 0.01) as a result of increasing time of autoclaving. Autoclaving of canola meal also reduced (quadratic, P < 0.01) the SID of CP and all AA. The concentration (g/kg) of SID lysine in canola meal may be predicted by regression equations using the concentration (g/kg) of reducing sugars in the meal (r2 = 0.96). Likewise, the concentrations of SID AA for most AA may be predicted from the nutrient composition of canola meal. In conclusion, heat damage reduces both the concentration and the digestibility of AA in canola meal. Regression equations developed in this experiment may be used to predict the concentration of SID AA in canola meal.
Article
Starch is the most important glycemic carbohydrate in foods. The relationship between the rate and extent of starch digestion to produce glucose for absorption into the bloodstream and risk factors for diet-related diseases is of considerable nutritional interest. Native starch is attacked slowly by enzymes, but after hydrothermal processing its susceptibility to enzymatic breakdown is greatly increased. Most starch consumed by humans has undergone some form of processing or cooking, which causes native starch granules to gelatinize, followed by retrogradation on cooling. The extent of gelatinization and retrogradation are major determinants of the susceptibility of starch to enzymatic digestion and its functional properties for food processing. The type and extent of changes that occur in starch as a result of gelatinization, pasting and retrogradation are determined by the type of the starch, processing and storage conditions. A mechanistic understanding of the molecular disassembly of starch granules during gelatinization is critical to explaining the effects of processing or cooking on starch digestibility. This review focuses on the molecular disassembly of starch granules during starch gelatinization over a wide range of water levels, and its consequential effect on in vitro starch digestibility and in vivo glycemic index.
Article
The non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) content as determined by gas chromatography (component neutral sugars) and colorimetry (uronic acids) was shown to be 16–22% in ten different samples of defatted canola (low glucosinolate rapeseed) seed. The non-cellulosic components of NSP accounted for 13–16% of the meal and on average consisted of arabinose (33%), xylose (13%), galactose (13%), glucose (5%), mannose (3%), rhamnose (2%), fucose (2%) and uronic acids (30%). Yellow-seeded and brown-seeded samples of canola contained similar contents of total dietary fibre although the composition of the fibre components tended to differ with the former showing a low content of lignin and associated polyphenols and a high content of NSP as compared with the latter type. NDF values tended to be lower for yellow-seeded than for brown-seeded canola due to the relatively high content of NSP in neutral detergent solubles of yellow-seeded canola. An initial balance study with laying hens showed low (<3%) digestibility of the polysaccharide components, and further studies were conducted with a commercial enzyme preparation (SP249, Novo Laboratories Ltd, Lachine, Quebec) to enhance the in-vivo hydrolysis of the NSP fraction of the meal. Laying hens were fed a semipurified diet containing 40% commercial canola meal with and without enzyme (1%). NSP digestibility was increased to 37% by the enzyme supplementation.
Article
The relationship between diet composition, site of absorption of energy yielding substances, and utilization of metabolizable energy in pigs was studied using six semi-synthetic diets. The diets were formulated to fulfil the requirements of the pigs for essential nutrients and to ensure a large range in the proportion of energy yielding substances which disappear from the caecum-colon.The amount of dietary energy absorbed from the small intestine and the caecum-colon, respectively, was determined on basis of 36 digestibility experiments with ileal cannulated female pigs weighing 50–90 kg. The proportion of digested energy disappearing in the caecum-colon increased from 18 to 33% as the content of potato starch plus organic cellulose in the diets increased from 2 to 32%.The digestibility of the nutrients and the utilization of metabolizable energy was studied in a balance/slaughter experiment including 36 pigs during the growth period from 20 to 90 kg. The pigs (3 litters of females and 3 litters of male castrates) were allotted to the six dietary treatments on a within litter basis taking into account the live weight of the pigs. The daily intake of the different diets was regulated in such a way that the daily gain in the different treatment groups was almost identical through the entire experimental period. Three digestibility and nitrogen balance experiments were performed with each pig. At approximately 90 kg live weight, the pigs were killed, dissected, ground, mixed and chemically analysed.The digestibility of gross energy and the efficiency of utilization of metabolizable energy decreased with increasing content of potato starch and organic cellulose in the diets. An increase in dietary content of crude fibre from organic cellulose by 1% depressed the digestibility of gross energy by 1.3% (1.1% units) and depressed the utilization of metabolizable energy by 0.9% (0.5% units).The efficiency of utilization of metabolizable energy decreased with decreasing energy concentration (ME/kg DM), which accounted for 91% of the variation in the net energy value. As energy concentration decreased, more of the dietary nutrients were transferred to caecum-colon, the formation of volatile fatty acids was increased and a larger part of digested energy disappeared in the caecum-colon. A 1% increase in the proportion of digested energy disappearing in the caecum-colon decreased the utilization of metabolizable energy by 0.8% (0.5% units). This indicates that energy concentration (ME/kg DM or ME/GE, % crude fibre, % crude fat) acts as an indicator of the amount of diet dry matter, site of absorption and chemical composition of the absorbed nutrients, which in turn depends on the chemical composition, technical treatment, volume, etc., of the feedstuffs used in the diets.RésuméLa relation entre la composition du régime, le site d'absorption des substances énergétiques et l'utilisation de l'énergie métabolisable par le porc a étéétudiée avec six régimes semi-synthétiques. Ceux-ci étaient formulés de façon à satisfaire les besoins des porcs en nutriments essentiels et à couvrir une large gamme de variation de la proportion de substances énergétiques disparaissant dans le caecum-colon.Les quantités d'énergié alimentaire absorbées, respectivement, dans l'intestin grêle et dans le caecum-colon étaient déterminées au cours de 36 expériences de digestibilité sur des porcs femelles pesant de 50 à 90 kg, porteurs de canules iléales. La proportion de l'energie digeree qui disparaissait du caecumcolon s'accroissait de 18 a 33% lorsque la teneur des régimes en amidon de pommes de terre plus cellulose organique s'élevait de 2 à 32%.La digestibilité des nutriments et l'utilisation de l'énergie métabolisable étaient étudées dans une expérience faisant appel à des bilans et des abattages, et portant sur la période de croissance comprise entre 20 et 90 kg de 36 porcs. Les animaux (3 portées de femelles et 3 portées de mâles castrés) étaient répartis entre les 6 traitements en fonction de leur origine de portée et de leur poids vif. La consommation journalière des différents régimes était telle que le gain moyen quotidien des porcs dans les divers traitements reste pratiquement identique pendant toute la période expérimentale. Trois expériences de digestibilité et de bilan azoté ont été réalisées sur chaque animal. A environ 90 kg de poids vif, les porcs étaient abattus, disséqués, broyés, homogénéisés, et on déterminait leur composition chimique.La digestibilité de l'énergie brute et l'efficacité de l'utilisation de l'énergie métabolisable diminuent lorsque la teneur en amidon de pomme de terre plus cellulose organique du régime s'accroit. Une augmentation de 1% dans l'aliment du taux de cellulose brute apportée par la cellulose organique abaisse de 1,3% (1,1 points) la digestibilité de l'énergie brute et de 0,9% (0,5 points) l'utilisation de l'énergie métabolisable.L'efficacité de l'utilisation de l'énergie métabolisable décroft lorsque la concentration en énergie (EM/kg MS) diminue, celle-ci expliquant 91% de la variation de la valeur énergétique nette. La réduction de la concentration en énergie s'accompagne d'un transfert plus important de nutriments vers le caecum-colon, d'une augmentation de la synthèse d'acides gras volatils et d'un accroissement de la proportion d'énergie digérée disparaissant dans le caecum-colon. L'élévation de 1% de la fraction de l'énergie digérée disparaissant dans le caecum-colon diminue de 0,8% (0,5 points) l'utilisation de l'énergie métabolisable. Ceci indique que la concentration énergétique du régime (EM/kg MS, ou EM/EB, % de cellulose brute, % de lipides) joue le rôle d'indicateur de la quantité de matière sèche du régime, du site d'absorption et de la composition chimique des nutriments absorbés, qui elle-même dépend de la composition chimique, des traitements technologiques, du volume, etc., … des matières alimentaires utilisées dans les régimes.ZusammenfassungDie Beziehung zwischen Rationszusammensetzung, Ort der Absorption energiehaltiger Substanzen und der Ausnutzung der umsetzbaren Energie wurde bei Schweinen unter Einsatz von sechs halb-synthetischen Rationen untersucht. Die Rationen wurden so gestaltet, dass sie den Bedarf der Schweine an essentiellen Nährstoffen deckten und ein breiter Speilraum in der Verteilung der energiehaltigen Substanzen gewährleistet war, die aus dem Blind- und Dickdarm verschwinden.Der Anteil an Rationsenergie, der jeweils aus dem Dünndarm und dem Blind- und Dickdarm absorbiert wurde, wurde auf der Basis von 36 Verdaulichkeitsversuchen mit weiblichen Schweinen, die mit einer Ileum-Fistel versehen waren, im Gewichtsabschnitt 50–90 kg bestimmt. Der Anteil an verdauter Energie, die im Blind- und Dickdarm verschwand, erhöhte sich von 18% auf 33%, während sich der Gehalt an Kartoffelstärke zuzüglich organischer Zellulose in den Rationen von 2% auf 32% erhöhte.In einem Ausschlachtungsversuch mit 36 Schweinen im Wachstumsabschnitt von 20–90 kg wurde die Verdaulichkeit der Nährstoffe und die Ausnutzung der umsetzbaren Energie untersucht. Die Schweine (aus drei Würfen die weiblichen und aus drei Würfen die männlichen kastrierten Tiere) wurden auf sechs Fütterungsbehandlungen auf der Basis innerhalb Wurf aufgeteilt unter Berücksichtigung des Lebendgewichtes der Schweine. Die tägliche Aufnahme der verschiedenen Rationen wurde so reguliert, dass die tägliche Zunahme in den verschiedenen Behandlungsgruppen während der gesamten Versuchsdauer nahezu identisch war.Mit jedem Tier wurden drei Verdaulichkeits- und Stickstoff- Bilanz-Versuche durchgeführt. Mit etwa 90 kg Lebendgewicht wurden die Schweine geschlachtet, zerlegt, homogenisiert und chemisch analysiert.Die Verdaulichkeit der Bruttoenergie und die effektive Nutzung der umsetzbaren Energie verringerte sich mit steigendem Gehalt an Kartoffelstärke und organischer Zellulose in den Rationen. Ein Anstieg des Gehaltes an Rohfaser aus der organischen Zellulose um ein Prozent verringerte die Verdaulichkeit der Bruttoenergie um 1,3%(1,1%-Einheiten) und die Ausnutzung der umsetzbaren Energie um 0,9% (0,5%-Einheiten).Die effektive Nutzung der umsetzbaren Energie verringerte sich mit abnehmender Energiekonzentration (ME/kg DM), worauf sich 91% der Variation im Nettoenergiewert begründen. Mit abnehmender Energiekonzentration wurden mehr Nährstoffe der Ration zum Blind- und Dickdarm transportiert, wurde die Bildung flüchtiger Fettsäuren gesteigert und ein grösserer Anteil an verdauter Energie verschwand im Blind- und Dickdarm. Stieg dieser Anteil an verdauter Energie um ein Prozent, so verringerte sich die Ausnutzung der umsetzbaren Energie um 0,8% (0,5%-Einheiten). Dies deutet darauf hin, dass die Energiekonzentration (ME/kg DM oder ME/GE, % Rfr, % Rft) wie ein Indikator wirkt für die Höhe der Trockenmasse in der Ration, den Ort der Absorption und die chemische Zusammensetzung der absorbierten Nährstoffe, was wiederum abhängig ist von der chemischen Konzentration, der technischen Behandlung, dem Volumen etc. der Futtermittel, die in der Ration eingesetzt werden.
Article
Two experiments were conducted to determine AA digestibility and the concentration of DE and ME in 5 sources of soybean meal (SBM). The 5 sources included hexane-extracted SBM produced from high-protein soybeans (SBM-HP) and conventional soybeans (SBM-CONV), and mechanically extruded-expelled SBM produced from high-protein soybeans (EE-SBM-HP), low-oligosaccharide soybeans (EE-SBM-LO), and conventional soybeans (EE-SBM-CONV). Five diets that each contained 1 source of SBM and a N-free diet were used in Exp. 1 to determine AA digestibility in each meal. Twelve growing barrows (initial BW: 67.7 +/- 1.34 kg) were allotted to a replicated 6 x 6 Latin square design with 6 periods and 6 diets in each square. Each period lasted 7 d, and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. Results of the experiment showed that the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of all AA except Trp was similar for SBM-HP and SBM-CONV, but EE-SBM-HP and EE-SBM-LO had greater (P < 0.05) SID of His, Ile, Lys, Thr, and Val than EE-SBM-CONV. The SID of all indispensable AA in EE-SBM-HP was greater (P < 0.05) than in SBM-HP. The SID of Arg, Ile, Leu, and Phe in EE-SBM-CONV was greater (P < 0.05) than in SBM-CONV, but the SID of Trp was also greater (P < 0.05) in SBM-CONV than in EE-SBM-CONV. Experiment 2 was conducted to measure DE and ME in the same 5 sources of SBM as used in Exp. 1. Forty-eight growing barrows (initial BW: 38.6 +/- 3.46 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and randomly allotted to 6 diets with 8 replicates per diet. A corn-based diet and 5 diets based on a mixture of corn and each source of SBM were formulated. Urine and feces were collected during a 5-d collection period, and values for DE and ME in each source of SBM were calculated using the difference procedure. Results showed that the ME in SBM-HP tended to be greater (P = 0.10) than in SBM-CONV (4,074 vs. 3,672 kcal/kg of DM). The ME in EE-SBM-HP also tended to be greater (P = 0.10) than in EE-SBM-CONV and in EE-SBM-LO (4,069 vs. 3,620 and 3,721 kcal/kg of DM), but there was no difference in ME between extracted and extruded-expelled meals. It is concluded that SBM-HP has a greater feeding value than SBM-CONV because of greater concentrations of digestible AA and ME. Likewise, EE-SBM-LO has a greater concentration of most indispensable AA than EE-SBM-CONV, but the concentration of ME is similar in these 2 meals. Results of this experiment also showed that AA digestibility values in extruded-expelled SBM are greater than in hexane-extracted SBM.
Article
Two growth experiments were conducted to determine the effect of heat on the utilization of ileal-digestible lysine from field peas (Pisum sativum cultivar Dundale) fed to growing pigs. Five lysine-deficient diets (0.36 g ileal-digestible lysine/MJ digestible energy (DE)) were formulated using raw field peas, and field peas heated to either 110 degrees, 135 degrees, 150 degrees, or 165 degrees for 15 min respectively in a forced-air dehydrator. Additional diets were formulated with supplements of free lysine to verify that lysine was limiting in the diets containing the raw peas, and peas heated to 150 degrees or 165 degrees. The growth performance and retention of ileal-digestible lysine by pigs given the diets was determined over the 20-45 kg growth phase. Heat had a significant quadratic effect (P < 0.01) on growth rate, with responses declining from 543 g/d with pigs given the raw peas, to 407 g/d for those given the peas heated to 165 degrees. Similarly, crude protein deposition declined in a quadratic manner (P < 0.001) from 76 to 36 g/d for pigs fed on raw peas and peas heated to 165 degrees respectively. Retention of ileal-digestible lysine was 0.85 in the pigs given the raw field peas and declined in a quadratic manner (P < 0.001) with the application of heat to 0.48 in those pigs given the peas heated to 165 degrees. Pigs fed on field peas heated to 165 degrees had increased (P < 0.05) liver weights. The results indicate that heat applied to protein concentrates, even at mild temperatures, renders lysine in a form that is apparently absorbed but inefficiently utilized by the growing pig. Consequently, ileal digestibility values for lysine in heat-processed meals are unsuitable for diet formulations.
Article
Metabolic transit data on food-borne advanced MRPs (Maillard reaction products) termed melanoidins are yet not completely elucidated and it is still an open question whether isolated melanoidin structures undergo metabolic biotransformation and subsequently cause physiological effects in vivo. Advanced MRPs, acting as premelanoidins, and melanoidins are formed under severe heat treatment of foods and are ingested with the habitual diet at considerable amounts. Metabolic transit data are known for Amadori compounds classified as early MRPs, like, e.g., fructose-lysine. For rats and humans, the percentages of ingested free versus protein-bound fructose-lysine excreted in the urine were found within ranges of 60-80% and 3-10%, respectively. Balance studies on free advanced MRPs are still lacking, but protein-bound low-molecular-weight premelanoidins and high-molecular-weight melanoidins have already been investigated in animal experiments using (14)C-tracer isotopes. The amount of ingested radioactivity absorbed and excreted in the urine was found at levels ranging from 16 to 30% and from 1 to 5% for premelanoidins and melanoidins, respectively. These different metabolic transit data of premelanoidins and melanoidins can be explained by the following mechanisms involved: (i) intestinal degradation by digestive and microbial enzymes; (ii) absorption of these compounds or their degradates, and (iii) tissue retention. Structure specific in vivo effects have been identified for protein-bound premelanoidins on intestinal microbial activity, xenobiotic biotransformation enzymes and further glycation reactions. The latter are hypothesized to be involved in the aging process and in the course of different diseases. Further investigations are needed to clarify synergistic in vivo effects of dietary ingested melanoidins and endogenously formed glycation products.
Article
The human colonic microbiota imparts metabolic versatility on the colon, interacts at many levels in healthy intestinal and systemic metabolism, and plays protective roles in chronic disease and acute infection. Colonic bacterial metabolism is largely dependant on dietary residues from the upper gut. Carbohydrates, resistant to digestion, drive colonic bacterial fermentation and the resulting end products are considered beneficial. Many colonic species ferment proteins but the end products are not always beneficial and include toxic compounds, such as amines and phenols. Most components of a typical Western diet are heat processed. The Maillard reaction, involving food protein and sugar, is a complex network of reactions occurring during thermal processing. The resultant modified protein resists digestion in the small intestine but is available for colonic bacterial fermentation. Little is known about the fate of the modified protein but some Maillard reaction products (MRP) are biologically active by, e. g. altering bacterial population levels within the colon or, upon absorption, interacting with human disease mechanisms by induction of inflammatory responses. This review presents current understanding of the interactions between MRP and intestinal bacteria. Recent scientific advances offering the possibility of elucidating the consequences of microbe-MRP interactions within the gut are discussed.
Guidelines on: the care and use of farm animals in research
  • CCAC
Canadian soybean industry research and innovation strategy workshop.
  • Soy Canada
Respiratory exchange, with a description of a respiration apparatus for clinical use
  • Benedict
Oilseeds: world market and trade.
  • USDA