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Millimeter (MM) wave and microwave frequency radiation produce deeply penetrating effects: the biology and the physics

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Millimeter wave (MM-wave) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are predicted to not produce penetrating effects in the body. The electric but not magnetic part of MM-EMFs are almost completely absorbed within the outer 1 mm of the body. Rodents are reported to have penetrating MM-wave impacts on the brain, the myocardium, liver, kidney and bone marrow. MM-waves produce electromagnetic sensitivity-like changes in rodent, frog and skate tissues. In humans, MM-waves have penetrating effects including impacts on the brain, producing EEG changes and other neurological/neuropsychiatric changes, increases in apparent electromagnetic hypersensitivity and produce changes on ulcers and cardiac activity. This review focuses on several issues required to understand penetrating effects of MM-waves and microwaves: 1. Electronically generated EMFs are coherent, producing much higher electrical and magnetic forces then do natural incoherent EMFs. 2. The fixed relationship between electrical and magnetic fields found in EMFs in a vacuum or highly permeable medium such as air, predicted by Maxwell’s equations, breaks down in other materials. Specifically, MM-wave electrical fields are almost completely absorbed in the outer 1 mm of the body due to the high dielectric constant of biological aqueous phases. However, the magnetic fields are very highly penetrating. 3. Time-varying magnetic fields have central roles in producing highly penetrating effects. The primary mechanism of EMF action is voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation with the EMFs acting via their forces on the voltage sensor, rather than by depolarization of the plasma membrane. Two distinct mechanisms, an indirect and a direct mechanism, are consistent with and predicted by the physics, to explain penetrating MM-wave VGCC activation via the voltage sensor. Time-varying coherent magnetic fields, as predicted by the Maxwell–Faraday version of Faraday’s law of induction, can put forces on ions dissolved in aqueous phases deep within the body, regenerating coherent electric fields which activate the VGCC voltage sensor. In addition, time-varying magnetic fields can directly put forces on the 20 charges in the VGCC voltage sensor. There are three very important findings here which are rarely recognized in the EMF scientific literature: coherence of electronically generated EMFs; the key role of time-varying magnetic fields in generating highly penetrating effects; the key role of both modulating and pure EMF pulses in greatly increasing very short term high level time-variation of magnetic and electric fields. It is probable that genuine safety guidelines must keep nanosecond timescale-variation of coherent electric and magnetic fields below some maximum level in order to produce genuine safety. These findings have important implications with regard to 5G radiation.
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Review Article
Martin L. Pall*
Millimeter (MM) wave and microwave frequency
radiation produce deeply penetrating effects: the
biology and the physics
https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2020-0165
Received December 11, 2020; accepted April 28, 2021;
published online May 26, 2021
Abstract: Millimeter wave (MM-wave) electromagnetic
fields (EMFs) are predicted to not produce penetrating
effects in the body. The electric but not magnetic part of
MM-EMFs are almost completely absorbed within the outer
1 mm of the body. Rodents are reported to have penetrating
MM-wave impacts on the brain, the myocardium, liver,
kidney and bone marrow. MM-waves produce electromag-
netic sensitivity-like changes in rodent, frog and skate tis-
sues. In humans, MM-waves have penetrating effects
including impacts on the brain, producing EEG changes and
other neurological/neuropsychiatric changes, increases in
apparent electromagnetic hypersensitivity and produce
changes on ulcers and cardiac activity. This review focuses
on several issues required to understand penetrating effects
of MM-waves and microwaves: 1. Electronically generated
EMFs are coherent, producing much higher electrical and
magnetic forces then do natural incoherent EMFs. 2. The
xed relationship between electrical and magnetic elds
found in EMFs in a vacuum or highly permeable medium
such as air, predicted by Maxwellsequations,breaksdown
in other materials. Specically, MM-wave electrical elds are
almost completely absorbed in the outer 1 mm of the body
due to the high dielectric constant of biological aqueous
phases. However, the magnetic elds are very highly pene-
trating. 3. Time-varying magnetic elds have central roles in
producing highly penetrating effects. The primary mecha-
nism of EMF action is voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC)
activation with the EMFs acting via their forces on the
voltage sensor, rather than by depolarization of the plasma
membrane. Two distinct mechanisms, an indirect and a
direct mechanism, are consistent with and predicted by the
physics, to explain penetrating MM-wave VGCC activation
via the voltage sensor. Time-varying coherent magnetic
elds, as predicted by the MaxwellFaraday version of
Faradays law of induction, can put forces on ionsdissolved
in aqueous phases deep within the body, regenerating
coherent electric elds which activate the VGCC voltage
sensor. In addition, time-varying magnetic elds can
directly put forces on the 20 charges in the VGCC voltage
sensor. There are three very important ndings here which
are rarely recognized in the EMF scientic literature:
coherence of electronically generated EMFs; the key role of
time-varying magnetic elds in generating highly pene-
trating effects; the key role of both modulating and pure EMF
pulses in greatly increasing very short term high level time-
variation of magnetic and electric elds. It is probable that
genuine safety guidelines must keep nanosecond timescale-
variation of coherent electric and magnetic elds below
some maximum level in order to produce genuine safety.
These ndings have important implications with regard to
5G radiation.
Keywords: 5G modulating pulses; coherent electronically
generated EMFs; EMF pathophysiological and therapeutic
effects; increased [Ca2+]i and calcium signaling; modu-
lating pulses and biological EMF effects; penetrating
effects via time-varying magnetic field penetration.
Introduction
Electronically generated electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are
highly coherent, being generated at specific frequencies,
with specific vector direction, with a specific phase and
specific polarity. The special physics properties of such
coherent EMFs have been discussed [15]. Similarly, bio-
logical impacts of coherent EMFs have also been discussed
[610]. Such coherent EMFs generate much stronger elec-
trical forces and magnetic forces than do natural inco-
herent EMFs. Most but not all natural EMFs are incoherent.
The much stronger forces produced by electronically
generated EMFs are of great importance with regard to EMF
*Corresponding author: Martin L. Pall, Professor Emeritus,
Biochemistry and Basic Medical Sciences, Washington State
University, Portland, OR 97232-3312, USA,
E-mail: martin_pall@wsu.edu. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8784-
8287
Rev Environ Health 2021; aop
Open Access. © 2021 Martin L. Pall, published by De Gruyter. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
License.
causation of biological effects and also with respect to our
ability to use such EMFs for wireless communication. A study
where coherence is central to wireless communication is the
article of Geffrin et al. [5] which discusses many examples
where coherence is essential for wireless communications
and also discusses how antenna design is greatly inuenced
by the need to maintain such coherence. The biological
importance of coherence was discussed in two contexts by
Panagopoulos et al. [9]. The coherence of the polarity is
required for maximum force generation. In addition, the
coherence of phase is also important because identical phase
produces constructive interference and supra-additive
effects, whereas phase shifts lead to high amounts of
destructive interference and much lower effects [9]. Golant [7]
discusses how coherent MM-wave EMFs may produce reso-
nance interactions with specic biological targets. Strong
electrical forces produced by coherent electronically gener-
ated EMFs are an important feature of the Fröhlich [6] theo-
retical model of biological activity of EMFs. While it is clear
from this, that there is a substantial literature that electroni-
cally generated EMFs are coherent and that such coherence is
important for their acting in wireless communication and in
producing non-thermal biological effects, this literature is not
widely known nor is its importance appreciated among the
vast majority of scientists studying EMF effects.
EMF propagation in a vacuum or in very low dielectric
constant media, such as air, is characterized by a fixed
relationship between the electric field and the magnetic
field, as described by Maxwells equations [11]. However
electric elds are much more susceptible to absorption
than are magnetic elds by many media, producing a
breakdown of that xed relationship (Keller and Karal [2]).
Because the dielectric constant of intracellular and
extracellular biological aqueous phases is estimated to be
about 120 [12], such differential absorption is relevant to
the issue of biological effects. However, as also discussed
in ref. [2], the magnetic eld penetration is determined by
the magnetic eld permeability which in essentially all
biological tissues is very high, producing very high
magnetic eld penetration. Strong absorption of electric
elds but not magnetic elds are found with MM-wave or
microwave radiation traversing biological tissues and
also many other media including building materials
[1315]. Electric eld absorption is a function of both the
dielectric properties of materials and also of the EMF
frequency, such that the electric elds of MM-wave EMFs
are almost completely absorbed in the outer 1 mm of the
body, as shown in ref. [1315]. The impedance of biolog-
ical tissues is also likely to have roles in limiting electric
eld penetration. The rapid electric eld absorption in
biological tissues has lead telecommunications industry-
associated and other scientists to predict that MM-wave
biological effects will be limited to the outer 1 mm of the
body and that lower microwave frequency effects, in
the400MHzto5GHzrange,aresuggestedtobelimitedto
the outer 13 cm of the body. Various denitions are used
to dene microwave frequency radiation. In this paper,
that term refers to 400 MHz to 5 GHz radiation, the range
most commonly used for wireless communication.
Other scientists such as in many articles cited in Betskii
and Lebedeva [16] have found deeply penetrating effects of
MM-waves in human and animal bodies, but have inter-
preted these as possibly caused by effects near the surface of
the body indirectly producing penetrating effects. Similar
views are expressed in the Pakhomov et al. [17] review as
follows: On p. 393, Pakhomov et al. [17] state that The term
millimeter waves (MMW) refers to extremely high frequency
(30300 GHz) electromagnetic oscillations. Coherent oscil-
lations of this range are virtually absent from the natural
electromagnetic environment.Further down [17] continues
Indeed, MMW have been reported to produce a variety of
bioeffects, many of which are quite unexpected from radiation
penetrating less than 1 mm into biological tissues(italics
added). It can be seen from this that although Pakhomov
et al. [17] are aware that these MM-waves are coherent, they
fail to consider that the MM-wave magnetic elds are highly
penetrating and may, therefore, produce highly penetrating
effects. On p. 400 of ref. [17], states that It is clearly un-
derstood that MMW penetration into biological tissues is
rather shallow, and any primary response must occur in skin
or subcutaneous structures, or at the surface of the eye.
This review will discuss towards its end, two distinct prob-
able mechanisms by which highly penetrating time-varying
MM-wave magnetic elds can produce highly penetrating
effects reported in ref. [16, 17] and elsewhere.
Gaiduk [18] showed that when most of the water
molecules are hydrogen bonded to solutes or when such
solutes otherwise greatly determine water hydrogen
bonding structures, as is often the case within living cells,
the electric eld absorption is lowered. This may be minor
part of the mechanism leading to greater penetration of
effects, shown below but time varying penetrating magnetic
eld effects are argued here to be much more important.
Penetrating effects of MM-wave
and microwave radiation
Penetrating effects of non-thermal, non-pulsed, contin-
uous wave MM-wave exposures have been reported in a
large number of studies. Zalyobokskaya [19] reported that
2Pall: Coherent EMFs penetrate deeply via magnetic fields
such exposures in rodents produced pathophysiological
structural, functional and biochemical changes in each of
the following internal organs: the brain, the myocardium,
liver, kidney and bone marrow. These are each deeper in
the body that 1 mm and therefore provide evidence for
deeper MM-wave effects than the industry claims is
possible.
Betskii and Lebedeva [16] reviewed large numbers of
studies, both human and animal studies of highly pene-
trating nonthermal MM-wave effects. I will concentrate here
on some of the human studies cited in that paper, although
animal studies such as discussed in Zalyobokskaya [19] were
also reviewed. When that review [16] was published, the
voltage-gated calcium channel mechanism, discussed
below, was not known so that their interpretation of the
various ndings discussed was very different from the
interpretation discussed below.
We will be discussing here MM-wave effects impacting
human brain function as well as a number of other pene-
trating effects of MM-wave radiation. References [2024]
each show that low intensity, non-thermal non-pulsed
MM-wave EMFs produce changes in the EEGs in the human
brain which are a measure of the electrical activity of the
brain. The citations [2124] each also nd other neurological
effects in addition to EEG effects are produced such MM-wave
EMFs. The shortest path from outside the body into the
human brain is through the skin, skull and meninges
surrounding the brain, usually circa 67mminadults.
Such findings should not be surprising for two
different reasons discussed in this paragraph and the
following two paragraphs. Pikov et al. [25] and also Siegel
and Pikov [26] at Caltech each nd that stunningly low
intensities of non-pulsed MM-wave EMFs produce strong
impacts on brain derived neurons. Pikov et al. [25] in their
abstract state that: The applied levels of MMW power are
three orders of magnitude below the existing safe limit for
human exposure of 1 mW/cm2. Surprisingly, even at these
low power levels, MMWs were able to produce consider-
able changes in neuronal ring rate and plasma membrane
properties. At the power density approaching 1 μW/cm2,
1 min of MMW exposure reduced the ring rate to one third
of the pre-exposure level in four out of eight examined
neurons. The width of the action potentials was narrowed
by MMW exposure to 17% of the baseline value and the
membrane input resistance decreased to 54% of the base-
line value across all neurons.
Consequently, Pikov et al. [25] are seeing large,
repeated impacts on neuronal cell activity at exposure
levels of 1 μW/cm2, one one-thousandth of the normal
safety guideline allowable levels. They are seeing large
effects at exposure levels of 1/1,000th of allowable levels.
Normally, safety guideline allowable levels are set at no
more than 1% of the lowest level found to produce any
effects. By that standard, safety guidelines for MM-wave
radiation should be more than 100,000 times lower than
the current safety guidelines. Siegel and Pikov [26] found
effects at still lower level exposures, 300 mW/cm2, which
argues that safety levels should be more than 330,000
times lower than current safety guidelines. It should be
noted that these are cells in culture, with no shielding from
tissues above the cells, other than that produced by the
culture medium. Each of the ndings, discussed above, are
effects produced by non-pulsed, continuous wave
MM-wave EMFs, not the extraordinarily highly pulsed 5G
radiation, which is predicted to have vastly stronger effects
than do these non-pulsed MM-wave, continuous wave
EMFs, as discussed below. The US FCC and other regulatory
agencies are pushing to change safety guidelines to allow
much higher exposures than currently allowed by the
current safety guidelines!
There is a second reason why these MM-wave, brain-
related findings are not surprising. Reference [27] cited
multiple primary literature studies and also review articles
which show that EEGs are inuenced by low intensity, non-
thermal microwave frequency EMFs and also cited many
primary literature studies showing that such microwave
frequency EMFs also produce widespread human neuro-
logical and neuropsychiatric effects. Reference [28] cited 15
review articles showing that such microwave frequency
EMFs produce neurological/neuropsychiatric effects.
The remaining human highly penetrating MM-wave
effects discussed here, from Betskii and Lebedeva review
[16], are apparent therapeutic effects. There are genuine
therapeutic effects produced by microwave and other fre-
quency EMFs, so it should not be surprising to nd that
MM-waves can produce therapeutic effects. There are
multiple studies reporting that non-thermal, non-pulsed
MM-waves produce improved bone marrow function in
humans [2932]. Other therapeutic effects of MM-waves
include increased healing of gastric and duodenal ulcers
[33] and improved cardiac function [34, 35]. Two other
types of penetrating effects documented by the Pakhomov
et al. [17] review, will be discussed later in this paper.
The studies outlined in the previous paragraphs of this
section, are all highly penetrating effects produced by non-
thermal, non-pulsed MM-wave EMFs. 5G radiation, how-
ever, uses extraordinarily high levels of modulating pulses
in order to carry extraordinarily high amounts of infor-
mation per second [36]. Reference [28] cited 10 different
reviews each showing that EMFs with modulating pulses
produce, in most cases, much higher levels of biological
effects than do non-pulsed (continuous wave) EMFs of the
Pall: Coherent EMFs penetrate deeply via magnetic fields 3
same average intensity. If follows that 5G may be predicted
to produce very damaging highly penetrating effects
because of its extraordinary level of modulating pulsation.
The relationship between therapeutic effects and patho-
physiological effects produced by EMFs is discussed
below.
The recent publication of Kostoff et al. [37] came to
similar conclusions to those stated in the previous
paragraphs, that MM-waves produce highly penetrating
effects: These results reinforce the conclusion of Russell
(quoted above) that systemic results may occur from milli-
meter wave radiation(italics added).Continuing from ref.
[37] To re-emphasize, for Zalyubovskayas experiments, the
incoming signal was unmodulated carrier frequency only,
and the experiment was single stressor only. Thus, the
expected real-world results (when human beings are
impacted, the signals are pulsed and modulated, and there
is exposure to many toxic stimuli) would be far more serious
and would be initiated at lower (perhaps far lower) wireless
radiation power uxes.
Much deeper effects than predicted by the industry are
not limited to millimeter waves but also occur with
microwave radiation. Microwave radiation, as discussed
above, has been argued to produce effects limited to the
outer 13 cm in the body. However, Hässig et al. [38, 39], in
Switzerland, nd that pregnant cattle grazing near a cell
phone tower (also known as a mobile phone base station)
produce large numbers of newborn calves with cataracts.
The fetuss deep location in the mothers body should
protect it from cell phone tower radiation but does not.
Switzerland has safety guidelines for cell phone tower
radiation that are 100 times more stringent than the U.S. or
EU guidelines so that these are quite low intensity EMFs by
most standards, but they produce effects very deeply in the
mothers body.
The rest of this paper focuses on how such highly
penetrating effects can be produced. Both the biology and
the physics are essential to this discussion.
The primary mechanism of action of
low intensity EMFs in producing
biological effects is activation of
voltage-gated calcium channels
(VGCCs) via its voltage sensor
The most important type of evidence for the EMF-voltage
gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation mechanism, is
that effects produced by EMF exposures can be blocked or
greatly lowered by calcium channel blockers, drugs that
are specific for blocking voltage-gated calcium channels
[VGCCs) [12, 27, 28, 40]. Five different types of calcium
channel blockers have been used in these studies, each of
which is thought to be highly specic for blocking VGCCs
[40]. Diverse EMFs produce effects which are blocked or
greatly lowered by the calcium channel blockers, ranging
from millimeter wave frequencies, microwave, radio-
frequencies, intermediate frequencies, extremely low
frequencies (including 50 and 60 Hz), all the way down to
static electric elds and even static magnetic elds [12, 28,
40]. Following EMF exposure, the exposed cells and tissues
have large, rapid increases in calcium signaling [12, 27, 28,
40], produced by increases in intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i
levels. This overall interpretation has been conrmed by
patch-clamp studies, studies using calcium-free medium,
and studies measuring [Ca2+]i levels [28]. This mechanism
has been widely recognized in the scientic literature with
the rst publication on this [40] being cited 305 times ac-
cording to the Google Scholar database, at this writing.
New scientic paradigms are usually only very slowly
recognized in the scientic literature such that the wide-
spread interest in and acceptance of this mechanism is very
unusual. That does not, of course, mean that everyone
accepts it.
The direct target of the EMFs is the voltage-sensor,
which, in the normal physiology, controls the opening of
the VGCCs in response to partial depolarization across the
plasma membrane. Four distinct classes of VGCCs are
activated in response to low level EMF exposures, L-type,
T-type, N-type and P/Q-type VGCCs [40]. Voltage-gated
sodium, potassium, and chloride channels, each
controlled by a similar voltage sensor are also activated by
low intensity EMF exposures, although these have rela-
tively minor roles in producing effects compared with those
of VGCC-produced [Ca2+]i elevation [28]. Plant TPC chan-
nel activation via a similar voltage sensor also produce
plant calcium-dependent EMF effects [41]. Each of these
channels is controlled by a similar voltage-sensor, sug-
gesting that the voltage-sensor is the direct EMF target.
The electrical forces produced by even weak elec-
tronically generated EMFs on each of the 20 positive
charges in the VGCC voltage sensor are thought to be very
strong due each of three distinct mechanisms, which act
multiplicatively: 1. Electronically generated EMFs are
highly coherent, as discussed above, being emitted with a
specific frequency, in a specific vector direction, with a
specific phase and specific polarity. This high-level
coherence causes the electrical and magnetic forces pro-
duced by these to be vastly higher than are forces produced
by incoherent natural EMFs. 2. The electrical forces on
4Pall: Coherent EMFs penetrate deeply via magnetic fields
these charges in the voltage sensor are thought to be
approximately 120 times higher than forces on charges in
the aqueous phases of our cells and bodies, as predicted be
Coulombs law, due to the difference of the dielectric
constant in the two locations [12, 28]. 3. The forces on the
charges in the voltage sensor are also thought, to be
approximately 3,000 times higher because of the high
electrical resistance of the plasma membrane and therefore
the high level of amplication of the electric eld across the
plasma membrane [12, 28]. This helps us to understand
how VGCCs and other voltage-gated ion channels can be
activated by what are considered to be very weak EMFs.
The important nding here is that EMFs activate the VGCCs
and other voltage-gated ion channels not via depolariza-
tion of the plasma membrane but rather via the direct
forces they produce on the circa 20 charges in the voltage
sensor. One puzzle discussed in ref. [40] and also below in
this paper is how can static magnetic elds activate the
VGCCs when physics shows that static magnetic elds
cannot put forces on static electrical charges. These mag-
netic eld effects are discussed in the next section.
How then does EMF-produced VGCC activation
produce biological effects? Our best understanding of this
is outlined in Figure 1 [12, 28, 40]. The main pathophysio-
logical effects seen going to the bottom of Figure 1, are
produced through excessive calcium signaling produced
by [Ca2+]i elevation and by the peroxynitrite pathway, with
the latter involving increases in reactive free radicals,
oxidative stress, NF-kappaB activity and inammatory
cytokine levels and also mitochondrial dysfunction. There
is also a pathway by which VGCC activation, acting via
increased nitric oxide (NO), NO signaling and Nrf2 stimu-
lation can produce therapeutic effects that also helps
explain EMF effects. The therapeutic pathway is thought to
be produced by modest [Ca2+]i elevation whereas the
pathophysiological pathways are produced by higher level
[Ca2+]i elevation.
MM-waves have been shown to act via activation of the
VGCCs and also voltage-gated potassium channels [4244].
Therefore it seems likely that MM-waves act via such
channel activation as do lower frequency EMFs. This
interpretation is conrmed by ndings that MM-waves
raise [Ca2+]i levels, calcium signaling and also nitric oxide
(NO) [42] (compare with Figure 1). It is also conrmed by
ndings that MM-waves raise peroxynitrite [45] and by
ndings, discussed above, that MM-waves can produce
similar pathophysiological effects and therapeutic effects
to those produced by lower frequency EMFs. There is an
additional channel that is probably activated by MM-waves
acting on voltage sensors, the Ca2+-activated potassium
channel as shown by Geletyuk et al. [46]. It was shown in
ref. [46] using patch-clamp studies, that closed Ca2+-acti-
vated potassium channels are opened by exposures to low
intensity non-pulsed MM-waves. This same channel has
also been shown to be activated by both 50 Hz and
microwave frequency EMFs [47]. Ca2+-activated potassium
channels have been shown to be activated by a voltage
sensor similar in structure to the voltage sensors discussed
above acting synergistically with increases in [Ca2+]i. It
follows that EMFs may act to activate Ca2+-activated
potassium channels via the voltage sensor in that channel
and also via the VGCC voltage sensors.
Can Nrf2 activation (see Figure 1) produce the thera-
peutic responses reported to occur following MM-wave
exposures [16], as discussed in a previous section? Garkavi
et al. [48] showed that MM-waves produced antistress
responses and such antistress responses have been shown
to be produced by therapeutic Nrf2 elevations (see, for
example [49, 50]). Consequently, it is plausible that the
therapeutic mechanism outlined in Figure 1 can produce
the penetrating therapeutic effects, discussed above to be
found following non-pulsed MM-wave exposures.
What mechanisms produce highly
penetrating effects of MM-waves?
With the electrical parts of MM-wave radiation largely
absorbed in the outer 1 mm of the body, how, can we get
these highly penetrating effects through impacts on the
voltage sensor of the VGCCs produced by these highly
coherent electronically generated EMFs?
Two explanatory mechanisms are proposed here, each
as a consequence of the very highly penetrating, time-
varying magnetic forces produced by the highly coherent
electronically generated EMFs including MM-wave EMFs.
Lets consider each these two explanatory mechanisms,
one at a time.
The discussion on Maxwells equations in Wikipedia
[11] states that The MaxwellFaraday version of Faradays
law of induction describes how a time varying magnetic eld
creates (induces) an electric eld(italics added).
Coherent highly penetrating time-varying magnetic elds
will produce strong forces on ions dissolved in the aqueous
phases in our bodies, moving those ions in both the
extracellular medium and also in intracellular aqueous
phases and therefore regenerating a highly coherent elec-
tric eld similar to but of lower intensity to the original
electric eld of the EMF before entering the body. The
regenerated EMF can, then act to put forces on the charges
of the voltage sensor thus activating the VGCCs. The
Pall: Coherent EMFs penetrate deeply via magnetic fields 5
physics here is essentially identical to the physics of elec-
trical generation. In electrical generators, time-varying
magnetic elds put forces on mobile electrons in copper
wires, moving those mobile electrons and generating, in
turn, an electrical current. In our bodies, the highly pene-
trating time varying magnetic elds put time-varying forces
on dissolved mobile ions in aqueous phases in our bodies,
generating a coherent electric eld which can act on the
voltage sensors to activate the VGCCs, as discussed above.
A study providing support for this mechanism is the study
of Deghoyan et al. [51] which found that non-thermal
effects on cells in culture were produced through MM-wave
irradiation of the medium surrounding these cells. This
may or may not be the primary mechanism by which
MM-waves produce highly penetrating effects.
There is second highly plausible mechanism by which
highly penetrating magnetic fields can put forces on the
charges in the voltage sensor activate voltage-gated ion
channels. In ref. [40] it was shown that static magnetic
elds also act, as do EMFs, via VGCC activation to produce
biological effects that can be blocked with calcium channel
blockers, so that the biological effects must have been
produced via VGCC activation. Specically, in Table 1 of
ref. [40] and refs. [10], [12] and [24] in that paper each
showed that effects produced by static magnetic elds can
be blocked by calcium channel blockers, drugs specic for
blocking VGCCs. Consequently, static magnetic elds
produce effects via VGCC activation. That conclusion has
been conrmed by the ndings from patch-clamp studies,
showing that static magnetic elds produced VGCC acti-
vation and also activation of voltage-gated sodium chan-
nels [52]. Those ndings that static magnetic elds can act
via the voltage sensor to activate VGCCs and apparently
other voltage-gated ion channels created a puzzle that was
discussed in ref. [40]. That puzzle is that static magnetic
elds do not produce forces on static electrically charged
objects. The answer to that puzzle, as discussed in ref. [40],
is that the plasma membranes of cells are constantly
moving and therefore the voltage sensors of the VGCCs
located in the plasma membrane are also moving, so that
static magnetic elds can produce time-varying forces on
the charges of the VGCC voltage-sensor. These ndings
clearly raise the possibility that the highly penetrating
time-varying magnetic elds derived from MM-wave or
other frequency EMFs, including the extraordinarily high
densities of modulating pulses of 5G, can have very high
activity when acting directly on the 20 positive charges in
the voltage sensor of the VGCCs to activate the VGCCs.
Both modulating EMF pulses and pure EMF pulses can
act via each of the two mechanisms discussed here to
produce large, very short term, penetrating changes in the
forces on electrical charges including the voltage gated ion
channel voltage sensor charges. Modulating and pure
pulses inevitably produce vastly greater maximum time-
variation and are, therefore, predicted to produce vastly
greater maximum forces on the voltage sensor charges.
Figure 1: Diverse frequency EMFs act via activation of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) producing increased intracellular calcium
[Ca2+]i. [Ca2+]i is dened as the calcium ion concentration in the cytoplasm which is distinct from the calcium concentration in the
endoplasmic reticulum or the mitochondria, which are regulated separately. This leads to production of pathophysiogical effects mainly via
excessive calcium signaling and activation of the peroxynitrite/free radical/oxidative stress, NF-kappaB and inammation pathway. Thera-
peutic effects are produced primarily via nitric oxide (NO) signaling leading to increased Nrf2 activity. Because the therapeutic pathway
produces effects that are almost exactly opposite the effects produced by the peroxynitrite pathway, different EMF exposures may produce
almost opposite effects. Copied from ref. [28] with permission.
6Pall: Coherent EMFs penetrate deeply via magnetic fields
Because each of the two mechanisms proposed in this
section for the generation of penetrating effects are
dependent upon time-varying magnetic fields, together
they provide a new understanding of the great importance
of both modulating and pure pulsation in producing high
level EMF effects.
Pakhomov et al. [17] reviewed
ndings with regard to non-pulsed
MM-Waves: cardiac effects and
electromagnetic hypersensitivity
(EHS)
There are important findings on both animal cardiac effects
and on animal tissue and human EHS-like effects produced
by non-pulsed MM-wave exposures that were reviewed in
Pakhomov et al. [17]. These are discussed here, in contrast,
other MM-wave studies including those reviewed by
Zalyobokskaya [19] and by Betskii and Lebedeva [16] which
were discussed much earlier.
There are two important reasons for the author
choosing to discuss the Pakhomov et al. [17] review on
cardiac effects and also EHS-like effects here, as opposed to
much earlier. Each of these require comparing animal
studies with human studies. When highly penetrating
MM-wave magnetic elds produce highly penetrating ef-
fects in animals and in humans, the difference in body size
between humans and rodents is of little importance in
predicting effects. A second reason for discussing these
parts of ref. [17] here, is that the VGCC activation mecha-
nism discussed above is predicted to be central to our un-
derstanding of both cardiac effects and EHS.
Chernyakov et al. [53], as discussed on p. 399 of ref.
[17], reported on 990 experiments where very low intensity
MM-wave EMFs changed the membrane function of the
pacemaker cells of the sinoatrial node of the frog heart. In
most cases, there was an almost instantaneous (less than
2 s) decrease in the interspike interval of these cells which
in an intact heart would produce tachycardia. These
occurred with intensity ranges of 20500 μW/cm2and
were, therefore, clearly non-thermal effects. Furthermore,
as discussed on p.400 of ref. [17], Chernyakov et al. [53]
showed that very low intensity MM-wave EMFs could pro-
duce changes in heart rate in anesthetized frogs, including
both tachycardia (increase heartbeat) and bradycardia
(slow heartbeat) and also arrhythmias. These also occurred
when the hearts had been completely denervated although
the severity of these changes decreased with denervation.
The studies in this paragraph show that low intensity
MM-wave EMFs produce direct effects on the membrane
activity of the pacemaker cells in the sinoatrial node of the
frog heart, inuencing the heartbeat, but that the respon-
siveness of these cells can be inuenced by neurological
activity.
Other important cardiac studies of low intensity
MM-waves were reported by Potekhina et al. [54] in the rat.
They [54] showed that MM-waves produced changes in
heartbeat including arrhythmias, tachycardia and brady-
cardia. Longer term (circa 3 h) exposures produced large
numbers of animals who died of apparent sudden cardiac
death. It is the authors opinion that most if not all of these
EMF cardiac effects are produced by the direct impacts of
diverse EMFs impacting the pacemaker cells in the sino-
atrial node of the heart. One additional set of observations
supporting that view are the ndings of Liu et al. [55]
showing that pulsed microwave EMFs produce heart
failure-like changes in the sinoatrial node of the heart. The
reason the pacemaker cells of the sinoatrial node of the
heart may be particularly sensitive to EMFs is because they
contain particularly high densities of T-type VGCCs, with
both T-type and L-type VGCCs having essential roles in
producing the pace making activity [56, 57]. These ndings
suggest that penetrating EMF effects can produce
commonly observed cardiac effects via direct impacts on
the pacemaker cells in the sinoatrial node of the heart.
Pakhomov et al. [17] also reviewed ndings showing
that non-pulsed MM-wave EMF exposures produce
EHS-like effects in animal nerve tissue, and in humans.
EHS is characterized by long term sensitivity responses to
electromagnetic or electric elds [17] describes three
studies where non-pulsed MM-wave exposures produced
fairly long-term sensitivities in animal tissues and three
additional studies of long term neurological/neuropsy-
chiatric sensitivity in humans.
Burachas and Mascoliunas [58] described changes in
the compound action potential (CAP) in the frog sciatic
nerve following MM-wave exposures. They found that
CAP decreased exponentially and fell 10-fold within
50110 min of exposure at 77.7 GHz, 10 mW/cm2. CAP
restored entirely soon after exposure, but the nerve became
far more sensitive to MMW. CAP suppression due to the
next exposures became increasingly steep and nally took
only 1015 min. This sensitized state persisted for at least
16 hCAP is a measure of the overall electrical activity of
the nerve. These ndings may be interpreted in terms of
MM-wave EMF exposures producing long-term EHS-like
sensitivities in the frog sciatic nerve.
A second study by Chernyakov et al. [53] also reported
sensitivity changes using a different frog nerve and also
Pall: Coherent EMFs penetrate deeply via magnetic fields 7
different MM-wave exposure protocols. The exposures
lasted 23 h, either with a regular frequency change of
1 GHz every 89 min or with a random frequency change
every 14 min (5378 GHz band, 0.10.2 mW/cm2). The
latter regimen induced an abrupt CAP rearrangementin 11
of 12 exposed preparations: the position, magnitude and
polarity of the CAP peaks (the initial CAP was polyphasic)
drastically changed in an unforeseeable manner. The other
exposure regimen altered the CAP peaks components in
3040 min
Akoev et al. [59] found EHS-like effects following low
intensity MM-wave exposures on the activity of electro-
receptorsofskates(thearticlecitedhereisanEnglish
language study, published in an international journal
that appears to be similar or identical to the Russian
language article cited in ref. [17]). When a power
intensity of 15mW/cm
2was used at a distance of
120 mm from the duct opening only excitatory responses
were observed in receptors with electrical thresholds of
420 nA, p. 15 in ref. [59]. Reference [59] states further
(p. 17) It is of interest that at low EMR intensity, the
electroreceptors (have) prolonged excitatory responses
which differ from responses to the d.c. electrical stimuli
(where) the ampullae of Lorenzini completely adapt
within a few minutes. Thus it is the long-lasting slow
adapting excitatory response that may reect the pecu-
liarity of the low-intensity millimeter-wave EMR effect on
biological tissues.These results show that low intensity
MM-wave EMFs produce long-term hypersensitivity of the
electroreceptors. There are similar electroreceptors in
sharks, skates and rays and given that the target
producing hypersensitivity here is that receptor, it is
important to identify the identity of electroreceptor.
Bellono et al. [60] showed that the electroreceptor is the
VGCC Ca(V)1.3. Other studies implicate excessive [Ca2+]i
in electroreception and VGCC activation was also impli-
cated in the Zhang et al. [61] study of the skate electro-
sensor. We have, therefore, VGCCs implicated as the
direct EMF target involved in producing EHS-like
responses.
Is there other evidence implicated excessive VGCC
sensitivity in producing EHS? One such study was pub-
lished by Dr. Cornelia Waldmann-Selsam [62]. She studied
an EHS patient who showed high sensitivity to extremely
low intensity EMFs and who also had a profound para-
thyroid deciency. This patient showed very large rapid
drops in extracellular Ca2+concentration, including in the
blood plasma, following extremely low intensity EMF
exposure. Because the only possible mechanism that can
produce such a large rapid drop in extracellular Ca2+con-
centration is a large inux of Ca2+ions into cells of our
bodies, this argues strongly for EHS producing large in-
creases in activity of one or more calcium channels in the
plasma membranes of cells. Because VGCC activation is
known to be the major mechanism of EMFs, all of these
ndings argue that the VGCCs in EHS become hypersen-
sitive to EMF activation.
The parathyroid deficiency of this patient [62] is of
great importance because in people with normal para-
thyroid function, large drops in extracellular calcium
levels produce a rapid increase in parathyroid hormone
secretion, which mobilizes calcium from the bones to help
restore normal extracellular calcium levels, thus making
drops of extracellular Ca2+concentrations in exposed EHS
patients with normal parathyroid function more difcult to
document. However, these considerations suggest a simple
clinical test for EHS patients. Such patients should have
large increases in parathyroid hormone following low in-
tensity EMF exposures to which they report sensitivity,
whereas normal people should not show such large in-
creases to the same exposures. Because parathyroid hor-
mone can be measured by clinical testing laboratories, this
prediction can be easily tested and possibly used as a
simple, inexpensive test of EHS.
A fourth MM-wave animal study, discussed above in
this section, also suggests possible EHS-like effects in an-
imals. This is the Potekhina et al. [54] study in the rat which
found that non-pulsed MM-wave exposures for 3 h or more
started to produce apparent sudden cardiac death in these
exposed rats. These ndings suggest cumulative effects of
EMF exposure. However, their relevance to EHS must be
viewed as more questionable than are the three studies
discussed more immediately above, because there were no
measurements which demonstrated that exposures pro-
duced increased sensitivity following MM-wave exposures
in Potekhina et al. [54].
Three human studies, cited in ref. [17] each showed
apparent EHS effects following low intensity non-pulsed
MM-wave exposures, including neurological/neuropsy-
chiatric sensitivities [21, 63, 64]. The sensitivities shown in
each are brain-related neurological/neuropsychiatric sen-
sitivities that are commonly reported in EHS.
EHS causation by EMF exposures is not only docu-
mented by the studies cited above. They are also docu-
mented by the largest occupational exposures ever
performed, as shown in the Hecht review of such exposures
[65]. Reference [65] also documents EMF causation of
neurological/neuropsychiatric effects and cardiac effects.
8Pall: Coherent EMFs penetrate deeply via magnetic fields
In addition the much earlier US Government (NASA)
document [66] also documents EMF occupational exposure
causation of neurological/neuropsychiatric effect and
cardiac effects [28] lists 15 different published reviews each
of which provide substantial bodies of evidence that
neurological/neuropsychiatric effects are caused by low-
intensity, non-thermal EMF exposures. Lamech [67]
showed that smart meter radiation exposure was associ-
ated with large increases in EHS, neurological/neuropsy-
chiatric effects and cardiac effects and similar ndings
were reported in the Conrad study of smart meter radiation.
Four reviews on EHS each report that among the most
common sensitivities in EHS patients are neurological/
neuropsychiatric sensitivity and cardiac sensitivity [65,
6870].
It follows from the findings discussed in this section,
that EMFs with substantial impacts on our bodies will
produce many cases of EHS with the consequent sensitivity
responses often including neurological/neuropsychiatric
effects and cardiac effects. The next question to be
considered here is whether 5G radiation is likely to be
among the EMFs that may produce substantial impacts.
Earlier in this paper we discussed two important
findings that are important for assessing the probable im-
pacts of 5G radiation. 5G radiation, however, uses
extraordinarily high levels of modulating pulses in order to
carry extraordinarily high amounts of information per
second [36]. Reference [28] cited 10 different reviews each
showing that EMFs with modulating pulses produce, in
most cases, much higher levels of biological effects than do
non-pulsed (continuous wave) EMFs of the same average
intensity. If follows that 5G may be predicted to produce
very damaging highly penetrating effects because of its
extraordinary level of modulating pulsations.
Is there any evidence that 5G
radiation produces high human
impacts including EHS,
neurological/neuropsychiatric
effects and cardiac effects?
There has been no biological safety testing of highly pulsed
5G radiation despite calls from many scientists for such
testing before any 5G rollout should occur. There have also
been no scientific studies of 5G radiation effects after any
5G rollouts, to my knowledge. Consequently, the only
evidence we have is from reports of 5G effects in the media.
These reports are not, of course, scientific studies but
rather are derived from what may be viewed as question-
able observations. Nevertheless, due to the lack of any
other 5G information, it is important to look at what little
information we do have.
Reference [71] is a German news article about protests
of German physicians in Stuttgart Germany following a 5G
rollout. The physicians report seeing substantial apparent
effects on their patients including neurological/neuropsy-
chiatric effects, cardiac effects and EHS. These observa-
tions can be seen to be similar to the predicted 5G effects in
the previous section. German physicians may be more
aware of EHS than are physicians in other countries
because the European environmental medicine organiza-
tion, EUROPAEM, has been headquartered in Germany for
many years [69] is a EUROPAEM-related paper.
There are also reports of neurological/neuropsychi-
atric effects, cardiac effects and possibly also EHS in
Switzerland following 5G rollout in parts of that country
[7274]. These reports may be somewhat less reliable
than those from Stuttgart because they come from lay
people.
There was much concern about three suicides over an
11 day period of emergency medical technicians working in
the rst 5G ambulance [75]. This occurred in Coventry, UK.
The idea was that 5G could be used to transmit much
medical information from the hospital to the ambulance
and could also be used to transmit much electronic patient
information from the ambulance to the hospital. The rst
EMT suicide occurred approximately two weeks after the
EMTs started working in the 5G ambulance. Among the
more common neuropsychiatric effects produced in
humans by EMF exposures are depression and anxiety [27],
both of which when severe can cause suicide. It is possible
that EHS may play a role in the approximate two week time
period between the beginning of service of the 5G ambu-
lance and the rst suicide. Development of progressively
more severe EHS over that two week period may be pre-
dicted to produce progressively more severe depression
and anxiety.
Again, these are not scientific studies but given the
lack of any contrary information, they need to be taken
seriously and should be the subject of serious scientific
study rather than massive rollout of untested and possibly
very dangerous 5G systems. One thing that should be
pointed out is that any initial effects on rollout of 5G, are
likely to be dwarfed by effects of any full-fledged 5G system
communicating with billions of devices on the internet of
Pall: Coherent EMFs penetrate deeply via magnetic fields 9
things.Of course, the effects of such massive amounts of
pulsed EMF communication may be further amplified
through the action of EHS in the victims.
Search strategies
Articles on important physical or biological properties of
coherent electronically generated EMFs were found using
two search strategies: The EMF Portal database was
searched using coherent or coherence. The Web of Science
database and Google Scholar were each searched using
electromagnetic fields and coherent.
Reviews on biological including human effects of
millimeter waves were searched for in the EMF Portal
database searching with the words millimeter waves and
limiting responses to review articles. Similarly, reviews
were searched in the EMF Portal database using EHS to
identify EHS reviews.
The work on EMFs acting primarily via the voltage
sensor to activate VGCCs is limited to my own work where
only highly cited peer-reviewed articles were cited.
Two specific questions were answered as follows
When it was shown that millimeter wave exposures
produced increased sensitivity of the skate electroreceptor,
it was important to determine whether the electroreceptor
is a VGCC, the most important direct target of EMFs. A Web
of Science search using electroreceptor and voltage cal-
cium channel found two studies each showing that the
electroreceptor is a VGCC.
It was shown that millimeter waves act directly on the
pacemaker cells of the sinoatrial node of the heart to
change the beat frequency. It was important to determine
whether microwave frequency radiation also target such
cells in the sinoatrial node. A search of the EMF Portal
database limited to radiation over 1 MHz for studies on
sinoatrial node found a study showing that repeated or
prolonged exposures produced heart failure-like changes
in the sinoatrial node of the rat heart.
Two of the Russian language articles are available as
CIA English translations, as shown in the citation list. All
other foreign language documents cited where suitable
PDFs of the original documents were available were
translated into English using Google Translate.
Research funding: The author states that there was no
funding involved.
Author contributions: The author has accepted
responsibility for the entire content of this manuscript.
Competing interests: The author states that there is no
conict of interest.
Informed consent: Informed consent is not applicable.
Ethical approval: There are no new human or animal
studies requiring ethical approval. All reviewed research
involving human or animal studies complied with relevant
national ethical standards and the Helsinki declaration.
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12 Pall: Coherent EMFs penetrate deeply via magnetic fields
... Pall (2021) [1] speaks of a "mechanism" by which Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) exert forces on the channel sensors of voltage-gated ion channels on cell membranes causing "activation" of these channels, and claims this is his discovery! This is already published since 2000 in multiple publications by Panagopoulos et al, and it is widely known as "ion forced-oscillation mechanism" or "ion forced-vibration mechanism" [2-7, and more]. ...
... Pall (2021) [1] speaks of a "mechanism" by which Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) exert forces on the channel sensors of voltage-gated ion channels on cell membranes causing "activation" of these channels, and claims this is his discovery! This is already published since 2000 in multiple publications by Panagopoulos et al, and it is widely known as "ion forced-oscillation mechanism" or "ion forced-vibration mechanism" [2-7, and more]. ...
... In his effort to present our mechanism as his own under the new title "VGCC activation mechanism" he now claims that the irregular gating of the voltage channels occurs not by forces exerted by the oscillating ions on the sensors, but by direct forces from the applied EMFs which are "amplified" by the membranes [1]. A simple calculation shows this would require electric fields on the order of ~310 6 V/m (= 30mV/10nm), like when these channels are gated physiologically by changes of ~30 mV in the voltage across the membrane (~10 nm width) [2][3][4][5][6][7]. ...
... Drs. Foster and Balzano published ref. [1] claiming that my paper on coherent millimeter (MM)-waves producing penetrating effects [2] was flawed. My response follows. ...
... I stated in ref. [2] that "Electronically generated EMFs are coherent, producing much higher electrical and magnetic forces than do natural incoherent EMFs." Foster/ Balzano respond that "coherence properties of 'electronically generated' microwave and MM-wave fields vary widely. ...
... Regarding the two studies on effects on neuronal firing, I quoted one of them [6] in ref. [2] as follows. Pikov et al. [6] in their abstract state that: "The applied levels of MMW power are three orders of magnitude below the existing safe limit for human exposure of 1 mW/cm 2 . ...
... Pall (2021) [1] speaks of a "mechanism" by which Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) exert forces on the channel sensors of voltage-gated ion channels on cell membranes causing "activation" of these channels, and claims this is his discovery! This is already published since 2000 in multiple publications by Panagopoulos et al, and it is widely known as "ion forced-oscillation mechanism" or "ion forced-vibration mechanism" [2-7, and more]. ...
... Pall (2021) [1] speaks of a "mechanism" by which Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) exert forces on the channel sensors of voltage-gated ion channels on cell membranes causing "activation" of these channels, and claims this is his discovery! This is already published since 2000 in multiple publications by Panagopoulos et al, and it is widely known as "ion forced-oscillation mechanism" or "ion forced-vibration mechanism" [2-7, and more]. ...
... In his effort to present our mechanism as his own under the new title "VGCC activation mechanism" he now claims that the irregular gating of the voltage channels occurs not by forces exerted by the oscillating ions on the sensors, but by direct forces from the applied EMFs which are "amplified" by the membranes [1]. A simple calculation shows this would require electric fields on the order of ~310 6 V/m (= 30mV/10nm), like when these channels are gated physiologically by changes of ~30 mV in the voltage across the membrane (~10 nm width) [2][3][4][5][6][7]. ...
Article
Much of the controversy over the cause of electrohypersensitivity (EHS) lies in the absence of recognized clinical and biological criteria for a widely accepted diagnosis. However, there are presently sufficient data for EHS to be acknowledged as a distinctly well-defined and objectively characterized neurologic pathological disorder. Because we have shown that 1) EHS is frequently associated with multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) in EHS patients, and 2) that both individualized disorders share a common pathophysiological mechanism for symptom occurrence; it appears that EHS and MCS can be identified as a unique neurologic syndrome, regardless its causal origin. In this overview we distinguish the etiology of EHS itself from the environmental causes that trigger pathophysiological changes and clinical symptoms after EHS has occurred. Contrary to present scientifically unfounded claims, we indubitably refute the hypothesis of a nocebo effect to explain the genesis of EHS and its presentation. We as well refute the erroneous concept that EHS could be reduced to a vague and unproven “functional impairment”. To the contrary, we show here there are objective pathophysiological changes and health effects induced by electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure in EHS patients and most of all in healthy subjects, meaning that excessive non-thermal anthropogenic EMFs are strongly noxious for health. In this overview and medical assessment we focus on the effects of extremely low frequencies, wireless communications radiofrequencies and microwaves EMF. We discuss how to better define and characterize EHS. Taken into consideration the WHO proposed causality criteria, we show that EHS is in fact causally associated with increased exposure to man-made EMF, and in some cases to marketed environmental chemicals. We therefore appeal to all governments and international health institutions, particularly the WHO, to urgently consider the growing EHS-associated pandemic plague, and to acknowledge EHS as a new real EMF causally-related pathology.
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The use of wireless communication technology in mobile phones has revolutionized modern telecommunication and mobile phones have become so popular that their number exceeds the global population. Electromagnetic field radiations (EMR) are an integral part of wireless technology, which are emitted by mobile phones, mobile towers, electric power stations, transmission lines, radars, microwave ovens, television sets, refrigerators, diagnostic/therapeutic and other electronic devices. The manmade EMR sources have added to the existing burden of natural EMR human exposure arising from the Sun, cosmos, atmospheric discharges, and thunderstorms. EMR including radiofrequency waves (RF) and extremely low frequency radiation (ELF) has generated great interest as their human exposure causes headache, fatigue, tinnitus, concentration problems, depression, memory loss, skin irritation, sleep disorders, nausea, cardiovascular effects, chest pain, immunity and hormonal disorders as the short-term effects and cancer as the late effect. The review has been written by collecting the information using various search engines including google scholar, PubMed SciFinder, Science direct, EMF-portal, saferemr, and other websites on the internet and its main focus is on the mutagenic and genotoxic effects of EMR in humans and mammals. Numerous investigations revealed that exposure in the range of 0–300 GHz EMR is harmless as this did not increase micronuclei and chromosome aberrations. On the contrary, several other studies have demonstrated that exposure to EMR increases the frequency of micronuclei, chromosome aberrations, DNA adducts, DNA single and double strand breaks at the molecular level in vitro and in vivo. The EMR exposure induces reactive oxygen species and changes the fidelity of genes involved in signal transduction, cytoskeleton formation, and cellular metabolism.
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In this letter, we present some comments related to Pall's publication, in which Pall states that the electric field disappears after a few centimeters and that the magnetic field continues progressing within the studied material.
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Repeated Wi-Fi studies show that Wi-Fi causes oxidative stress, sperm/testicular damage, neuropsychiatric effects including EEG changes, apoptosis, cellular DNA damage, endocrine changes, and calcium overload. Each of these effects are also caused by exposures to other microwave frequency EMFs, with each such effect being documented in from 10 to 16 reviews. Therefore, each of these seven EMF effects are established effects of Wi-Fi and of other microwave frequency EMFs. Each of these seven is also produced by downstream effects of the main action of such EMFs, voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation. While VGCC activation via EMF interaction with the VGCC voltage sensor seems to be the predominant mechanism of action of EMFs, other mechanisms appear to have minor roles. Minor roles include activation of other voltage-gated ion channels, calcium cyclotron resonance and the geomagnetic magnetoreception mechanism. Five properties of non-thermal EMF effects are discussed. These are that pulsed EMFs are, in most cases, more active than are non-pulsed EMFs; artificial EMFs are polarized and such polarized EMFs are much more active than non-polarized EMFs; dose-response curves are non-linear and non-monotone; EMF effects are often cumulative; and EMFs may impact young people more than adults. These general findings and data presented earlier on Wi-Fi effects were used to assess the Foster and Moulder (F&M) review of Wi-Fi. The F&M study claimed that there were seven important studies of Wi-Fi that each showed no effect. However, none of these were Wi-Fi studies, with each differing from genuine Wi-Fi in three distinct ways. F&M could, at most conclude that there was no statistically significant evidence of an effect. The tiny numbers studied in each of these seven F&M-linked studies show that each of them lack power to make any substantive conclusions. In conclusion, there are seven repeatedly found Wi-Fi effects which have also been shown to be caused by other similar EMF exposures. Each of the seven should be considered, therefore, as established effects of Wi-Fi.
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It has been shown that low intensity microwave/lower frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) act in animals via activation of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in the plasma membrane, producing excessive intracellular calcium [Ca²⁺]i, with excessive [Ca²⁺]i leading to both pathophysiological and also in some cases therapeutic effects. The pathophysiological effects are produced largely through excessive [Ca2+]i signaling including excessive nitric oxide (NO), superoxide, peroxynitrite, free radical formation and consequent oxidative stress. The activation of the VGCCs is thought to be produced via EMF impact on the VGCC voltage sensor, with the physical properties of that voltage sensor predicting that it is extraordinarily sensitive to these EMFs. It is shown here that the action of EMFs in terrestrial, multicellular (embryophyte) plants is probably similar to the action in animals in most but not all respects, with calcium channel activation in the plasma membrane leading to excessive [Ca²⁺]i, leading in turn to most if not all of the biological effects. A number of studies in plants are briefly reviewed which are consistent with and supportive of such a mechanism. Plant channels most plausibly to be involved, are the so-called two pore channels (TPCs), which have a voltage sensor similar to those found in the animal VGCCs.
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Chronic diseases and illnesses associated with non-specific symptoms are on the rise. In addition to chronic stress in social and work environments, physical and chemical exposures at home, at work, and during leisure activities are causal or contributing environmental stressors that deserve attention by the general practitioner as well as by all other members of the health care community. It seems necessary now to take "new exposures" like electromagnetic fields (EMF) into account. Physicians are increasingly confronted with health problems from unidentified causes. Studies, empirical observations, and patient reports clearly indicate interactions between EMF exposure and health problems. Individual susceptibility and environmental factors are frequently neglected. New wireless technologies and applications have been introduced without any certainty about their health effects, raising new challenges for medicine and society. For instance, the issue of so-called non-thermal effects and potential long-term effects of low-dose exposure were scarcely investigated prior to the introduction of these technologies. Common electromagnetic field or EMF sources: Radio-frequency radiation (RF) (3 MHz to 300 GHz) is emitted from radio and TV broadcast antennas, Wi-Fi access points, routers, and clients (e.g. smartphones, tablets), cordless and mobile phones including their base stations, and Bluetooth devices. Extremely low frequency electric (ELF EF) and magnetic fields (ELF MF) (3 Hz to 3 kHz) are emitted from electrical wiring, lamps, and appliances. Very low frequency electric (VLF EF) and magnetic fields (VLF MF) (3 kHz to 3 MHz) are emitted, due to harmonic voltage and current distortions, from electrical wiring, lamps (e.g. compact fluorescent lamps), and electronic devices. On the one hand, there is strong evidence that long-term exposure to certain EMFs is a risk factor for diseases such as certain cancers, Alzheimer's disease, and male infertility. On the other hand, the emerging electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is more and more recognized by health authorities, disability administrators and case workers, politicians, as well as courts of law. We recommend treating EHS clinically as part of the group of chronic multisystem illnesses (CMI), but still recognizing that the underlying cause remains the environment. In the beginning, EHS symptoms occur only occasionally, but over time they may increase in frequency and severity. Common EHS symptoms include headaches, concentration difficulties, sleep problems, depression, a lack of energy, fatigue, and flu-like symptoms. A comprehensive medical history, which should include all symptoms and their occurrences in spatial and temporal terms and in the context of EMF exposures, is the key to making the diagnosis. The EMF exposure is usually assessed by EMF measurements at home and at work. Certain types of EMF exposure can be assessed by asking about common EMF sources. It is very important to take the individual susceptibility into account. The primary method of treatment should mainly focus on the prevention or reduction of EMF exposure, that is, reducing or eliminating all sources of high EMF exposure at home and at the workplace. The reduction of EMF exposure should also be extended to public spaces such as schools, hospitals, public transport, and libraries to enable persons with EHS an unhindered use (accessibility measure). If a detrimental EMF exposure is reduced sufficiently, the body has a chance to recover and EHS symptoms will be reduced or even disappear. Many examples have shown that such measures can prove effective. To increase the effectiveness of the treatment, the broad range of other environmental factors that contribute to the total body burden should also be addressed. Anything that supports homeostasis will increase a person's resilience against disease and thus against the adverse effects of EMF exposure. There is increasing evidence that EMF exposure has a major impact on the oxidative and nitrosative regulation capacity in affected individuals. This concept also may explain why the level of susceptibility to EMF can change and why the range of symptoms reported in the context of EMF exposures is so large. Based on our current understanding, a treatment approach that minimizes the adverse effects of peroxynitrite - as has been increasingly used in the treatment of multisystem illnesses - works best. This EMF Guideline gives an overview of the current knowledge regarding EMF-related health risks and provides recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment and accessibility measures of EHS to improve and restore individual health outcomes as well as for the development of strategies for prevention.
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This article identifies adverse effects of non-ionizing non-visible radiation (hereafter called wireless radiation) reported in the premier biomedical literature. It emphasizes that most of the laboratory experiments conducted to date are not designed to identify the more severe adverse effects reflective of the real-life operating environment in which wireless radiation systems operate. Many experiments do not include pulsing and modulation of the carrier signal. The vast majority do not account for synergistic adverse effects of other toxic stimuli (such as chemical and biological) acting in concert with the wireless radiation. This article also presents evidence that the nascent 5 G mobile networking technology will affect not only the skin and eyes, as commonly believed, but will have adverse systemic effects as well.
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The skate, a cartilaginous fish related to sharks and rays, possess a unique electrosensitive sensory organ known as the ampullae of Lorenzini (AoL). This organ is responsible for the detection of weak electric field changes caused by the muscle contractions of their prey. While keratan sulfate (KS) is believed to be a component of a jelly that fills this sensory organ and has been credited with its high proton conductivity, modern analytical methods have not been applied to its characterization. Surprisingly, total glycosaminoglycan (GAG) analysis demonstrates that the KS from skate jelly is extraordinarily pure, containing no other GAGs. This KS had a molecular weight of 20 to 30 kDa, consisting primarily N-linked KS comprised mostly of a monosulfated disaccharide repeating unit, →3) Gal (1→4) GlcNAc6S (1→. Proteomic analysis of AoL jelly suggests that transferrin, keratin and mucin serve as KS core proteins; actin and tropomyosin are responsible for assembling the macrostructure of the jelly; and parvalbumin α-like protein and calreticulin regulate calcium and potassium channels involved in the transduction of the electrical signal, once conducted down the Aol by the jelly, serving as the molecular basis for electroreception.
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Elasmobranch fishes, including sharks, rays, and skates, use specialized electrosensory organs called ampullae of Lorenzini to detect extremely small changes in environmental electric fields. Electrosensory cells within these ampullae can discriminate and respond to minute changes in environmental voltage gradients through an unknown mechanism. Here we show that the voltage-gated calcium channel CaV1.3 and the big conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel are preferentially expressed by electrosensory cells in little skate (Leucoraja erinacea) and functionally couple to mediate electrosensory cell membrane voltage oscillations, which are important for the detection of specific, weak electrical signals. Both channels exhibit unique properties compared with their mammalian orthologues that support electrosensory functions: structural adaptations in CaV1.3 mediate a low-voltage threshold for activation, and alterations in BK support specifically tuned voltage oscillations. These findings reveal a molecular basis of electroreception and demonstrate how discrete evolutionary changes in ion channel structure facilitate sensory adaptation.
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Almost five decades ago, [H. Fröhlich, "Long-range coherence and energy storage in biological systems," Int. J. Quantum Chem. 2(5), 641-649 (1968), H. Fröhlich, "The biological effects of microwaves and related questions," Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 53, 85-152 (1980)] reported, on a theoretical basis, that the excitation of quantum modes of vibration in contact with a thermal reservoir may lead to steady states, where under high enough rate of energy supply, only specific low-frequency modes of vibration are strongly excited. This nonlinear phenomenon was predicted to occur in biomolecular systems, which are known to exhibit complex vibrational spectral properties, especially in the terahertz frequency domain. However, since the effects of terahertz or lower-frequency modes are mainly classical at physiological temperatures, there are serious doubts that Fröhlich's quantum description can be applied to predict such a coherent behavior in a biological environment, as suggested by the author. In addition, a quantum formalism makes the phenomenon hard to investigate using realistic molecular dynamics simulations (MD) as they are usually based on the classical principles. In the current paper, we provide a general classical Hamiltonian description of a nonlinear open system composed of many degrees of freedom (biomolecular structure) excited by an external energy source. It is shown that a coherent behaviour similar to Fröhlich's effect is to be expected in the classical case for a given range of parameter values. Thus, the supplied energy is not completely thermalized but stored in a highly ordered fashion. The connection between our Hamiltonian description, carried out in the space of normal modes, and a more standard treatment in the physical space is emphasized in order to facilitate the prediction of the effect from MD simulations. It is shown how such a coherent phenomenon may induce long-range resonance effects that could be of critical importance at the biomolecular level. The present work is motivated by recent experimental evidences of long-lived excited low-frequency modes in protein structures, which were reported as a consequence of the Fröhlich's effect.
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This paper discusses the possible role of the strong absorption of millimeter (MM) waves by water molecules in the primary mechanism of the response of biological systems to MM radiation. Data are reported on the interaction of MM radiation with simple water systems. The attention is focused on the effect of convective mixing of water solutions under the effect of low intensity (1-10 mW/cm**2) MM waves.