The complex adaptive system has facilitated advances in artificial intelligence (Moon et al., 2011; Padilla, 2012; Chandrasekaran, 2013; Yagüe & Balmaseda; 2020); but it is also a metaphor to understand the way in which the network of companies responds to changes.
In recent decades, the systemic approach has contributed to the advancement of knowledge in administrative, economic and organizational sciences (Mas, 2008; Jackson, 1994).
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