Martin L. Pall*
Millimeter (MM) wave and microwave frequency
radiation produce deeply penetrating effects: the
biology and the physics
Received December 11, 2020; accepted April 28, 2021;
published online May 26, 2021
Abstract: Millimeter wave (MM-wave) electromagnetic
fields (EMFs) are predicted to not produce penetrating
effects in the body. The electric but not magnetic part of
MM-EMFs are almost completely absorbed within the outer
1 mm of the body. Rodents are reported to have penetrating
MM-wave impacts on the brain, the myocardium, liver,
kidney and bone marrow. MM-waves produce electromag-
netic sensitivity-like changes in rodent, frog and skate tis-
sues. In humans, MM-waves have penetrating effects
including impacts on the brain, producing EEG changes and
other neurological/neuropsychiatric changes, increases in
apparent electromagnetic hypersensitivity and produce
changes on ulcers and cardiac activity. This review focuses
on several issues required to understand penetrating effects
of MM-waves and microwaves: 1. Electronically generated
EMFs are coherent, producing much higher electrical and
magnetic forces then do natural incoherent EMFs. 2. The
ﬁxed relationship between electrical and magnetic ﬁelds
found in EMFs in a vacuum or highly permeable medium
such as air, predicted by Maxwell’sequations,breaksdown
in other materials. Speciﬁcally, MM-wave electrical ﬁelds are
almost completely absorbed in the outer 1 mm of the body
due to the high dielectric constant of biological aqueous
phases. However, the magnetic ﬁelds are very highly pene-
trating. 3. Time-varying magnetic ﬁelds have central roles in
producing highly penetrating effects. The primary mecha-
nism of EMF action is voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC)
activation with the EMFs acting via their forces on the
voltage sensor, rather than by depolarization of the plasma
membrane. Two distinct mechanisms, an indirect and a
direct mechanism, are consistent with and predicted by the
physics, to explain penetrating MM-wave VGCC activation
via the voltage sensor. Time-varying coherent magnetic
ﬁelds, as predicted by the Maxwell–Faraday version of
Faraday’s law of induction, can put forces on ionsdissolved
in aqueous phases deep within the body, regenerating
coherent electric ﬁelds which activate the VGCC voltage
sensor. In addition, time-varying magnetic ﬁelds can
directly put forces on the 20 charges in the VGCC voltage
sensor. There are three very important ﬁndings here which
are rarely recognized in the EMF scientiﬁc literature:
coherence of electronically generated EMFs; the key role of
time-varying magnetic ﬁelds in generating highly pene-
trating effects; the key role of both modulating and pure EMF
pulses in greatly increasing very short term high level time-
variation of magnetic and electric ﬁelds. It is probable that
genuine safety guidelines must keep nanosecond timescale-
variation of coherent electric and magnetic ﬁelds below
some maximum level in order to produce genuine safety.
These ﬁndings have important implications with regard to
Keywords: 5G modulating pulses; coherent electronically
generated EMFs; EMF pathophysiological and therapeutic
effects; increased [Ca2+]i and calcium signaling; modu-
lating pulses and biological EMF effects; penetrating
effects via time-varying magnetic field penetration.
Electronically generated electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are
highly coherent, being generated at specific frequencies,
with specific vector direction, with a specific phase and
specific polarity. The special physics properties of such
coherent EMFs have been discussed [1–5]. Similarly, bio-
logical impacts of coherent EMFs have also been discussed
[6–10]. Such coherent EMFs generate much stronger elec-
trical forces and magnetic forces than do natural inco-
herent EMFs. Most but not all natural EMFs are incoherent.
The much stronger forces produced by electronically
generated EMFs are of great importance with regard to EMF
*Corresponding author: Martin L. Pall, Professor Emeritus,
Biochemistry and Basic Medical Sciences, Washington State
University, Portland, OR 97232-3312, USA,
E-mail: email@example.com. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8784-
Rev Environ Health 2021; aop
Open Access. © 2021 Martin L. Pall, published by De Gruyter. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
causation of biological effects and also with respect to our
ability to use such EMFs for wireless communication. A study
where coherence is central to wireless communication is the
article of Geffrin et al.  which discusses many examples
where coherence is essential for wireless communications
and also discusses how antenna design is greatly inﬂuenced
by the need to maintain such coherence. The biological
importance of coherence was discussed in two contexts by
Panagopoulos et al. . The coherence of the polarity is
required for maximum force generation. In addition, the
coherence of phase is also important because identical phase
produces constructive interference and supra-additive
effects, whereas phase shifts lead to high amounts of
destructive interference and much lower effects . Golant 
discusses how coherent MM-wave EMFs may produce reso-
nance interactions with speciﬁc biological targets. Strong
electrical forces produced by coherent electronically gener-
ated EMFs are an important feature of the Fröhlich  theo-
retical model of biological activity of EMFs. While it is clear
from this, that there is a substantial literature that electroni-
cally generated EMFs are coherent and that such coherence is
important for their acting in wireless communication and in
producing non-thermal biological effects, this literature is not
widely known nor is its importance appreciated among the
vast majority of scientists studying EMF effects.
EMF propagation in a vacuum or in very low dielectric
constant media, such as air, is characterized by a fixed
relationship between the electric field and the magnetic
field, as described by Maxwell’s equations . However
electric ﬁelds are much more susceptible to absorption
than are magnetic ﬁelds by many media, producing a
breakdown of that ﬁxed relationship (Keller and Karal ).
Because the dielectric constant of intracellular and
extracellular biological aqueous phases is estimated to be
about 120 , such differential absorption is relevant to
the issue of biological effects. However, as also discussed
in ref. , the magnetic ﬁeld penetration is determined by
the magnetic ﬁeld permeability which in essentially all
biological tissues is very high, producing very high
magnetic ﬁeld penetration. Strong absorption of electric
ﬁelds but not magnetic ﬁelds are found with MM-wave or
microwave radiation traversing biological tissues and
also many other media including building materials
[13–15]. Electric ﬁeld absorption is a function of both the
dielectric properties of materials and also of the EMF
frequency, such that the electric ﬁelds of MM-wave EMFs
are almost completely absorbed in the outer 1 mm of the
body, as shown in ref. [13–15]. The impedance of biolog-
ical tissues is also likely to have roles in limiting electric
ﬁeld penetration. The rapid electric ﬁeld absorption in
biological tissues has lead telecommunications industry-
associated and other scientists to predict that MM-wave
biological effects will be limited to the outer 1 mm of the
body and that lower microwave frequency effects, in
the outer 1–3 cm of the body. Various deﬁnitions are used
to deﬁne microwave frequency radiation. In this paper,
that term refers to 400 MHz to 5 GHz radiation, the range
most commonly used for wireless communication.
Other scientists such as in many articles cited in Betskii
and Lebedeva  have found deeply penetrating effects of
MM-waves in human and animal bodies, but have inter-
preted these as possibly caused by effects near the surface of
the body indirectly producing penetrating effects. Similar
views are expressed in the Pakhomov et al.  review as
follows: On p. 393, Pakhomov et al.  state that “The term
millimeter waves (MMW) refers to extremely high frequency
(30–300 GHz) electromagnetic oscillations. Coherent oscil-
lations of this range are virtually absent from the natural
electromagnetic environment.”Further down  continues
“Indeed, MMW have been reported to produce a variety of
bioeffects, many of which are quite unexpected from radiation
penetrating less than 1 mm into biological tissues”(italics
added). It can be seen from this that although Pakhomov
et al.  are aware that these MM-waves are coherent, they
fail to consider that the MM-wave magnetic ﬁelds are highly
penetrating and may, therefore, produce highly penetrating
effects. On p. 400 of ref. , states that “It is clearly un-
derstood that MMW penetration into biological tissues is
rather shallow, and any primary response must occur in skin
or subcutaneous structures, or at the surface of the eye.”
This review will discuss towards its end, two distinct prob-
able mechanisms by which highly penetrating time-varying
MM-wave magnetic ﬁelds can produce highly penetrating
effects reported in ref. [16, 17] and elsewhere.
Gaiduk  showed that when most of the water
molecules are hydrogen bonded to solutes or when such
solutes otherwise greatly determine water hydrogen
bonding structures, as is often the case within living cells,
the electric ﬁeld absorption is lowered. This may be minor
part of the mechanism leading to greater penetration of
effects, shown below but time varying penetrating magnetic
ﬁeld effects are argued here to be much more important.
Penetrating effects of MM-wave
and microwave radiation
Penetrating effects of non-thermal, non-pulsed, contin-
uous wave MM-wave exposures have been reported in a
large number of studies. Zalyobokskaya  reported that
2Pall: Coherent EMFs penetrate deeply via magnetic fields
such exposures in rodents produced pathophysiological
structural, functional and biochemical changes in each of
the following internal organs: the brain, the myocardium,
liver, kidney and bone marrow. These are each deeper in
the body that 1 mm and therefore provide evidence for
deeper MM-wave effects than the industry claims is
Betskii and Lebedeva  reviewed large numbers of
studies, both human and animal studies of highly pene-
trating nonthermal MM-wave effects. I will concentrate here
on some of the human studies cited in that paper, although
animal studies such as discussed in Zalyobokskaya  were
also reviewed. When that review  was published, the
voltage-gated calcium channel mechanism, discussed
below, was not known so that their interpretation of the
various ﬁndings discussed was very different from the
interpretation discussed below.
We will be discussing here MM-wave effects impacting
human brain function as well as a number of other pene-
trating effects of MM-wave radiation. References [20–24]
each show that low intensity, non-thermal non-pulsed
MM-wave EMFs produce changes in the EEGs in the human
brain which are a measure of the electrical activity of the
brain. The citations [21–24] each also ﬁnd other neurological
effects in addition to EEG effects are produced such MM-wave
EMFs. The shortest path from outside the body into the
human brain is through the skin, skull and meninges
surrounding the brain, usually circa 6–7mminadults.
Such findings should not be surprising for two
different reasons discussed in this paragraph and the
following two paragraphs. Pikov et al.  and also Siegel
and Pikov  at Caltech each ﬁnd that stunningly low
intensities of non-pulsed MM-wave EMFs produce strong
impacts on brain derived neurons. Pikov et al.  in their
abstract state that: “The applied levels of MMW power are
three orders of magnitude below the existing safe limit for
human exposure of 1 mW/cm2. Surprisingly, even at these
low power levels, MMWs were able to produce consider-
able changes in neuronal ﬁring rate and plasma membrane
properties. At the power density approaching 1 μW/cm2,
1 min of MMW exposure reduced the ﬁring rate to one third
of the pre-exposure level in four out of eight examined
neurons. The width of the action potentials was narrowed
by MMW exposure to 17% of the baseline value and the
membrane input resistance decreased to 54% of the base-
line value across all neurons.”
Consequently, Pikov et al.  are seeing large,
repeated impacts on neuronal cell activity at exposure
levels of 1 μW/cm2, one one-thousandth of the normal
safety guideline allowable levels. They are seeing large
effects at exposure levels of 1/1,000th of allowable levels.
Normally, safety guideline allowable levels are set at no
more than 1% of the lowest level found to produce any
effects. By that standard, safety guidelines for MM-wave
radiation should be more than 100,000 times lower than
the current safety guidelines. Siegel and Pikov  found
effects at still lower level exposures, 300 mW/cm2, which
argues that safety levels should be more than 330,000
times lower than current safety guidelines. It should be
noted that these are cells in culture, with no shielding from
tissues above the cells, other than that produced by the
culture medium. Each of the ﬁndings, discussed above, are
effects produced by non-pulsed, continuous wave
MM-wave EMFs, not the extraordinarily highly pulsed 5G
radiation, which is predicted to have vastly stronger effects
than do these non-pulsed MM-wave, continuous wave
EMFs, as discussed below. The US FCC and other regulatory
agencies are pushing to change safety guidelines to allow
much higher exposures than currently allowed by the
current safety guidelines!
There is a second reason why these MM-wave, brain-
related findings are not surprising. Reference  cited
multiple primary literature studies and also review articles
which show that EEGs are inﬂuenced by low intensity, non-
thermal microwave frequency EMFs and also cited many
primary literature studies showing that such microwave
frequency EMFs also produce widespread human neuro-
logical and neuropsychiatric effects. Reference  cited 15
review articles showing that such microwave frequency
EMFs produce neurological/neuropsychiatric effects.
The remaining human highly penetrating MM-wave
effects discussed here, from Betskii and Lebedeva review
, are apparent therapeutic effects. There are genuine
therapeutic effects produced by microwave and other fre-
quency EMFs, so it should not be surprising to ﬁnd that
MM-waves can produce therapeutic effects. There are
multiple studies reporting that non-thermal, non-pulsed
MM-waves produce improved bone marrow function in
humans [29–32]. Other therapeutic effects of MM-waves
include increased healing of gastric and duodenal ulcers
 and improved cardiac function [34, 35]. Two other
types of penetrating effects documented by the Pakhomov
et al.  review, will be discussed later in this paper.
The studies outlined in the previous paragraphs of this
section, are all highly penetrating effects produced by non-
thermal, non-pulsed MM-wave EMFs. 5G radiation, how-
ever, uses extraordinarily high levels of modulating pulses
in order to carry extraordinarily high amounts of infor-
mation per second . Reference  cited 10 different
reviews each showing that EMFs with modulating pulses
produce, in most cases, much higher levels of biological
effects than do non-pulsed (continuous wave) EMFs of the
Pall: Coherent EMFs penetrate deeply via magnetic fields 3
same average intensity. If follows that 5G may be predicted
to produce very damaging highly penetrating effects
because of its extraordinary level of modulating pulsation.
The relationship between therapeutic effects and patho-
physiological effects produced by EMFs is discussed
The recent publication of Kostoff et al.  came to
similar conclusions to those stated in the previous
paragraphs, that MM-waves produce highly penetrating
effects: “These results reinforce the conclusion of Russell
(quoted above) that systemic results may occur from milli-
meter wave radiation”(italics added).Continuing from ref.
 “To re-emphasize, for Zalyubovskaya’s experiments, the
incoming signal was unmodulated carrier frequency only,
and the experiment was single stressor only. Thus, the
expected real-world results (when human beings are
impacted, the signals are pulsed and modulated, and there
is exposure to many toxic stimuli) would be far more serious
and would be initiated at lower (perhaps far lower) wireless
radiation power ﬂuxes.”
Much deeper effects than predicted by the industry are
not limited to millimeter waves but also occur with
microwave radiation. Microwave radiation, as discussed
above, has been argued to produce effects limited to the
outer 1–3 cm in the body. However, Hässig et al. [38, 39], in
Switzerland, ﬁnd that pregnant cattle grazing near a cell
phone tower (also known as a mobile phone base station)
produce large numbers of newborn calves with cataracts.
The fetus’s deep location in the mother’s body should
protect it from cell phone tower radiation but does not.
Switzerland has safety guidelines for cell phone tower
radiation that are 100 times more stringent than the U.S. or
EU guidelines so that these are quite low intensity EMFs by
most standards, but they produce effects very deeply in the
The rest of this paper focuses on how such highly
penetrating effects can be produced. Both the biology and
the physics are essential to this discussion.
The primary mechanism of action of
low intensity EMFs in producing
biological effects is activation of
voltage-gated calcium channels
(VGCCs) via its voltage sensor
The most important type of evidence for the EMF-voltage
gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation mechanism, is
that effects produced by EMF exposures can be blocked or
greatly lowered by calcium channel blockers, drugs that
are specific for blocking voltage-gated calcium channels
[VGCCs) [12, 27, 28, 40]. Five different types of calcium
channel blockers have been used in these studies, each of
which is thought to be highly speciﬁc for blocking VGCCs
. Diverse EMFs produce effects which are blocked or
greatly lowered by the calcium channel blockers, ranging
from millimeter wave frequencies, microwave, radio-
frequencies, intermediate frequencies, extremely low
frequencies (including 50 and 60 Hz), all the way down to
static electric ﬁelds and even static magnetic ﬁelds [12, 28,
40]. Following EMF exposure, the exposed cells and tissues
have large, rapid increases in calcium signaling [12, 27, 28,
40], produced by increases in intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i
levels. This overall interpretation has been conﬁrmed by
patch-clamp studies, studies using calcium-free medium,
and studies measuring [Ca2+]i levels . This mechanism
has been widely recognized in the scientiﬁc literature with
the ﬁrst publication on this  being cited 305 times ac-
cording to the Google Scholar database, at this writing.
New scientiﬁc paradigms are usually only very slowly
recognized in the scientiﬁc literature such that the wide-
spread interest in and acceptance of this mechanism is very
unusual. That does not, of course, mean that everyone
The direct target of the EMFs is the voltage-sensor,
which, in the normal physiology, controls the opening of
the VGCCs in response to partial depolarization across the
plasma membrane. Four distinct classes of VGCCs are
activated in response to low level EMF exposures, L-type,
T-type, N-type and P/Q-type VGCCs . Voltage-gated
sodium, potassium, and chloride channels, each
controlled by a similar voltage sensor are also activated by
low intensity EMF exposures, although these have rela-
tively minor roles in producing effects compared with those
of VGCC-produced [Ca2+]i elevation . Plant TPC chan-
nel activation via a similar voltage sensor also produce
plant calcium-dependent EMF effects . Each of these
channels is controlled by a similar voltage-sensor, sug-
gesting that the voltage-sensor is the direct EMF target.
The electrical forces produced by even weak elec-
tronically generated EMFs on each of the 20 positive
charges in the VGCC voltage sensor are thought to be very
strong due each of three distinct mechanisms, which act
multiplicatively: 1. Electronically generated EMFs are
highly coherent, as discussed above, being emitted with a
specific frequency, in a specific vector direction, with a
specific phase and specific polarity. This high-level
coherence causes the electrical and magnetic forces pro-
duced by these to be vastly higher than are forces produced
by incoherent natural EMFs. 2. The electrical forces on
4Pall: Coherent EMFs penetrate deeply via magnetic fields
these charges in the voltage sensor are thought to be
approximately 120 times higher than forces on charges in
the aqueous phases of our cells and bodies, as predicted be
Coulomb’s law, due to the difference of the dielectric
constant in the two locations [12, 28]. 3. The forces on the
charges in the voltage sensor are also thought, to be
approximately 3,000 times higher because of the high
electrical resistance of the plasma membrane and therefore
the high level of ampliﬁcation of the electric ﬁeld across the
plasma membrane [12, 28]. This helps us to understand
how VGCCs and other voltage-gated ion channels can be
activated by what are considered to be very weak EMFs.
The important ﬁnding here is that EMFs activate the VGCCs
and other voltage-gated ion channels not via depolariza-
tion of the plasma membrane but rather via the direct
forces they produce on the circa 20 charges in the voltage
sensor. One puzzle discussed in ref.  and also below in
this paper is how can static magnetic ﬁelds activate the
VGCCs when physics shows that static magnetic ﬁelds
cannot put forces on static electrical charges. These mag-
netic ﬁeld effects are discussed in the next section.
How then does EMF-produced VGCC activation
produce biological effects? Our best understanding of this
is outlined in Figure 1 [12, 28, 40]. The main pathophysio-
logical effects seen going to the bottom of Figure 1, are
produced through excessive calcium signaling produced
by [Ca2+]i elevation and by the peroxynitrite pathway, with
the latter involving increases in reactive free radicals,
oxidative stress, NF-kappaB activity and inﬂammatory
cytokine levels and also mitochondrial dysfunction. There
is also a pathway by which VGCC activation, acting via
increased nitric oxide (NO), NO signaling and Nrf2 stimu-
lation can produce therapeutic effects that also helps
explain EMF effects. The therapeutic pathway is thought to
be produced by modest [Ca2+]i elevation whereas the
pathophysiological pathways are produced by higher level
MM-waves have been shown to act via activation of the
VGCCs and also voltage-gated potassium channels [42–44].
Therefore it seems likely that MM-waves act via such
channel activation as do lower frequency EMFs. This
interpretation is conﬁrmed by ﬁndings that MM-waves
raise [Ca2+]i levels, calcium signaling and also nitric oxide
(NO)  (compare with Figure 1). It is also conﬁrmed by
ﬁndings that MM-waves raise peroxynitrite  and by
ﬁndings, discussed above, that MM-waves can produce
similar pathophysiological effects and therapeutic effects
to those produced by lower frequency EMFs. There is an
additional channel that is probably activated by MM-waves
acting on voltage sensors, the Ca2+-activated potassium
channel as shown by Geletyuk et al. . It was shown in
ref.  using patch-clamp studies, that closed Ca2+-acti-
vated potassium channels are opened by exposures to low
intensity non-pulsed MM-waves. This same channel has
also been shown to be activated by both 50 Hz and
microwave frequency EMFs . Ca2+-activated potassium
channels have been shown to be activated by a voltage
sensor similar in structure to the voltage sensors discussed
above acting synergistically with increases in [Ca2+]i. It
follows that EMFs may act to activate Ca2+-activated
potassium channels via the voltage sensor in that channel
and also via the VGCC voltage sensors.
Can Nrf2 activation (see Figure 1) produce the thera-
peutic responses reported to occur following MM-wave
exposures , as discussed in a previous section? Garkavi
et al.  showed that MM-waves produced antistress
responses and such antistress responses have been shown
to be produced by therapeutic Nrf2 elevations (see, for
example [49, 50]). Consequently, it is plausible that the
therapeutic mechanism outlined in Figure 1 can produce
the penetrating therapeutic effects, discussed above to be
found following non-pulsed MM-wave exposures.
What mechanisms produce highly
penetrating effects of MM-waves?
With the electrical parts of MM-wave radiation largely
absorbed in the outer 1 mm of the body, how, can we get
these highly penetrating effects through impacts on the
voltage sensor of the VGCCs produced by these highly
coherent electronically generated EMFs?
Two explanatory mechanisms are proposed here, each
as a consequence of the very highly penetrating, time-
varying magnetic forces produced by the highly coherent
electronically generated EMFs including MM-wave EMFs.
Let’s consider each these two explanatory mechanisms,
one at a time.
The discussion on Maxwell’s equations in Wikipedia
 states that “The Maxwell–Faraday version of Faraday’s
law of induction describes how a time varying magnetic ﬁeld
creates (‘induces’) an electric ﬁeld”(italics added).
Coherent highly penetrating time-varying magnetic ﬁelds
will produce strong forces on ions dissolved in the aqueous
phases in our bodies, moving those ions in both the
extracellular medium and also in intracellular aqueous
phases and therefore regenerating a highly coherent elec-
tric ﬁeld similar to but of lower intensity to the original
electric ﬁeld of the EMF before entering the body. The
regenerated EMF can, then act to put forces on the charges
of the voltage sensor thus activating the VGCCs. The
Pall: Coherent EMFs penetrate deeply via magnetic fields 5
physics here is essentially identical to the physics of elec-
trical generation. In electrical generators, time-varying
magnetic ﬁelds put forces on mobile electrons in copper
wires, moving those mobile electrons and generating, in
turn, an electrical current. In our bodies, the highly pene-
trating time varying magnetic ﬁelds put time-varying forces
on dissolved mobile ions in aqueous phases in our bodies,
generating a coherent electric ﬁeld which can act on the
voltage sensors to activate the VGCCs, as discussed above.
A study providing support for this mechanism is the study
of Deghoyan et al.  which found that non-thermal
effects on cells in culture were produced through MM-wave
irradiation of the medium surrounding these cells. This
may or may not be the primary mechanism by which
MM-waves produce highly penetrating effects.
There is second highly plausible mechanism by which
highly penetrating magnetic fields can put forces on the
charges in the voltage sensor activate voltage-gated ion
channels. In ref.  it was shown that static magnetic
ﬁelds also act, as do EMFs, via VGCC activation to produce
biological effects that can be blocked with calcium channel
blockers, so that the biological effects must have been
produced via VGCC activation. Speciﬁcally, in Table 1 of
ref.  and refs. ,  and  in that paper each
showed that effects produced by static magnetic ﬁelds can
be blocked by calcium channel blockers, drugs speciﬁc for
blocking VGCCs. Consequently, static magnetic ﬁelds
produce effects via VGCC activation. That conclusion has
been conﬁrmed by the ﬁndings from patch-clamp studies,
showing that static magnetic ﬁelds produced VGCC acti-
vation and also activation of voltage-gated sodium chan-
nels . Those ﬁndings that static magnetic ﬁelds can act
via the voltage sensor to activate VGCCs and apparently
other voltage-gated ion channels created a puzzle that was
discussed in ref. . That puzzle is that static magnetic
ﬁelds do not produce forces on static electrically charged
objects. The answer to that puzzle, as discussed in ref. ,
is that the plasma membranes of cells are constantly
moving and therefore the voltage sensors of the VGCCs
located in the plasma membrane are also moving, so that
static magnetic ﬁelds can produce time-varying forces on
the charges of the VGCC voltage-sensor. These ﬁndings
clearly raise the possibility that the highly penetrating
time-varying magnetic ﬁelds derived from MM-wave or
other frequency EMFs, including the extraordinarily high
densities of modulating pulses of 5G, can have very high
activity when acting directly on the 20 positive charges in
the voltage sensor of the VGCCs to activate the VGCCs.
Both modulating EMF pulses and pure EMF pulses can
act via each of the two mechanisms discussed here to
produce large, very short term, penetrating changes in the
forces on electrical charges including the voltage gated ion
channel voltage sensor charges. Modulating and pure
pulses inevitably produce vastly greater maximum time-
variation and are, therefore, predicted to produce vastly
greater maximum forces on the voltage sensor charges.
Figure 1: Diverse frequency EMFs act via activation of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) producing increased intracellular calcium
[Ca2+]i. [Ca2+]i is deﬁned as the calcium ion concentration in the cytoplasm which is distinct from the calcium concentration in the
endoplasmic reticulum or the mitochondria, which are regulated separately. This leads to production of pathophysiogical effects mainly via
excessive calcium signaling and activation of the peroxynitrite/free radical/oxidative stress, NF-kappaB and inﬂammation pathway. Thera-
peutic effects are produced primarily via nitric oxide (NO) signaling leading to increased Nrf2 activity. Because the therapeutic pathway
produces effects that are almost exactly opposite the effects produced by the peroxynitrite pathway, different EMF exposures may produce
almost opposite effects. Copied from ref.  with permission.
6Pall: Coherent EMFs penetrate deeply via magnetic fields
Because each of the two mechanisms proposed in this
section for the generation of penetrating effects are
dependent upon time-varying magnetic fields, together
they provide a new understanding of the great importance
of both modulating and pure pulsation in producing high
level EMF effects.
Pakhomov et al.  reviewed
ﬁndings with regard to non-pulsed
MM-Waves: cardiac effects and
There are important findings on both animal cardiac effects
and on animal tissue and human EHS-like effects produced
by non-pulsed MM-wave exposures that were reviewed in
Pakhomov et al. . These are discussed here, in contrast,
other MM-wave studies including those reviewed by
Zalyobokskaya  and by Betskii and Lebedeva  which
were discussed much earlier.
There are two important reasons for the author
choosing to discuss the Pakhomov et al.  review on
cardiac effects and also EHS-like effects here, as opposed to
much earlier. Each of these require comparing animal
studies with human studies. When highly penetrating
MM-wave magnetic ﬁelds produce highly penetrating ef-
fects in animals and in humans, the difference in body size
between humans and rodents is of little importance in
predicting effects. A second reason for discussing these
parts of ref.  here, is that the VGCC activation mecha-
nism discussed above is predicted to be central to our un-
derstanding of both cardiac effects and EHS.
Chernyakov et al. , as discussed on p. 399 of ref.
, reported on 990 experiments where very low intensity
MM-wave EMFs changed the membrane function of the
pacemaker cells of the sinoatrial node of the frog heart. In
most cases, there was an almost instantaneous (less than
2 s) decrease in the interspike interval of these cells which
in an intact heart would produce tachycardia. These
occurred with intensity ranges of 20–500 μW/cm2and
were, therefore, clearly non-thermal effects. Furthermore,
as discussed on p.400 of ref. , Chernyakov et al. 
showed that very low intensity MM-wave EMFs could pro-
duce changes in heart rate in anesthetized frogs, including
both tachycardia (increase heartbeat) and bradycardia
(slow heartbeat) and also arrhythmias. These also occurred
when the hearts had been completely denervated although
the severity of these changes decreased with denervation.
The studies in this paragraph show that low intensity
MM-wave EMFs produce direct effects on the membrane
activity of the pacemaker cells in the sinoatrial node of the
frog heart, inﬂuencing the heartbeat, but that the respon-
siveness of these cells can be inﬂuenced by neurological
Other important cardiac studies of low intensity
MM-waves were reported by Potekhina et al.  in the rat.
They  showed that MM-waves produced changes in
heartbeat including arrhythmias, tachycardia and brady-
cardia. Longer term (circa 3 h) exposures produced large
numbers of animals who died of apparent sudden cardiac
death. It is the author’s opinion that most if not all of these
EMF cardiac effects are produced by the direct impacts of
diverse EMFs impacting the pacemaker cells in the sino-
atrial node of the heart. One additional set of observations
supporting that view are the ﬁndings of Liu et al. 
showing that pulsed microwave EMFs produce heart
failure-like changes in the sinoatrial node of the heart. The
reason the pacemaker cells of the sinoatrial node of the
heart may be particularly sensitive to EMFs is because they
contain particularly high densities of T-type VGCCs, with
both T-type and L-type VGCCs having essential roles in
producing the pace making activity [56, 57]. These ﬁndings
suggest that penetrating EMF effects can produce
commonly observed cardiac effects via direct impacts on
the pacemaker cells in the sinoatrial node of the heart.
Pakhomov et al.  also reviewed ﬁndings showing
that non-pulsed MM-wave EMF exposures produce
EHS-like effects in animal nerve tissue, and in humans.
EHS is characterized by long term sensitivity responses to
electromagnetic or electric ﬁelds  describes three
studies where non-pulsed MM-wave exposures produced
fairly long-term sensitivities in animal tissues and three
additional studies of long term neurological/neuropsy-
chiatric sensitivity in humans.
Burachas and Mascoliunas  described changes in
the compound action potential (CAP) in the frog sciatic
nerve following MM-wave exposures. They found that
“CAP decreased exponentially and fell 10-fold within
50–110 min of exposure at 77.7 GHz, 10 mW/cm2. CAP
restored entirely soon after exposure, but the nerve became
far more sensitive to MMW. CAP suppression due to the
next exposures became increasingly steep and ﬁnally took
only 10–15 min. This sensitized state persisted for at least
16 h”CAP is a measure of the overall electrical activity of
the nerve. These ﬁndings may be interpreted in terms of
MM-wave EMF exposures producing long-term EHS-like
sensitivities in the frog sciatic nerve.
A second study by Chernyakov et al.  also reported
sensitivity changes using a different frog nerve and also
Pall: Coherent EMFs penetrate deeply via magnetic fields 7
different MM-wave exposure protocols. “The exposures
lasted 2–3 h, either with a regular frequency change of
1 GHz every 8–9 min or with a random frequency change
every 1–4 min (53–78 GHz band, 0.1–0.2 mW/cm2). The
latter regimen induced an abrupt CAP ‘rearrangement’in 11
of 12 exposed preparations: the position, magnitude and
polarity of the CAP peaks (the initial CAP was polyphasic)
drastically changed in an unforeseeable manner. The other
exposure regimen altered the CAP peaks components in
Akoev et al.  found EHS-like effects following low
intensity MM-wave exposures on the activity of electro-
language study, published in an international journal
that appears to be similar or identical to the Russian
language article cited in ref. ). “When a power
intensity of 1–5mW/cm
2was used at a distance of
1–20 mm from the duct opening only excitatory responses
were observed in receptors with electrical thresholds of
4–20 nA”, p. 15 in ref. . Reference  states further
(p. 17) “It is of interest that at low EMR intensity, the
electroreceptors (have) prolonged excitatory responses
which differ from responses to the d.c. electrical stimuli
(where) the ampullae of Lorenzini completely adapt
within a few minutes. Thus it is the long-lasting slow
adapting excitatory response that may reﬂect the pecu-
liarity of the low-intensity millimeter-wave EMR effect on
biological tissues.”These results show that low intensity
MM-wave EMFs produce long-term hypersensitivity of the
electroreceptors. There are similar electroreceptors in
sharks, skates and rays and given that the target
producing hypersensitivity here is that receptor, it is
important to identify the identity of electroreceptor.
Bellono et al.  showed that the electroreceptor is the
VGCC Ca(V)1.3. Other studies implicate excessive [Ca2+]i
in electroreception and VGCC activation was also impli-
cated in the Zhang et al.  study of the skate electro-
sensor. We have, therefore, VGCCs implicated as the
direct EMF target involved in producing EHS-like
Is there other evidence implicated excessive VGCC
sensitivity in producing EHS? One such study was pub-
lished by Dr. Cornelia Waldmann-Selsam . She studied
an EHS patient who showed high sensitivity to extremely
low intensity EMFs and who also had a profound para-
thyroid deﬁciency. This patient showed very large rapid
drops in extracellular Ca2+concentration, including in the
blood plasma, following extremely low intensity EMF
exposure. Because the only possible mechanism that can
produce such a large rapid drop in extracellular Ca2+con-
centration is a large inﬂux of Ca2+ions into cells of our
bodies, this argues strongly for EHS producing large in-
creases in activity of one or more calcium channels in the
plasma membranes of cells. Because VGCC activation is
known to be the major mechanism of EMFs, all of these
ﬁndings argue that the VGCCs in EHS become hypersen-
sitive to EMF activation.
The parathyroid deficiency of this patient  is of
great importance because in people with normal para-
thyroid function, large drops in extracellular calcium
levels produce a rapid increase in parathyroid hormone
secretion, which mobilizes calcium from the bones to help
restore normal extracellular calcium levels, thus making
drops of extracellular Ca2+concentrations in exposed EHS
patients with normal parathyroid function more difﬁcult to
document. However, these considerations suggest a simple
clinical test for EHS patients. Such patients should have
large increases in parathyroid hormone following low in-
tensity EMF exposures to which they report sensitivity,
whereas normal people should not show such large in-
creases to the same exposures. Because parathyroid hor-
mone can be measured by clinical testing laboratories, this
prediction can be easily tested and possibly used as a
simple, inexpensive test of EHS.
A fourth MM-wave animal study, discussed above in
this section, also suggests possible EHS-like effects in an-
imals. This is the Potekhina et al.  study in the rat which
found that non-pulsed MM-wave exposures for 3 h or more
started to produce apparent sudden cardiac death in these
exposed rats. These ﬁndings suggest cumulative effects of
EMF exposure. However, their relevance to EHS must be
viewed as more questionable than are the three studies
discussed more immediately above, because there were no
measurements which demonstrated that exposures pro-
duced increased sensitivity following MM-wave exposures
in Potekhina et al. .
Three human studies, cited in ref.  each showed
apparent EHS effects following low intensity non-pulsed
MM-wave exposures, including neurological/neuropsy-
chiatric sensitivities [21, 63, 64]. The sensitivities shown in
each are brain-related neurological/neuropsychiatric sen-
sitivities that are commonly reported in EHS.
EHS causation by EMF exposures is not only docu-
mented by the studies cited above. They are also docu-
mented by the largest occupational exposures ever
performed, as shown in the Hecht review of such exposures
. Reference  also documents EMF causation of
neurological/neuropsychiatric effects and cardiac effects.
8Pall: Coherent EMFs penetrate deeply via magnetic fields
In addition the much earlier US Government (NASA)
document  also documents EMF occupational exposure
causation of neurological/neuropsychiatric effect and
cardiac effects  lists 15 different published reviews each
of which provide substantial bodies of evidence that
neurological/neuropsychiatric effects are caused by low-
intensity, non-thermal EMF exposures. Lamech 
showed that smart meter radiation exposure was associ-
ated with large increases in EHS, neurological/neuropsy-
chiatric effects and cardiac effects and similar ﬁndings
were reported in the Conrad study of smart meter radiation.
Four reviews on EHS each report that among the most
common sensitivities in EHS patients are neurological/
neuropsychiatric sensitivity and cardiac sensitivity [65,
It follows from the findings discussed in this section,
that EMFs with substantial impacts on our bodies will
produce many cases of EHS with the consequent sensitivity
responses often including neurological/neuropsychiatric
effects and cardiac effects. The next question to be
considered here is whether 5G radiation is likely to be
among the EMFs that may produce substantial impacts.
Earlier in this paper we discussed two important
findings that are important for assessing the probable im-
pacts of 5G radiation. 5G radiation, however, uses
extraordinarily high levels of modulating pulses in order to
carry extraordinarily high amounts of information per
second . Reference  cited 10 different reviews each
showing that EMFs with modulating pulses produce, in
most cases, much higher levels of biological effects than do
non-pulsed (continuous wave) EMFs of the same average
intensity. If follows that 5G may be predicted to produce
very damaging highly penetrating effects because of its
extraordinary level of modulating pulsations.
Is there any evidence that 5G
radiation produces high human
impacts including EHS,
effects and cardiac effects?
There has been no biological safety testing of highly pulsed
5G radiation despite calls from many scientists for such
testing before any 5G rollout should occur. There have also
been no scientific studies of 5G radiation effects after any
5G rollouts, to my knowledge. Consequently, the only
evidence we have is from reports of 5G effects in the media.
These reports are not, of course, scientific studies but
rather are derived from what may be viewed as question-
able observations. Nevertheless, due to the lack of any
other 5G information, it is important to look at what little
information we do have.
Reference  is a German news article about protests
of German physicians in Stuttgart Germany following a 5G
rollout. The physicians report seeing substantial apparent
effects on their patients including neurological/neuropsy-
chiatric effects, cardiac effects and EHS. These observa-
tions can be seen to be similar to the predicted 5G effects in
the previous section. German physicians may be more
aware of EHS than are physicians in other countries
because the European environmental medicine organiza-
tion, EUROPAEM, has been headquartered in Germany for
many years – is a EUROPAEM-related paper.
There are also reports of neurological/neuropsychi-
atric effects, cardiac effects and possibly also EHS in
Switzerland following 5G rollout in parts of that country
[72–74]. These reports may be somewhat less reliable
than those from Stuttgart because they come from lay
There was much concern about three suicides over an
11 day period of emergency medical technicians working in
the ﬁrst 5G ambulance . This occurred in Coventry, UK.
The idea was that 5G could be used to transmit much
medical information from the hospital to the ambulance
and could also be used to transmit much electronic patient
information from the ambulance to the hospital. The ﬁrst
EMT suicide occurred approximately two weeks after the
EMTs started working in the 5G ambulance. Among the
more common neuropsychiatric effects produced in
humans by EMF exposures are depression and anxiety ,
both of which when severe can cause suicide. It is possible
that EHS may play a role in the approximate two week time
period between the beginning of service of the 5G ambu-
lance and the ﬁrst suicide. Development of progressively
more severe EHS over that two week period may be pre-
dicted to produce progressively more severe depression
Again, these are not scientific studies but given the
lack of any contrary information, they need to be taken
seriously and should be the subject of serious scientific
study rather than massive rollout of untested and possibly
very dangerous 5G systems. One thing that should be
pointed out is that any initial effects on rollout of 5G, are
likely to be dwarfed by effects of any full-fledged 5G system
communicating with billions of devices on the ‘internet of
Pall: Coherent EMFs penetrate deeply via magnetic fields 9
things.”Of course, the effects of such massive amounts of
pulsed EMF communication may be further amplified
through the action of EHS in the victims.
Articles on important physical or biological properties of
coherent electronically generated EMFs were found using
two search strategies: The EMF Portal database was
searched using coherent or coherence. The Web of Science
database and Google Scholar were each searched using
electromagnetic fields and coherent.
Reviews on biological including human effects of
millimeter waves were searched for in the EMF Portal
database searching with the words millimeter waves and
limiting responses to review articles. Similarly, reviews
were searched in the EMF Portal database using EHS to
identify EHS reviews.
The work on EMFs acting primarily via the voltage
sensor to activate VGCCs is limited to my own work where
only highly cited peer-reviewed articles were cited.
Two specific questions were answered as follows
When it was shown that millimeter wave exposures
produced increased sensitivity of the skate electroreceptor,
it was important to determine whether the electroreceptor
is a VGCC, the most important direct target of EMFs. A Web
of Science search using electroreceptor and voltage cal-
cium channel found two studies each showing that the
electroreceptor is a VGCC.
It was shown that millimeter waves act directly on the
pacemaker cells of the sinoatrial node of the heart to
change the beat frequency. It was important to determine
whether microwave frequency radiation also target such
cells in the sinoatrial node. A search of the EMF Portal
database limited to radiation over 1 MHz for studies on
sinoatrial node found a study showing that repeated or
prolonged exposures produced heart failure-like changes
in the sinoatrial node of the rat heart.
Two of the Russian language articles are available as
CIA English translations, as shown in the citation list. All
other foreign language documents cited where suitable
PDFs of the original documents were available were
translated into English using Google Translate.
Research funding: The author states that there was no
Author contributions: The author has accepted
responsibility for the entire content of this manuscript.
Competing interests: The author states that there is no
conﬂict of interest.
Informed consent: Informed consent is not applicable.
Ethical approval: There are no new human or animal
studies requiring ethical approval. All reviewed research
involving human or animal studies complied with relevant
national ethical standards and the Helsinki declaration.
1. Boivin A, Wolf E. Electromagnetic ﬁeld in the neighborhood of the
focus of a coherent beam. Phys Rev 1965;138:1561–5.
2. Keller JB, Karal FC Jr. Effective dielectric constant, permeability,
and conductivity of a random medium and the velocity and
attenuation coefﬁcient of coherent waves. J Math Phys 1966;7:
3. Wolf E. Uniﬁed theory of coherence and polarization of random
electromagnetic beams. Phys Lett 2003;312:263–7.
4. Tervo J, Setälä T, Friberg AT. Degree of coherence for
electromagnetic ﬁelds. Opt Express 2003;11:1137–43.
5. Geffrin JM, García-Cámara B, Gómez-Medina R, Albella P, Froufe-
Pe ́rez LS, Eyraud C, et al. Magnetic and electric coherence in
forward- and back-scattered electromagnetic waves by a single
dielectric subwavelength sphere. Nat Commun 2012;3:1–7.
6. Fröhlich H. Long-range coherence and energy storage in
biological systems. Int J Quantum Chem 1968;2:641–9.
7. Golant MB. Problem of the resonance action of coherent
electromagnetic radiations of the millimeter wave range on living
organisms. Biophysics 1989;34:370–82. English translation of
8. Eichwald C, Kaiser F. Model for external inﬂuences on cellular
signal transduction pathways including cytosolic calcium
oscillations. Bioelectromagnetics 1995;16:75–85.
9. Panagopoulos DJ, Johansson O, Carlo GL. Polarization: a key
difference between man-made and natural electromagnetic
ﬁelds, in regard to biological activity. Sci Rep 2015;5:14914.
10. Presto J. Classical investigations of long-range coherence in
biological systems. Chaos 2016;26:123116.
11. Equations M’s. Wikipedia. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.
org/wiki/Maxwell%27s_equations [Accessed 8 March 2020].
12. Pall ML. Scientiﬁc evidence contradicts ﬁndings and
assumptions of Canadian safety panel 6: microwaves act through
voltage-gated calcium channel activation to induce biological
impacts at non-thermal levels, supporting a paradigm shift for
microwave/lower frequency electromagnetic ﬁeld action. Rev
Environ Health 2015;30:99–116.
13. Wei L, Hu RQ, Qian Y, Wu G. Key elements to enable millimeter
wave communications for 5G wireless systems. IEEE Wireless
14. Betskii OV, Yaremko YG. Skin and electromagnetic ﬁelds.
Millimetrovye Volny v Biologii I Meditsine 1998;1:2–14 in
15. Betskii OV, Putvinskii AV. Biological action of low intensity
millimeter wave band radiation. Izvestiya VUZ Radioelektron
1986;29:4–10. Released in English translation: CIA-RPD-
10 Pall: Coherent EMFs penetrate deeply via magnetic fields
16. Betskii OV, Lebedeva NN. 2004 Low-intensity millimeter waves in
biology and medicine. In: Clinical application of
bioelectromagnetic medicine. New York: Marcel Decker; 2004:
17. Pakhomov AG, Akyel Y, Pakhomova ON, Stuck BE, Murphy MR.
Current state and implications of research on biological effects of
millimeter waves: a review of the literature. Bioelectromagnetics
18. Gaiduk VI. Water, radiation and life, Moscow. Znanie, Ser. Fizika
19. Zalyobokskaya NP. Biological effect of millimeter radiowaves.
Vrachebnoye Delo 1977;3:116–9. Declassiﬁed and Approved for
release 2012/05/10: CIA-RDP88B01125R000300120005-6.
20. Lebedeva NN. Human central nervous system response to
peripheral action of low-intensity millimeter waves. Radiophys
Quant Electron 1994;37:1–15.
21. Lebedeva NN. Neurophysiological mechanisms of biological
effects of peripheral action of low-intensity nonionizing
electromagnetic ﬁelds in humans. In: Moscow, Russia. 10th
Russian Symposium “Millimeter Waves in Medicine and
Biology”. Moscow: IRE RAN; 1995:138–40 pp in Russian.
22. Lebedeva NN. CNS responses to electromagnetic ﬁelds with
different biotropic parameters. Biomed Radioelectron 1998;1:
24–36 in Russian.
23. Lebedeva NN. [CNS responses to electromagnetic ﬁelds of a
health human being to peripheral inﬂuence of low-intensity MM
waves]. Radiophys Quant Electron 1994;37:1–15.
24. Lebedeva NN, Sulimova OP. MM-waves modifying effect on
human central nervous system functional state under stress. Zh
Millimetroye Volny v Biol i Med 1994;3:16–21 in Russian.
25. Pikov V, Arakaki X, Harrington M, Fraser SE, Siegel PH.
Modulation of neuronal activity and plasma membrane
properties in organotypic cortical slices. J Neural Eng 2010;7:
26. Siegel PH, Pikov V. Impact of low intensity millimeter waves on
cell functions. IET Digital Lib 2010;46:70–2.
27. Pall ML. Microwave frequency electromagnetic ﬁelds (EMFs)
produce widespread neuropsychiatric effects including
depression. J Chem Neuroanat 2016;201675(Part B):43–51.
28. Pall ML. Wi-Fi is an important threat to human health. Environ Res
29. Pletnev SD. 1991 Application of electromagnetic radiation of
millimeter band for treatment of oncological patients [in
Russian]. In: Deviatkov ND, Betskii OV, editors. Millimeter waves
in medicine. Moscow: IRE USSR AcSci; 1991:76–81 pp.
30. Pletnev SD, Deviatkov ND, Golant MB, Rebrova B, Balkireva LZ.
EHF radiation in clinical practice [in Russian]. In: International
Symposium on Millimeter Waves of Non-thermal Intensity in
Medicine. Moscow; 1991:32–42 pp.
31. Sevast’1anova LA. 1983 Biological effects of MM-wave radiation
on biological objects. In: Devyatkov ND, editor. Moscow: IRE AN
SSSR; 1983:48–62 pp.
32. Sevast’yanova LA, Golant MB, Zubenkova ES. Effect on MM
radiowaves on normal tissues and malignant tumors. In:
Devyatkov ND, editor. Application of low-intensity MM-wave
radiation in biology and medicine. Moscow: IRE AN SSSR; 1985:
37–49 pp in Russian.
33. Poslavskii MV. Physical EHF therapy in ulcer treatment and
prevention. In: Technical digest of the international symposium
on millimeter waves of nonthermal intensity in medicine,
Moscow, Part 1; October 3––6, 1991:142–6 pp in Russian.
34. AYu L. The Use of millimeter wavelength electromagnetic waves in
cardiology. Crit Rev Biomed Eng 2000;28:339–47.
35. Lyusov VA, Lebedeva AY, Shchelkunova IG. MM-wave correction
for hemorheologic disorders in patients with unstable
stenocardia. Millimetrovye Volny v Biol i Med 1995;5:23–5in
36. Wu T, Rapaport TS, Collins CM. 2015 Safe for generations to come.
IEEE Microw Mag 2015;16:65–84.
37. Kostoff RN, Heroux P, Aschner M, Tsatsakis A. Adverse health
effects of 5G mobile networking technology under real-life
conditions. Toxicol Lett 2020;323:35–40.
38. Hässig M, Jud F, Naegeli H, Kupper J, Spiess BM. Prevalence of
nuclear cataract in Swiss veal calves and its possible association
with mobile telephone antenna base stations. Schweiz Arch
39. Hässig M, Jud F, Spiess B. [Increased occurrence of nuclear
cataract in the calf after erection of a mobile phone base station].
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 2012;154:82–6 in German.
40. Pall ML. 2013 Electromagnetic ﬁelds act via activation of voltage-
gated calcium channels to produce beneﬁcial or adverse effects. J
Cell Mol Med 2013;17:958–65.
41. Pall ML. Electromagnetic ﬁelds act similarly in plants as in
animals: probable activation of calcium channels via their
voltage sensor. Curr Chem Biol 2016;10:74–82.
42. Titushkin IA, Rao VS, Pickard WF, Moros EG, Shaﬁrstein G, Cho
MR. Altered calcium dynamics Mediates P19-derived neuron-like
cell responses to millimeter-wave radiation. Radiat Res 2009;
43. Alekseev SI, Ziskin MC. Effects of millimeter waves on ionic
currents of Lymnaea neurons. Bioelectromagnetics 1999;20:
44. Li X, Liu C, Liang W, Ye H, Chen W, Lin R, et al. Millimeter wave
promotes the synthesis of extracellular matrix and the
proliferation of chondrocyte by regulating the voltage-gated K+
channel. J Bone Miner Metab 2013;32:367–77.
45. Sypniewska RK, Millenbaugh NJ, Kiel JL, Blystone RV, Ringham
HN, Mason PA, et al. Protein changes in macrophages induced by
plasma from rats exposed to 35 GHz millimeter waves.
46. Geletyuk VI, Kazachenko VN, Chemeris NK, Fesenko EE. Dual
effects of microwaves on single Ca2+-activated K+channels in
cultured kidney cells Vero. FEBS Lett 1995;359:85–8.
47. Marchionni I, PafﬁA, Pellegrino M, Liberti M, Apollonio F, Abeti R,
et al. Comparison between low-level 50 Hz and 900 MHz
electromagnetic stimulation on single channel ionic currents and
on ﬁring frequency in dorsal root ganglion isolated neurons.
Biochim Biophys Acta 2006;1758:597–605.
48. Garkavi LK, Kvakina EB, Kuz’menko TS. Antistress reactions and
activation therapy. Moscow: Imedis; 1998, vol 617 in Russian.
49. Trougakos JP. Nrf2 stress and aging. Aging (Albany, NY) 2019;11:
50. Gao M, Liu Y. Chen Y, Yin C, Liu, J-JCS. miR-214 protects erythroid
cells against oxidative stress by targeting ATF4 and EZH2. Free
Rad Biol Med 2016;92:39–49.
51. Deghoyan A, Hequimayan A, Nikoghosyan A, Dadasyan E,
Ayrapetyan S. Cell bathing medium as a cellular target for
millimeter waves. Electromagn Biol Med 2012;31:132–42.
Pall: Coherent EMFs penetrate deeply via magnetic fields 11
52. Lu XW, Du L, Kou L, Song N, Zhang YJ, Wu MK, et al. Effects of
moderate static magnetic ﬁelds on the voltage-gated sodium and
calcium channels currents in trigeminal ganglion neurons.
Electromagn Biol Med 2015;34:285–92.
53. Chernyakov GM, Korochkin VL, Babenko AP, Bigdai EV. Reactions
of biological systems of various complexity to the action of low-
level EHF radiation. In: Detyakov ND, editor. Millimeter waves in
medicine and biology. Moscow: Radioelectronica; 1989:141–67
pp in Russian.
54. Potekhina IL, Akoyev GN, Yenin LD. Oleyner. Effects of low-intensity
electromagnetic radiation in the millimeter range on the cardiovascular
system of the white rat. Fiziol Zh 1992;78:35–41 in Russian.
55. Liu YQ, Gao YB, Dong J, Yao BW, Zhao L, Peng RY. Pathological
changes in the sinoatrial node of the heart caused by pulsed
microwave exposure. Biomed Environ Sci 2015;28:72–5.
56. Bohn G, Moosmang S, Conrad H, Ludwig A, Hofmann F, Klugbauer
N. Expression of T- and L-type calcium channel mRNA in murine
sinoatrial node FEBS Lett 2000;481:73–6.
57. Vinogradova TM, Lakatta EG. Regulation of basal and reserve
cardiac pacemaker function by interactions of cAMP mediated
PKA-dependent Ca2+cycling with surface membrane channels. J
Mol Cell Cardiol 2009;47:456–74.
58. Burachas G, Mascoliunis R. Suppression of nerve action potential
under the inﬂuence of millimeter waves. In: Devyatkov ND, editor.
Millimeter waves in medicine and biology. Moscow:
Radioelectronica; 1989:168–75 pp. (in Russian).
59. Akoev GN, Avelev VD, Semenjkov PG. Reception of low-intensity
millimeter-wave electromagnetic radiation by electroreceptors in
skates. Neuroscience 1995;66:15–7.
60. Bellono NW, Leitch NW, Julius D. Molecular basis of ancestral
vertebrate electroreception. Nature 2017;543:391–6.
61. Zhang X, Xia K, Lin L, Zhang F, Yu Y, St Ange K, et al. Structural and
functional components of the Skate Sensory organ ampullae of
Lorenzini. ACS Chem Biol 2018;2018:1677–85.
62. Waldmann-Selsam C. Hochfrequenzinduzierte Hypokalzämie
mit Rezidivierenden Tetanien. Umwelt Med Gesel 2019;2019:
63. Lebedeva NN. Sensor and subsensor reactions of a healthy man
to peripheral effects of low-intensity millimeter waves.
Millimetrovie Volni v Biol I Med 1993;2:5–23 in Russian.
64. Glovacheva TV. EHF therapy in complex treatment of
cardiovascular diseases. In: 10th Russian Symposium
“Millimeter Waves in Medicine and Biology”, Moscow, Russia;
1995:29–31 pp in Russian.
65. Hecht K. Health implications of long-term exposures to
electrosmog. Brochure 6 of A Brochure Series of the Competence
Initiative for the Protection of Humanity, the Environment and
Democracy; 2016. Available from: http://kompetenzinitiative.
web.pdf [Accessed 11 Feb 2018].
66. Raines JK. Electromagnetic ﬁeld interactions with the human
body: observed effects and theories. Greenbelt, Maryland:
National Aeronautics and Space Administration; 1981:116 p.
67. Lamech F. Self-reporting of symptom development from exposure
to radiofrequency ﬁelds of wireless smart meters in Victoria,
Australia: a case series. Altern Ther Health Med 2014;20:28–39.
68. Carpenter DO. The microwave syndrome or electro-
hypersensitivity: historical background. Rev Environ Health 2015;
69. Belyaev I, Dean A, Eger H, Hubmann G, Jandrisovits R, Kern M,
et al. 2016 EUROPAEM EMF Guideline 2016 for the prevention,
diagnosis and treatment of EMF-related health problems and
illnesses. Rev Environ Health 2016;31:363–97.
70. Hedendahl L, Carlberg M, Hardell L. 2015 Electromagnetic
hypersensitivity–an increasing challenge to the medical
profession. Rev Environ Health 2015;30:209–15.
71. Stuttgart-nachrichtung.de Thomas Durchdenwald 23.10. Demo
Am Staatsministerium in Stuttgart: Ärzte Protestieren Gegen
5g-mobilfunk; 2019. Available from: https://www.stuttgarter-
85f9-4915-a236-4f3177597300.html [Accessed 4 Dec 2020].
72. Physicians for safe technology. The ﬁrst report of 5g injury from
Switzerland; 2019. Available from: https://mdsafetech.org/
[Accessed 4 Dec 2020].
73. L’Illustré MD. Avec La 5g, nous Sentons comme des cobayes;
2019. Available from: https://www.illustre.ch/magazine/5g-
sentons-cobayes [Accessed 4 Dec 2020].
74. Europe U. By Monica Pinna. The debate over 5G in Switzerland;
2020. Available from: https://www.euronews.com/2020/09/11/
[Accessed 13 Dec 2020].
75. Hudson M. Concern for welfare of east of England ambulance
Staff after three deaths in 11 days; 2019. Available from: https://
[Accessed 13 Dec 2020].
12 Pall: Coherent EMFs penetrate deeply via magnetic fields