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Global data on earthworm abundance, biomass, diversity and corresponding environmental properties

Authors:
  • Centre for Organic and Regenerative Agriculture / CARE-BIO

Abstract

Earthworms are an important soil taxon as ecosystem engineers, providing a variety of crucial ecosystem functions and services. Little is known about their diversity and distribution at large spatial scales, despite the availability of considerable amounts of local-scale data. Earthworm diversity data, obtained from the primary literature or provided directly by authors, were collated with information on site locations, including coordinates, habitat cover, and soil properties. Datasets were required, at a minimum, to include abundance or biomass of earthworms at a site. Where possible, site-level species lists were included, as well as the abundance and biomass of individual species and ecological groups. This global dataset contains 10,840 sites, with 184 species, from 60 countries and all continents except Antarctica. The data were obtained from 182 published articles, published between 1973 and 2017, and 17 unpublished datasets. Amalgamating data into a single global database will assist researchers in investigating and answering a wide variety of pressing questions, for example, jointly assessing aboveground and belowground biodiversity distributions and drivers of biodiversity change.
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Global data on earthworm
abundance, biomass, diversity
and corresponding environmental
properties
Helen R. P. Phillips et al.#
Earthworms are an important soil taxon as ecosystem engineers, providing a variety of
crucial ecosystem functions and services. Little is known about their diversity and distribution
at large spatial scales, despite the availability of considerable amounts of local-scale data.
Earthworm diversity data, obtained from the primary literature or provided directly by
authors, were collated with information on site locations, including coordinates, habitat
cover, and soil properties. Datasets were required, at a minimum, to include abundance or
biomass of earthworms at a site. Where possible, site-level species lists were included, as
well as the abundance and biomass of individual species and ecological groups. This global
dataset contains 10,840 sites, with 184 species, from 60 countries and all continents except
Antarctica. The data were obtained from 182 published articles, published between 1973
and 2017, and 17 unpublished datasets. Amalgamating data into a single global database
will assist researchers in investigating and answering a wide variety of pressing questions,
for example, jointly assessing aboveground and belowground biodiversity distributions and
drivers of biodiversity change.
Background & Summary
Soils are considered to be one of the most biodiverse terrestrial habitats13. Despite this, very little is known about
the biodiversity that resides there compared to aboveground biodiversity, especially at the global scale1,4,5. is
is surprising given the large number of local-scale biodiversity datasets available in the published literature. A
number of studies have amalgamated local scale datasets, primarily for aboveground or marine organisms e.g.6,7,
which can then be used for large-scale analyses e.g.8,9. Belowground biodiversity data are oen overlooked in
these large biodiversity databases4, and thus separate eorts to collate data are just now starting to emerge for
certain belowground taxa, particularly microbes e.g.10,11.
Earthworms are involved in a large number of ecosystem functions and services, such as decomposition12,
nutrient cycling13 and climate regulation14, amongst others13. In addition, they are oen used as bioindicators
of soil biodiversity and health15. Earthworms are relatively easy to sample; thus, a large amount of data are avail-
able16. Nevertheless, previous attempts to collate earthworm datasets have been geographically restricted17,18 or
focused on country or regional species lists (e.g., DriloBASE; http://taxo.drilobase.org). By collating site-level
diversity measures, we can also collect information on factors that might determine community composition, for
example, measurements of soil properties or land use and cover.
Here, we describe a global database of local earthworm diversity and associated site-level characteristics from
10,840 sites in 60 countries (Fig.1)19. Site-level information includes at least one sampled soil property, land use,
and habitat cover for just over 58% of sites. Measurements of earthworm species richness (including species lists
where available), total abundance, and biomass were collected at the site-level, and for some species occurrences
i.e., abundance and biomass of the species recorded at a site. In addition, using expert opinion and details given by
data providers, we classied each earthworm species into ecological groups based on their feeding and burrowing
behaviours (epigeics, endogeics, anecics, epi-endogeics; more details below20).
#A full list of authors and their aliations appears at the end of the paper.
DATA DESCRIPTOR
OPEN
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e compilation of this dataset is timely. It can be used to answer long-standing questions in ecology in rela-
tion to this important belowground faunal group (e.g., global diversity patterns16). And in light of the IPBES
Global Assessment21 and the loss of biodiversity, the dataset has the potential to be used to address the pressing
issue of the consequences of environmental change on soil biodiversity. ese data are suitable for linking with
other soil databases, such as BETSI (http://betsi.cesab.org/), a database of soil organism traits22. Linking trait
information with site-level diversity would then allow analyses of functional diversity. In addition, as nearly all
sites have geographic coordinates, other environmental data layers (e.g., related to climate variables, land use or
soil abiotic factors) could be linked to the site-level diversity measures (e.g.16,). Belowground diversity measures
could also be linked to similar diversity measurements aboveground, thus enabling investigations across ecosys-
tems to identify patterns of diversity and biodiversity changes23.
Methods
is work was conceptualised and discussed during two ‘sWorm’ workshops in 2016 and 2017, funded by sDiv,
the synthesis centre of the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig. More
than 20 international scientists with expertise in earthworms, soil science, and/or data management met at each
of the workshops.
On 18th December 2016, Web of Science was used to search the available literature for articles that had
sampled the earthworm community. Keywords were used that captured measurements of diversity of all taxa
within Oligochaetes: ((Earthworm* OR Oligochaeta OR Megadril* OR Haplotaxida OR Annelid* OR Lumbric*
OR Clitellat* OR Acanthodrili* OR Ailoscoleci* OR Almid* OR Benhamiin* OR riodrilid* OR Diplocard* OR
Enchytraeid* OR Eudrilid* OR Exxid* OR Glossoscolecid* OR Haplotaxid* OR Hormogastrid* OR Kynotid*
OR Lutodrilid* OR Megascolecid* OR Microchaetid* OR Moniligastrid* OR Ocnerodrilid* OR Octochaet* OR
Sparganophilid* OR Tumakid*) AND (Diversity OR “Species richness” OR “OTU” OR Abundance OR individual*
OR Density OR “tax* richness” OR “Number” OR Richness OR Biomass))
is search returned 7,783 papers. All titles and abstracts of papers post-2000 were screened (6140 papers),
and were excluded if they did not make reference to data suitable for the analysis. As it was most likely that raw
data would need to be requested, papers in the literature search published before 2000 were not screened and
excluded, as it was unlikely that available author contact details were up-to-date. Aer this initial screening, PDFs
of all remaining papers (n = 986) were manually screened to determine whether data were suitable (see below).
477 papers made reference to data that was suitable.
In addition, to nd unpublished data or to target underrepresented regions, inquiries were made to specic
earthworm researchers regarding suitable datasets (e.g., by directly contacting researchers, giving presentations
at the Second Global Soil Biodiversity Conference and the International Symposium of Earthworm Ecology). No
date restrictions were placed on such datasets, and thus, some were published prior to 2000.
In order to be included in the database, the individual article was required to have sampled earthworm diver-
sity using an appropriate quantitative methodology (such as hand-sorting of a soil quadrat e.g.24, or chemical
expulsion e.g.25) at two or more sites that varied in their land-use/habitat cover or soil properties. At a minimum,
we required data on the total abundance or fresh biomass of earthworms at each site, and if possible, the number
of species (ideally with species binomials), and the abundance and biomass of each species. In addition, geo-
graphic coordinates of the sites were required, and at each site, data collectors ideally had sampled at least one of
the following soil properties: soil pH (in H2O, KCl, CaCl2), soil organic carbon (%), soil organic matter (%), sand/
Number Of SitesNumber Of SitesNumber Of SitesNumber Of SitesNumber Of SitesNumber Of Sites
2
100
200
300
400
500
Fig. 1 Locations of the 276 studies included in the database. Each circle represents the centre of a study (a
collection of sites where earthworms were sampled with a consistent method). e size of the circle indicates the
number of sites within the study. Transparency is used only for aiding visualisation.
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silt/clay content (%), soil texture (USDA classication26), Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), Base Saturation (%),
Carbon:Nitrogen ratio, soil moisture (%), and soil type (WRB/FAO classication27).
Where possible, available data were extracted from the suitable articles. For each suitable article, the meta-data
(e.g., the article title and DOI) was compiled (Online-only Table1). Data were extracted from the article text,
tables, gures, or supplementary material (e.g., using ImageJ28). Where data were not given but were required
(Online-only Table2), authors of the articles were contacted and the raw data (or missing information) were
requested. If the authors did not respond, and the required information could not be obtained using an alternate
method, the data were not entered into the database. All data were extracted into online data templates, with data
from one article (i.e., a dataset) being entered into an individual template, referred to as a ‘le’. Each le was given
a unique ID, and in total 199 les were created and made open-access.
A le could contain multiple ‘studies’, where each study was either a dierent sampling event i.e., multiple sam-
ples taken at the same site over time, and/or dierent sampling methodology. Each study was assigned a unique
study ID. Sampled diversity of earthworms is highly dependent on the extraction method used29. If a dataset did
not contain consistent sampling methodologies across all sites (i.e., some sites sampled with hand sorting and
others hand sorting + chemical extraction), thus making it inappropriate to compare earthworm communities,
the dataset was split into a separate study for each consistent methodology. If sites had been sampled multiple
times, either across multiple years or within years, and the data were available for each sampling period, then only
data from the rst and the last sampling period were used. Each sampling period was entered as a study, which
can help prevent temporal autocorrelation during analysis, e.g., when using a mixed-eects modelling approach.
A site was dened as a single location where the earthworm community was sampled using an appropriate
quantitative methodology. Within each study, each site was given a unique ID (usually based on an ID given in
the original source). For each site, information on the sampling methodology, soil properties, and land-use/hab-
itat cover, along with the diversity measurements (site-level species richness, abundance and/or biomass) were
entered into the data template (see Online-only Table2 for full list of variables and the format that was required
for the data template). Where possible, data were entered into the data template in the same format as given in
the original source. To help enable this, columns oen had separate elds to record the units. However, for some
elds, values needed to be standardised prior to data entry, such as for the site coordinates and some soil proper-
ties (e.g., sand/silt/clay content).
All available and required soil properties for each site were entered into the template. Where a site had soil
properties sampled at dierent depths (e.g., at 0–15, 15–30, and 30–40 cm), the weighted average of the values was
entered into the templates. e value was then indicated as being a mean (Online-only Table2).
e elds for habitat cover, land-use, and management system were predened categories based on ESA
CCI-LC (https://www.esa-landcover-cci.org/), the Land-use Harmonization dataset30,31 (Fig.2), and expert opin-
ion (during the sWorm workshops), respectively. ese classication systems were chosen based on knowledge
of what external pressures might be important for explaining earthworm communities, whilst also ensuring con-
sistency across all regions of the globe. Based on information given within the published article, or from the data
providers directly, every site was classied into one of the categories for each of these elds. When information
was missing, sites were classied as “unknown”. Additional information on the land use and management system
classication denitions shown in Tables1 and 2, respectively.
As sampling eort also impacts diversity measurements32, the sampling eort at each site was recorded. Eort
was recorded in two ways:
1. e area that was sampled, e.g., of a quadrat or soil block, or the area across all e.g., quadrats. is depend-
ed on how the data were presented.
2. e number of times a site was sampled, either temporally or spatially. If a site was sampled over multiple
time periods, it would be the number of occasions the site was sampled. If the site had multiple samples
(e.g,, multiple quadrats) and the diversity measure is an average, the sampling eort would be 1. If the
diversity is a total measure (e.g., the total number of species across all quadrats) the sampling eort would
be the total number of e.g., quadrats.
When datasets contained information at a higher resolution than total abundance or biomass of earthworms
at a site (i.e., at ecological group, genus, or species level), this information was entered into the species occurrence
table (Online-only Table3). Each row contained a measurement of an observation (e.g. species, morphospecies,
genus, life stage or ecological group) at a single site. e measurement could be the presence only, abundance,
or fresh biomass of the record. Where possible, for each row we also included the life stage (adult or juvenile),
whether the species was native to the location or not, and the ecological group (epigeic, endogeic, anecic,
epi-endogeic). us, if the diversity measure was for all the juveniles at the site regardless of species, columns such
as the species binomial and genus would be empty, but life stage completed. Every species binomials and ecolog-
ical group assignment were checked using DriloBASE and by earthworm taxonomists (GB, MJIB, MLCB, PL),
see ‘Technical Validation’.
Where site-level diversity measures were given by the data provider, these were entered into the site-level
sheet. Where site-level diversity measures were not given, but could be calculated from the species occurrence
information, that was done in R33, following data entry and prior to subsequent analyses. e species present at
each site, as given in the species occurrence data, were used for calculating species richness, this included species
identied as sub-species. If data collectors identied a specimen as a morphospecies (i.e., a species delineation
based solely on morphological characteristics, typically identied to genus level with a unique ID dierentiating
from other species of the same genus, as determined by the original data collector), it was included in the species
richness estimate as an additional species. Unidentied species grouped as ‘unknown’ were excluded (Fig.3). As
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juveniles of many earthworm species are hard to identify to species level29,34, juveniles were excluded from the
calculation (even identied at family level). All earthworms (including juveniles) found at a site were included in
the total biomass and abundance calculations.
Aer the ecological grouping (epigeic, endogeic, anecic, and epi-endogeic) of each species had been assigned
and/or checked by the earthworm taxonomists, diversity measures within each ecological group at a site were also
calculated. As with the site-level metrics, the species richness within each ecological group was calculated using only
species with binomials or morphospecies. Biomass and abundance of each ecological group at a site was calculated
regardless of species identity. e total number of the ecological groups at each site was calculated regardless of
abundance, biomass, life stage or native status of the species included (maximum ecological group richness = 4).
Data Records
e data presented here are available in the iDiv data portal (https://doi.org/10.25829/idiv.1880-17-3189. Dataset
ID: 1880)19 in a static form. In addition, the full dataset will be hosted by Edaphobase (www.portal.edaphobase).
In the future, the version in Edaphobase might change (i.e., with species names revisions, or requests from the
data providers) and will hopefully be added to with additional earthworm records (or other soil taxa).
0 1000 2000 3000 4000
Primary vegetation
Secondary vegetation
Pasture
Production System
(Arable)
Production System
(Crop plantations)
Production System
(Wood plantation)
Urban
Unknown
Number of sites
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Number of studies (red dots)
0500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
Broadleaf deciduous forest
Broadleaf evergreen forest
Needleleaf deciduous
forest
Needleleaf
evergreen forest
Mixed forest
Tree open
Herbaceous
with spare tree/shrub
Shrub
Herbaceous
Sparse vegetation
Cropland/Other
vegetation mosaic
Urban
Bare area (consolidated)
Bare area (unconsolidated)
Paddy field
Wetland/Herbaceous
Water bodies
Unknown
Number of sites
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Number of studies (red dots)
Fig. 2 e number of sites (grey bars) and the number of studies (red dots) for each category in (a) the land-use
system, and (b) the habitat-cover system. Sites could only be categorised within one category, but studies do
contain sites that span multiple categories.
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e data is stored in three tables; meta-data (Online-only Table1), site-level (Online-only Table2), and spe-
cies occurrence (Online-only Table3). e le ID links the meta-data to the site-level data, and the Study ID and
the Site ID, link the site-level data to the species occurrence table.
Land use category Denition
Primary Relatively undisturbed natural habitat
Secondary Recovering, previously disturbed natural habitat
Pasture Land used for the grazing of livestock
Production - Arable Land used for crop production (e.g., wheat, rice, corn)
Production - Plantations crops Land used for plantations crops (e.g., coee, vineyards, oil palm)
Production – Wood plantations Land used for timber production (e.g., teak)
Urban L and converted to dense urban settlement
Unknown If the land use is not given or is not clear
Tab le 1. Denitions for the land use category. e land use classication was based on the Land-use
Harmonization dataset30,31, to map to the original classication system, ‘Production – Wood plantations’ and
‘Production – Plantation crops’ would be ‘Secondary’ and ‘Production – Arable’ would be ‘Cropland’.
Management Intensity measure Annual crops Integrated sy stems Perennial crops Pastures (grazed lands) Tree plantations
Tillage × ×
Pesticide × × × × ×
Fertilizer × × × × ×
Selectively harvested × ×
Clear cut × ×
Fire × × × × ×
Stocking rate ×
Grazing all-year ×
Rotation × × ×
Monoculture × × × × ×
Planted ×
Tab le 2. A management classication system was created during the sWorm wokshops. For each managed site
(i.e., not natural vegetation) the management system could also be identied (table headers), and additional
management intensity variables could be also captured (table rows). However, not every management intensity
variable was applicable for each management system, thus restrictions were placed. ‘×’ indicates which
management intensity variable was applicable to each management system.
n = 90
n = 44
n = 77 n = 7
n = 30 n = 4
n = 24
Abundance
Richness
Biomass
n = 3666
n = 632
n = 4469
n = 152
n = 1161 n = 296
n = 464
Abundance
Richness
Biomass
Fig. 3 e number of (a) studies and (b) sites that measured each of the three community metrics. e points
at the vertices indicate the number of studies or sites with only one community metric. e points on the edges
indicates the number of studies or sites with the community metrics represented at the connecting two vertices.
Finally, the point in the centre indicates the number of studies or sites with all three community metrics. For
example, in (a), 145 studies measured biomass, shown in the blue polygon. 4 studies measured only biomass,
7 measured biomass and species richness, 44 measured biomass and abundance, and 90 measured all three
metrics.
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For all suitable datasets, the meta-data information was completed. e meta-data contains bibliographic
information on the original paper which analysed, or published, the data, as well as contact information of the
person who provided the raw data (not included in the release of the database for privacy reasons). e meta-data
also included the number of sites and studies within the le, so that validation checks could be completed.
Online-only Table1 shows all elds within the meta-data, personal information of data providers has not been
made available.
Information on all sampled sites within each dataset was recorded in the site-level table (Online-only Table2).
Each row represents a single site within a study, with information on the sampling methodology, soil properties,
and how the land was used, managed, and covered. e site-level earthworm community metrics (species rich-
ness, abundance and biomass) are also included if available.
Site-level species lists, or abundance, and/or biomass measures for individual records are given in the species
occurrence table (Online-only Table1). Each row is a measurement of an observation at a site (22,690 non-zero
observations in total). An observation could relate to a species (with a scientic binomial, e.g., the abundance of
Lumbricus terrestris at a site, or a morphospecies identication), a genus, life stage, ecological group, or native/
non-native group (e.g., the abundance of all non-native species at a site). Details of native/non-native status of a
species was only available when provided by the original data collector.
Technical Validation
Templates used to enter the individual datasets were designed so that elds were only allowed certain values and
formats where possible. is helped to reduce spelling errors, slight inconsistencies, and incorrect values being
entered. Data providers were contacted if details within their raw data were unclear. As multiple people entered
data into the templates, detailed documentation was created at the start of the project to ensure consistency
amongst those involved. In addition, a subset of datasets was checked by several curators.
All earthworm species names were checked against DriloBASE (http://taxo.drilobase.org) to identify potential
synonyms and spelling mistakes. Following that, earthworm specialists and taxonomists (GB, MJIB, MLCB and PL)
checked the scientic names, removed synonyms and updated names if taxonomies had changed. Where ecolog-
ical groupings were missing, the earthworm taxonomists also added them where possible, based on the available
literature.
Usage Notes
Land-use elds were based on classication schemes, and may not be the most suitable for the analysis of earth-
worms. We included a free-text eld (“Habitat as described”) that could be used by future researchers to dene
their own classication scheme for land-use or habitat cover.
As diversity measures are highly inuenced by sampling methodology, we included information on sampling
methods in the database (Fig.4). In addition, we would expect that variation in diversity would dier between the
individual datasets due to, for example, inter-observer variability. We highly recommend that statistical methods
used on this database take these between-dataset variations into account.
Despite our eorts to obtain a global dataset, there is a geographic bias (Fig.1), such that sites are highly clus-
tered in certain regions (e.g., Europe), sparse in others (e.g., South America), or lacking (e.g., southern Africa,
northern Russia). To reduce such biases, we attempted to contact as many researchers as possible in such areas to
acquire data. Although this helped to improve the data coverage, it did not remove the gaps. We hope to address
these gaps in the future, but in the meantime, researchers should be aware of the inuence these biases might have
on their analyses35,36.
0 1000 30005000
Chemical extraction
(Formalin)
Chemical extraction
(Mustard)
Hand sorting
Hand sorting +
Chemical
extraction (Formalin)
Hand sorting +
Chemical extraction (Mustard)
Octet method
(electric shock)
Other
Other Multiple
Unknown
Number of sites
Fig. 4 e number of sites sampled with each sampling method across the dierent earthworm studies.
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Code availability
All code used to format and clean the dataset for publication is available on GitHub (www.github.com/
helenphillips).
Received: 14 August 2020; Accepted: 1 April 2021;
Published: xx xx xxxx
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Acknowledgements
is database and paper are a product of two sWorm workshops at sDiv, the synthesis center at iDiv. We thank M.
Winter and the sDiv team for their help in organizing the sWorm workshops, and the Biodiversity Informatics
Unit (BDU) at iDiv for their assistance in making the data open access. H.R.P.P., B.K-R., and the sWorm workshops
were supported by the sDiv [Synthesis Centre of the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research
(iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig (DFG FZT 118)]. H.R.P.P., O.F. and N.E. acknowledge funding by the European
Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant
agreement no. 677232 to NE). K.S.R. and W.H.v.d.P. were supported by ERC-ADV grant 323020 to W.H.v.d.P.
Also supported by iDiv (DFG FZT118) Flexpool proposal 34600850 (C.A.G. and N.E.); the Academy of Finland
(285882) and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (postdoctoral fellowship and
RGPIN-2019-05758) (E.K.C.); German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (01LO0901A) (D.J.R.);
ERC-AdG 694368 (M.R.); the TULIP Laboratory of Excellence (ANR-10-LABX-41) (M.L); and the BBSRC
David Phillips Fellowship to F.T.d.V. (BB/L02456X/1). In addition, data collection was funded by the Russian
Foundation for Basic Research (12-04-01538-, 12-04-01734-a, 14-44-03666-r_center_a, 15-29-02724-o_m,
8
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16-04-01878-a 19-05-00245, 19-04-00-609-a); Tarbiat Modares University; Aurora Organic Dairy; UGC(NERO)
(F. 1-6/Acctt./NERO/2007-08/1485); Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (RGPIN-2017-
05391); Slovak Research and Development Agency (APVV-0098-12); Science for Global Development through
Wageningen University; Norman Borlaug LEAP Programme and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA);
São Paulo Research Foundation - FAPESP (12/22510-8); Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station; INIA -
Spanish Agency (SUM 2006-00012-00-0); Royal Canadian Geographical Society; Environmental Protection
Agency (Ireland) (2005-S-LS-8); University of Hawai’i at Mānoa (HAW01127H; HAW01123M); European
Union FP7 (FunDivEurope, 265171; ROUTES 265156); U.S. Department of the Navy, Commander Pacic Fleet
(W9126G-13-2-0047); Science and Engineering Research Board (SB/SO/AS-030/2013) Department of Science
and Technology, New Delhi, India; Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) of the
U.S. Department of Defense (RC-1542); Maranhão State Research Foundation (FAPEMA 03135/13, 02471/17);
Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES 3281/2013); Ministry of Education,
Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (LTT17033); Colorado Wheat Research Foundation; Zone Atelier
Alpes, French National Research Agency (ANR-11-BSV7-020-01, ANR-09-STRA-02-01, ANR 06 BIODIV
009-01); Austrian Science Fund (P16027, T441); Landwirtschaliche Rentenbank Frankfurt am Main; Welsh
Government and the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (Project Ref. A AAB 62 03 qA731606);
SÉPAQ, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry of Finland; Science Foundation Ireland (EEB0061); University of
Toronto (Faculty of Forestry); National Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada; Haliburton Forest
& Wildlife Reserve; NKU College of Arts & Sciences Grant; Österreichische Forschungsförderungsgesellscha
(837393 and 837426); Mountain Agriculture Research Unit of the University of Innsbruck; Higher Education
Commission of Pakistan; Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi, Kerala; UNEP/GEF/TSBF-CIAT Project on
Conservation and Sustainable Management of Belowground Biodiversity; Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry
of Finland; Complutense University of Madrid/European Union FP7 project BioBio (FPU UCM 613520);
GRDC; AWI; LWRRDC; DRDC; CONICET (National Scientic and Technical Research Council) and FONCyT
(National Agency of Scientic and Technological Promotion) (PICT, PAE, PIP), Universidad Nacional de Luján y
FONCyT (PICT 2293 (2006)); Fonds de recherche sur la nature et les technologies du Québec (131894); Deutsche
Forschungsgemeinscha (SCHR1000/3-1, SCHR1000/6-1, 6-2 (FOR 1598), WO 670/7-1, WO 670/7-2, & SCHA
1719/1-2), CONACYT (FONDOS MIXTOS TABASCO/PROYECTO11316); NSF (DGE-0549245, DGE-
0549245, DEB-BE-0909452, NSF1241932, LTER Program DEB-97–14835); Institute for Environmental Science
and Policy at the University of Illinois at Chicago; Dean’s Scholar Program at UIC; Garden Club of America Zone
VI Fellowship in Urban Forestry from the Casey Tree Endowment Fund; J.E. Weaver Competitive Grant from the
Nebraska Chapter of e Nature Conservancy; e College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at Depaul University;
Elmore Hadley Award for Research in Ecology and Evolution from the UIC Dept. of Biological Sciences, Spanish
CICYT (AMB96-1161; REN2000-0783/GLO; REN2003-05553/GLO; REN2003-03989/GLO; CGL2007-60661/
BOS); Yokohama National University; MEXT KAKENHI (25220104); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science
KAKENHI (25281053, 17KT0074, 25252026); ADEME (0775C0035); Ministry of Science, Innovation and
Universities of Spain (CGL2017-86926-P); Syngenta Philippines; UPSTREAM; LTSER (Val Mazia/Matschertal);
Marie Sklodowska Curie Postdoctoral Fellowship (747607); National Science & Technology Base Resource
Survey Project of China (2018FY100306); McKnight Foundation (14–168); Program of Fundamental Researches
of Presidium of Russian Academy of Sciences (A-A18–118021490070–5); Brazilian National Council for
Scientic and Technological Development (CNPq 310690/2017–0, 404191/2019–3, 307486/2013–3); French
Ministry of Foreign and European Aairs; Bavarian Ministry for Food, Agriculture and Forestry (Project No B62);
INRA AIDY project; MIUR PRIN 2008; Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station; Estonian Science Foundation;
Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Canada; Russian Science Foundation (16-17-10284); National Natural
Science Foundation of China (41371270); Australian Research Council (FT120100463); USDA Forest Service-
IITF. e authors would like to thank all supervisors, students, collaborators, technicians, data analysts, land
owners/managers, and anyone else involved with the collection, processing, and/or publication of the primary
datasets, both for this manuscript and16. Namely: Peter M. Kotanen, Jessica G. Davis, S.N. Ramanujam, J.M. Julka,
Csaba Csuzdi, P. Bescansa, M. Moriones, C. González, Creighton Litton, Danielle Celentano, Sandriel Sousa,
Samuel James, C. Hakseth, C. Mills, Hirohi Takeda, Sandriel Sousa Costa, Kyungsoo Yoo, Sebastien De Danieli,
Philippe Choler, Pierre Taberlet, Lauric Cecillon, Erwin Meyer, Felix Gerlach, Doris Beutler, Christina Marley,
Rhun Fychan, Ruth Sanderson, Mervi Nieminen, Taisto Sirén, Mariana Alem, Carlos Regalsky, Tara Sackett, Erin
Bayne, Sarah Hamilton, Alexander Rief, Catarina Praxedes, Rosana Sandler, Juliane Palm, Anne Zangerlé, Anne-
Kathrin Schneider, Erwin Zehe, David H. Wise, Liam Heneghan, Yoshikazu Kawaguchi, Irene L. López-Sañudo,
Almudena Mateos, Pilar Meléndez, Raquel Santos, Marta Yebra, Tamara Vsevolodova-Perel, Maxim Bobrovsky,
Natalya Ivanova, Eufemio Rasco Jr., Robert W. Mysłajek, Jianxiong Li, Jiangping Qiu, A. Barne, Antonio Gómez-
Sal, Tanya Handa, Mark Vellend, Hans de Wandeler, Sarah Placella, Lee Frelich, Peter Reich. Open Access funding
enabled and organized by Projekt DEAL.
Author contributions
e sWorm workshops were organised by N.E., E.K.C. and H.R.P.P., with funding acquired by N.E., E.K.C. and
M.P.T. Data collation and formatting was led by H.R.P.P., with assistance from J.K., M.J.I.B., G.B., K.B.G. and
B.S. Harmonisation of earthworm species names was completed by G.B., M.J.I.B., M.L.C.B. and P.L. Advice and
feedback on data collation protocols was provided by E.M.B., M.J.I.B., G.B., O.F., C.A.G., B.K.R., A.O., D.R.,
and D.H.W. Writing of the manuscript was led by H.R.P.P. All authors provided input and comments on the
manuscript. e majority of authors provided data to the database.
Competing interests
e authors declare no competing interests.
9
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© e Author(s) 2021
Helen R. P. Phillips
1,2,3 ✉ , Elizabeth M. Bach4,5, Marie L. C. Bartz6,7, Joanne M. Bennett
1,8,9,
Rémy Beugnon1,2, Maria J. I. Briones10, George G. Brown
11, Olga Ferlian1,2,
Konstantin B. Gongalsky12,13, Carlos A. Guerra1,8, Birgitta König-Ries1,14, Julia J. Krebs1,2,
Alberto Orgiazzi
15, Kelly S. Ramirez16, David J. Russell17, Benjamin Schwarz18,
Diana H. Wall
4,5, Ulrich Brose1,19, Thibaud Decaëns20, Patrick Lavelle21, Michel Loreau22,
Jérôme Mathieu23,24, Christian Mulder
25, Wim H. van der Putten
16,26, Matthias C. Rillig
27,
Madhav P. Thakur
16, Franciska T. de Vries
28, David A. Wardle29, Christian Ammer
30,31,
Sabine Ammer32, Miwa Arai33, Fredrick O. Ayuke34,35, Geo H. Baker36, Dilmar Baretta37,
Dietmar Barkusky38, Robin Beauséjour39, Jose C. Bedano40, Klaus Birkhofer41,
Eric Blanchart42, Bernd Blossey43, Thomas Bolger44,45, Robert L. Bradley39, Michel Brossard42,
James C. Burtis46, Yvan Capowiez47, Timothy R. Cavagnaro48, Amy Choi49, Julia Clause50,
Daniel Cluzeau51, Anja Coors52, Felicity V. Crotty53,54, Jasmine M. Crumsey55,
Andrea Dávalos56, Darío J. Díaz Cosín57, Annise M. Dobson58, Anahí Domínguez
40,
Andrés Esteban Duhour59, Nick van Eekeren60, Christoph Emmerling61, Liliana B. Falco62,
Rosa Fernández63, Steven J. Fonte
64, Carlos Fragoso65, André L. C. Franco66,
Abegail Fusilero67,68, Anna P. Geraskina69, Shaieste Gholami70, Grizelle González
71,
Michael J. Gundale72, Mónica Gutiérrez López57, Branimir K. Hackenberger73,
Davorka K. Hackenberger73, Luis M. Hernández74, Je R. Hirth75, Takuo Hishi76,
Andrew R. Holdsworth77, Martin Holmstrup78, Kristine N. Hopfensperger79,
Esperanza Huerta Lwanga
80,81, Veikko Huhta82, Tunsisa T. Hurisso64,83, Basil V. Iannone III84,
Madalina Iordache85, Ulrich Irmler86, Mari Ivask87, Juan B. Jesús57, Jodi L. Johnson-Maynard88,
Monika Joschko38, Nobuhiro Kaneko89, Radoslava Kanianska90, Aidan M. Keith
91,
Maria L. Kernecker92, Armand W. Koné
93, Yahya Kooch94, Sanna T. Kukkonen95,
H. Lalthanzara96, Daniel R. Lammel27, Iurii M. Lebedev12,13,97, Edith Le Cadre98,
Noa K. Lincoln99, Danilo López-Hernández100, Scott R. Loss101, Raphael Marichal102,
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Lindsey Norgrove112, Marta Novo57, Visa Nuutinen113, Victoria Nuzzo114, P. Mujeeb
Rahman115, Johan Pansu116,117, Shishir Paudel101,118, Guénola Pérès51,119, Lorenzo Pérez-
Camacho120, Jean-François Ponge
121, Jörg Prietzel
122, Irina B. Rapoport
123,
Muhammad Imtiaz Rashid
124, Salvador Rebollo
120, Miguel Á. Rodríguez125,
Alexander M. Roth126,127, Guillaume X. Rousseau74,128, Anna Rozen129, Ehsan Sayad70,
Loes van Schaik81, Bryant Scharenbroch130,131, Michael Schirrmann132, Olaf Schmidt
133,134,
Boris Schröder135, Julia Seeber136,137, Maxim P. Shashkov
138,139, Jaswinder Singh140,
Sandy M. Smith49, Michael Steinwandter137, Katalin Szlavecz141, José Antonio Talavera142,
Dolores Trigo57, Jiro Tsukamoto143, Sheila Uribe-López144, Anne W. de Valença145,
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1German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Puschstrasse 4, 04103, Leipzig,
Germany. 2Institute of Biology, Leipzig University, Puschstrasse 4, 04103, Leipzig, Germany. 3Department of
Environmental Science, Saint Mary’s University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. 4Global Soil Biodiversity Initiative and
School of Global Environmental Sustainability, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 80523, USA. 5Department
of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 80523, USA. 6Universidade Positivo, Rua Prof. Pedro Viriato
Parigot de Souza, 5300, Curitiba, PR, 81280-330, Brazil. 7Center of Functional Ecology, Department of Life Sciences,
University of Coimbra, Calçada Martins de Freitas, 3000-456, Coimbra, Portugal. 8Institute of Biology, Martin Luther
University Halle-Wittenberg, Am Kirchtor 1, 06108, Halle (Saale), Germany. 9Centre for Applied Water Science,
Institute for Applied Ecology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Canberra, Canberra, Australia.
10Departamento de Ecología y Biología Animal, Universidad de Vigo, 36310, Vigo, Spain. 11Embrapa Forestry, Estrada
da Ribeira, km. 111, C.P. 231, Colombo, PR, 83411-000, Brazil. 12A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky pr., 33, Moscow, 119071, Russia. 13M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State
University, Leninskie Gory, 1, Moscow, 119991, Russia. 14Institute of Computer Science, Friedrich Schiller University
Jena, Ernst-Abbe-Platz 2, 07743, Jena, Germany. 15European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra, Italy.
16Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), 6700, Wageningen, AB, The
Netherlands. 17Senckenberg Museum for Natural History Görlitz, Department of Soil Zoology, 02826, Görlitz,
Germany. 18Biometry and Environmental System Analysis, University of Freiburg, Tennenbacher Str. 4, 79106,
Freiburg, Germany. 19Institute of Biodiversity, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Dornburger-Str. 159, 07743, Jena,
Germany. 20CEFE, Univ Montpellier, CNRS, EPHE, IRD, Univ Paul Valéry Montpellier 3, Montpellier, France.
21Sorbonne Université, Institut d’Ecologie et des Sciences de l’Environnement, 75005, Paris, France. 22Centre for
Biodiversity Theory and Modelling, Theoretical and Experimental Ecology Station, CNRS, 09200, Moulis, France.
23Sorbonne Université, Institute of Ecology and Environmental Sciences of Paris (UMR 7618 IEES-Paris, CNRS, INRA,
UPMC, IRD, UPEC), 4 place Jussieu, 75000, Paris, France. 24INRA, IRD, Institut d’Ecologie et des Sciences de
l’Environnement de Paris, F-75005, Paris, France. 25Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental
Sciences, University of Catania, Via Androne 81, 95124, Catania, Italy. 26Laboratory of Nematology, Wageningen
University, PO Box 8123, 6700, Wageningen, ES, The Netherlands. 27Institute of Biology, Freie Universität Berlin,
14195, Berlin, Germany. 28Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam,
The Netherlands. 29Asian School of the Environment, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 639798,
Singapore. 30Centre of Biodiversity and Sustainable Landuse, University of Göttingen, Büsgenweg 1, Göttingen,
Germany. 31Silviculture and Forest Ecology of the Temperate Zones, University of Göttingen, Büsgenweg 1,
Göttingen, Germany. 32Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology, University of Göttingen, Büsgenweg 1, Göttingen,
Germany. 33Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, 3-1-3
Kan-nondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. 34Land Resource Management and Agricultural Technology, University of
Nairobi, Kapenguria Road, O Naivasha Road, P.O Box 29053, Nairobi, Kenya. 35Rwanda Institute for Conservation
Agriculture, KG 541, Kigali, Rwanda. 36Health & Biosecurity, CSIRO, PO Box 1700, Canberra, Australia. 37Department
of Animal Science, Santa Catarina State University, Chapecó, SC, 89815-630, Brazil. 38Experimental Infrastructure
Platform (EIP), Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research, Eberswalder Str. 84, Müncheberg, Germany.
39Départment de biologie, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada. 40Geology Department,
FCEFQyN, ICBIA-CONICET (National Scientic and Technical Research Council), National University of Rio Cuarto,
Ruta 36 Km, 601, Río Cuarto, Argentina. 41Department of Ecology, Brandenburg University of Technology, Konrad-
Wachsmann-Allee 6, Cottbus, Germany. 42Eco&Sols, Univ Montpellier, IRD, INRAE, CIRAD, Institut Agro, Montpellier,
France. 43Natural Resources, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. 44Earth Institute, University College Dublin, Beleld,
Dublin, 4, Ireland. 45School of Biology and Environmental Science, University College Dublin, Beleld, Dublin, Ireland.
46Department of Entomology, Cornell University, 3132, Comstock Hall, Ithaca, NY, USA. 47EMMAH, UMR 1114,
INRA, Site Agroparc, Avignon, France. 48The School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The Waite Research Institute, The
University of Adelaide, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, Australia. 49Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto, 33 Willcocks
Street, Toronto, Canada. 50Laboratoire Écologie et Biologie des Interactions, équipe EES, UMR CNRS 7267,
Université de Poitiers, 5 rue Albert Turpain, Poitiers, France. 51UMR ECOBIO (Ecosystems, Biodiversity, Evolution)
CNRS-Université de Rennes, Station Biologique, 35380, Paimpont, France. 52ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH,
Boettgerstr. 2-14, Floersheim, Germany. 53Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth
Universtiy, Plas Gogerddan, Aberystwyth, SY24 3EE, United Kingdom. 54School for Agriculture, Food and the
Environment, Royal Agricultural University, Stroud Road, Cirencester, GL7 6JS, United Kingdom. 55Odum School of
Ecology, University of Georgia, 140 E Green Street, Athens, USA. 56Department of Biological Sciencies, SUNY
Cortland, 1215 Bowers Hall, Cortland, USA. 57Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolution, Faculty of Biology, University
Complutense of Madrid, José Antonio Novais, 12, Madrid, Spain. 58Yale School of the Environment, Yale University,
370 Prospect St, New Haven, CT, USA. 59Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Nacional de Luján,
Argentina - INEDES (Universidad Nacional de Luján - CONICET), Luján, Argentina. 60Louis Bolk Institute, Kosterijland
3-5, Bunnik, The Netherlands. 61Department of Soil Science, University of Trier, Campus II, Behringstraße 21, Trier,
Germany. 62Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Instituto de Ecología y Desarrollo Sustentable, Universidad Nacional
de Luján, Av. Constitución y Ruta 5, Luján, Argentina. 63Animal Biodiversity and Evolution, Institute of Evolutionary
Biology, Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta 37, Barcelona, Spain. 64Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Colorado
State University, 1170 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO, USA. 65Biodiversity and Systematic Network, Institute of
Ecology A.C., El Haya, Xalapa, Veracruz, 91070, Mexico. 66Department of Biology, Colorado State University, 200
West Lake Street, Fort Collins, CO, USA. 67Department of Biological Sciences and Environmental Studies, University
of the Philippines Mindanao, Tugbok District, Davao, Philippines. 68Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and
Aquatic Ecology, Environmental Toxicology Unit - GhEnToxLab, Ghent University, Campus Coupure, Coupure Links
653, Ghent, Belgium. 69Center for Forest Ecology and Productivity RAS, Profsoyuznaya st. 84/32 bldg. 14, Moscow,
Russia. 70Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. 71United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, International
Institute of Tropical Forestry, 1201 Ceiba Street, San Juan, Puerto Rico. 72Department of Forest Ecology and
11
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Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skogsmarksgrand 17, 901 83, Umeå, Sweden.
73Department of Biology, University of Osijek, Cara Hadrijana 8 A, Osijek, Croatia. 74Agriculture engineering,
Agroecology Postgraduate Program, Maranhão State University, Avenida Lourenço Vieira da Silva 1000, São Luis,
Brazil. 75Department of Jobs, Precincts and Regions, Agriculture Victoria, Chiltern Valley Road, Rutherglen, Australia.
76Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 394 Tsubakuro, Sasaguri, Fukuoka, 811-2415, Japan. 77Minnesota
Pollution Control Agency, 520 Lafayette Road, St Paul, MN, USA. 78Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University,
Vejlsøvej 25, Aarhus, Denmark. 79Department of Biological Science, Northern Kentucky University, 1 Nunn Drive,
Highland Heights, KY, USA. 80Agricultura Sociedad y Ambiente, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Av. Polígono s/n Cd.
Industrial Lerma, Campeche, Campeche, Mexico. 81Soil Physics and Land Management Group, Wageningen
University & Research, Droevendaalsteeg 4, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 82Dept. of Biological and Environmental
Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Box 35, Jyväskylä, Finland. 83College of Agriculture, Environmental and Human
Sciences, Lincoln University of Missouri, Jefferson City, MO, 65101, USA. 84School of Forest Resources and
Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA. 85Sustainable Development and Environmental Engineering,
University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Banat “King Michael the 1st of Romania” from
Timisoara, Calea Aradului 119, Timisoara, Romania. 86Institute for Ecosystem Research, University of Kiel,
Olshausenstrasse 40, 24098, Kiel, Germany. 87Tartu College, Tallinn University of Technology, Puiestee 78, Tartu,
Estonia. 88Department of Soil and Water Systems, University of Idaho, 875 Perimeter Drive MS, 2340, Moscow, USA.
89Faculty of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Fukushima University, Kanayagawa 1, Fukushima, Japan. 90Department
of Environment, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Matej Bel University, Tajovského 40, Banská Bystrica, Slovakia. 91UK
Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, United Kingdom. 92Land Use and Governance,
Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research, Eberswalder Str. 84, Müncheberg, Germany. 93UFR Sciences de
la Nature, UR Gestion Durable des Sols, Université Nangui Abrogoua, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. 94Faculty of Natural
Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, 46417-76489, Noor, Mazandaran, Iran. 95Production
Systems, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Survontie 9 A, Jyväskylä, Finland. 96Department of Zoology,
Pachhunga University College, Aizawl, Mizoram, India. 97Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, 30-1 Bolshoy
Boulevard, Moscow, 121205, Russia. 98SAS, INRAE, Institut Agro, 35042, Rennes, France. 99Tropical Plant and Soil
Sciences, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawai’i at Manoa, 3190 Maile Way, St.
John 102, Honolulu, USA. 100Ecologia Aplicada, Instituto de Zoologia y Ecologia Tropical, Universidad Central de
Venezuela, Los Chaguaramos, Ciudad Universitaria, Caracas, Venezuela. 101Department of Natural Resource Ecology
and Management, Oklahoma State University, 008C, Ag Hall, Stillwater, USA. 102UPR Systèmes de Pérennes, CIRAD,
Univ Montpellier, TA B-34/02 Avenue Agropolis, Montpellier, France. 103Department of Forest Ecology, Faculty of
Forestry and Wood Technology, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, Prague, Czech Republic.
104Tochigi Prefectural Museum, 2-2 Mutsumi-cho, Utsunomiya, Japan. 105Thuenen-Institute of Biodiversity,
Bundesallee 65, Braunschweig, Germany. 106Thuenen-Institute of Organic Farming, Trenthorst 32, Westerau,
Germany. 107Plant Biology, Ecology and Earth Science, INDEHESA, University of Extremadura, Plasencia, Spain.
108Conservación de la Biodiversidad, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Av. Rancho, poligono 2 A, Cd. Industrial de Lerma,
Campeche, Mexico. 109Department of Environmental Systems Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Doshisha
University, Kyoto, 602-8580, Japan. 110Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences, Division of Forest, Nature
and Landscape, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200E Box, 2411, Leuven, Belgium. 111Research Institute for Nature and
Forest, Gaverstraat 35, 9500, Geraardsbergen, Belgium. 112School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences, Bern
University of Applied Sciences, Länggasse 85, Zollikofen, Switzerland. 113Soil Ecosystems, Natural Resources
Institute Finland (Luke), Tietotie 4, Jokioinen, Finland. 114Natural Area Consultants, 1 West Hill School Road, Richford,
NY, USA. 115Department of Zoology, PSMO College, Tirurangadi, Malappuram, Kerala, India, Malappuram, India.
116CSIRO Ocean and Atmosphere, CSIRO, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, NSW, Australia. 117UMR7144
Adaptation et Diversité en Milieu Marin, Station Biologique de Rosco, CNRS/Sorbonne Université, Place Georges
Teissier, Rosco, France. 118Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA. 119UMR SAS,
INRAE, Institut Agro Agrocampus Ouest, 35000, Rennes, France. 120Forest Ecology and Restoration Group,
Department of Life Sciences, University of Alcalá, 28805, Alcalá De Henares, Spain. 121Adaptations du Vivant, CNRS
UMR 7179, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, 4 Avenue du Petit Château, Brunoy, France. 122Department of
Ecology and Ecosystem Management, Technical University of Munich, Emil-Ramann-Str. 2, 85354, Freising,
Germany. 123Tembotov Institute of Ecology of Mountain Territories, Russian Academy of Sciences, I. Armand, 37a,
Nalchik, Russia. 124Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, P.O Box 80216, Jeddah,
21589, Saudi Arabia. 125Global Change Ecology and Evolution Research Group (GloCEE), Department of Life
Sciences, University of Alcalá, 28805, Alcalá De Henares, Spain. 126Department of Forest Resources, University of
Minnesota, 1530, Cleveland Ave. N, St. Paul, USA. 127Friends of the Mississippi River, 101 E 5th St. Suite 2000, St Paul,
USA. 128Biology, Biodiversity and Conservation Postgraduate Program, Federal University of Maranhão, Avenida dos
Portugueses 1966, São Luis, Brazil. 129Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7,
Kraków, Poland. 130College of Natural Resources, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, WI, 54481, USA. 131The
Morton Arboretum, 4100 Illinois Route 53, Lisle, IL, 60532, USA. 132Department Engineering for Crop Production,
Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy (ATB), Max-Eyth-Allee 100, Potsdam, Germany.
133School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Agriculture and Food Science Centre, Dublin,
Ireland. 134UCD Earth Institute, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. 135Landscape Ecology and Environmental
Systems Analysis, Institute of Geoecology, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Langer Kamp 19c, Braunschweig,
Germany. 136Department of Ecology, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, Innsbruck, Austria. 137Institute for
Alpine Environment, Eurac Research, Viale Druso 1, Bozen/Bolzano, Italy. 138Laboratory of Ecosystem Modelling,
Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Institutskaya str., 2, Pushchino, Russia. 139Laboratory of Computational Ecology, Institute of Mathematical Problems
of Biology RAS – the Branch of Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Vitkevicha str., 1, Pushchino, Russia. 140Department of Zoology, Khalsa College Amritsar, Amritsar, Punjab, India.
12
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141Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, USA.
142Department of animal biology, edaphology and geology, Faculty of Sciences (Biology), University of La Laguna, La
Laguna, Santa Cruz De Tenerife, Spain. 143Forest Science, Kochi University, Monobe Otsu 200, Nankoku, Japan.
144Juárez Autonomous University of Tabasco, Nanotechnology Engineering, Multidisciplinary Academic Division of
Jalpa de Méndez, Carr. Estatal libre Villahermosa-Comalcalco, Km 27 S/N, C.P. 86205 Jalpa de Méndez, Tabasco,
Mexico. 145Unit Food & Agriculture, WWF-Netherlands, Driebergseweg 10, Zeist, The Netherlands. 146Dpto. Ciencias,
IS-FOOD, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Edicio Olivos - Campus Arrosadia, Pamplona, Spain. 147Department of
Soil, Water and Climate, University of Minnesota, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, St Paul, USA. 148Earth Innovation
Institute, 98 Battery Street Suite 250, San Francisco, USA. 149University of California Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis,
USA. 150Natural Resources & Environmental Management, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1910 East West Rd,
Honolulu, USA. 151Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, 21111 Lakeshore Road, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue,
Canada. 152The Nature Conservancy, 4245 Fairfax Drive, Arlington, USA. 153Animal Ecology, Justus Liebig University,
Heinrich-Bu-Ring 26, Giessen, Germany. 154Institute of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, Southwest Minzu University,
Chengdu, China. 155Laboratory of terrestrial ecosystems, Federal Research Centre “Kola Science Centre of the
Russian Academy of Sciences”, Institute of North Industrial Ecology Problems (INEP KSC RAS), Akademgorodok,
14a, Apatity, Murmansk, Province, Russia. 156Key Laboratory of Geospatial Technology for the Middle and Lower
Yellow River Regions (Henan University), Ministry of Education, College of Environment and Planning, Henan
University, Kaifeng, China. 157Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Post Office Box 65, FI 00014,
University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. 158These authors contributed equally: Erin K. Cameron, Nico Eisenhauer.
e-mail: helen.phillips@smu.ca
... However, building a land-use intensification index and matching it with soil macrofauna data would be very valuable to establish baselines to which farmers and managers could refer. We will use the land management information data from the database (e.g., fertilizers, pesticides, tillage, inputs, irrigation) and existing indexes of land-use intensity (Fischer et al. 2010, Blüthgen et al. 2012 to build a multivariate index reflecting the major management options: tillage, inputs, fertilizers, irrigation, taking into account the nature, the amount and the frequency of the management (Decaëns & Jiménez 2002, Phillips et al. 2021. Because management options differ strongly from one land-use type to the other, we will first build separate land-use intensity gradients for the different land-use systems, and as a second step, see how they can be combined in one unified index. ...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding global biodiversity change, its drivers, and the ecosystem consequences requires a better appreciation of both the factors that shape soil macrofauna communities and the ecosystem effects of these organisms. The project "sOilFauna" was funded by the synthesis center sDiv (Germany) to address this major gap by forming a community of soil ecologists, identifying the most pressing research questions and hypotheses, as well as conducting a series of workshops to foster the global synthesis and hypothesis testing of soil macrofauna. The overarching goal is to analyze the most comprehensive soil macrofauna database-the MACROFAUNA database-which collates abundance data of 17 soil invertebrate groups assessed with a standardized method at 7180 sites around the world, and seeks to foster the collection of future data. In a recent kick-off workshop in May 2022, the first research priorities and collaboration guidelines were determined. Here, we summarize the main outcomes of this workshop and highlight the benefits of creating an open global community of soil ecologists providing standardized soil macrofauna data for future research, evaluation of ecosystem health, and nature protection. 94 (2) · August 2022
University of Toronto (Faculty of Forestry); National Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada; Haliburton Forest & Wildlife Reserve; NKU College of Arts & Sciences Grant
  • Ministry Sépaq
  • Of Agriculture
  • Forestry
  • Finland
SÉPAQ, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry of Finland; Science Foundation Ireland (EEB0061); University of Toronto (Faculty of Forestry); National Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada; Haliburton Forest & Wildlife Reserve; NKU College of Arts & Sciences Grant; Österreichische Forschungsförderungsgesellschaft (837393 and 837426);
Competitive Grant from the Nebraska Chapter of The Nature Conservancy; The College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at Depaul University
  • J E Weaver
J.E. Weaver Competitive Grant from the Nebraska Chapter of The Nature Conservancy; The College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at Depaul University;
24 INRA, IRD, Institut d'Ecologie et des Sciences de l'Environnement de Paris, F-75005
  • Cnrs Iees-Paris
  • Inra
  • Upmc
  • Ird
Sorbonne Université, Institute of Ecology and Environmental Sciences of Paris (UMR 7618 IEES-Paris, CNRS, INRA, UPMC, IRD, UPEC), 4 place Jussieu, 75000, Paris, France. 24 INRA, IRD, Institut d'Ecologie et des Sciences de l'Environnement de Paris, F-75005, Paris, France. 25 Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania, Via Androne 81, 95124, Catania, Italy. 26 Laboratory of Nematology, Wageningen University, PO Box 8123, 6700, Wageningen, ES, The Netherlands. 27 Institute of Biology, Freie Universität Berlin, 14195, Berlin, Germany. 28 Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the netherlands. 29 Asian School of the Environment, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 639798, Singapore. 30 Centre of Biodiversity and Sustainable Landuse, University of Göttingen, Büsgenweg 1, Göttingen, Germany. 31 Silviculture and Forest Ecology of the Temperate Zones, University of Göttingen, Büsgenweg 1, Göttingen, Germany. 32 Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology, University of Göttingen, Büsgenweg 1, Göttingen, Germany. 33 Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, 3-1-3
35 Rwanda Institute for Conservation Agriculture
  • Kan-Nondai
  • Tsukuba
  • Japan Ibaraki
Kan-nondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. 34 Land Resource Management and Agricultural Technology, University of Nairobi, Kapenguria Road, Off Naivasha Road, P.O Box 29053, Nairobi, Kenya. 35 Rwanda Institute for Conservation Agriculture, KG 541, Kigali, Rwanda. 36 Health & Biosecurity, CSIRO, PO Box 1700, Canberra, Australia. 37 Department of Animal Science, Santa Catarina State University, Chapecó, SC, 89815-630, Brazil. 38 Experimental Infrastructure Platform (EIP), Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research, Eberswalder Str. 84, Müncheberg, Germany.
88 Department of Soil and Water Systems, University of Idaho, 875 Perimeter Drive MS, 2340, Moscow, USA. 89 Faculty of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Fukushima University, Kanayagawa 1, Fukushima, Japan. 90 Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Sciences
  • West Lake
  • Fort Street
  • Collins
  • Usa Co
West Lake Street, Fort Collins, CO, USA. 67 Department of Biological Sciences and Environmental Studies, University of the Philippines Mindanao, Tugbok District, Davao, Philippines. 68 Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Environmental Toxicology Unit -GhEnToxLab, Ghent University, Campus Coupure, Coupure Links 653, Ghent, Belgium. 69 Center for Forest Ecology and Productivity RAS, Profsoyuznaya st. 84/32 bldg. 14, Moscow, Russia. 70 Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. 71 United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, International Institute of Tropical Forestry, 1201 Ceiba Street, San Juan, Puerto Rico. 72 Department of forest ecology and Scientific Data | (2021) 8:136 | https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00912-z www.nature.com/scientificdata www.nature.com/scientificdata/ Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skogsmarksgrand 17, 901 83, Umeå, Sweden. 73 Department of Biology, University of Osijek, Cara Hadrijana 8 A, Osijek, Croatia. 74 Agriculture engineering, Agroecology Postgraduate Program, Maranhão State University, Avenida Lourenço Vieira da Silva 1000, São Luis, Brazil. 75 Department of Jobs, Precincts and Regions, Agriculture Victoria, Chiltern Valley Road, Rutherglen, Australia. 76 Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 394 Tsubakuro, Sasaguri, Fukuoka, 811-2415, Japan. 77 Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, 520 Lafayette Road, St Paul, MN, USA. 78 Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, Aarhus, Denmark. 79 Department of Biological Science, Northern Kentucky University, 1 Nunn Drive, Highland Heights, KY, USA. 80 Agricultura Sociedad y Ambiente, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Av. Polígono s/n Cd. Industrial Lerma, Campeche, Campeche, Mexico. 81 Soil Physics and Land Management Group, Wageningen University & Research, Droevendaalsteeg 4, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 82 Dept. of Biological and environmental Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Box 35, Jyväskylä, Finland. 83 College of Agriculture, Environmental and Human Sciences, Lincoln University of Missouri, Jefferson City, MO, 65101, USA. 84 School of forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA. 85 Sustainable Development and Environmental Engineering, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Banat "King Michael the 1st of Romania" from Timisoara, Calea Aradului 119, Timisoara, Romania. 86 Institute for Ecosystem Research, University of Kiel, Olshausenstrasse 40, 24098, Kiel, Germany. 87 Tartu College, Tallinn University of Technology, Puiestee 78, Tartu, estonia. 88 Department of Soil and Water Systems, University of Idaho, 875 Perimeter Drive MS, 2340, Moscow, USA. 89 Faculty of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Fukushima University, Kanayagawa 1, Fukushima, Japan. 90 Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Matej Bel University, Tajovského 40, Banská Bystrica, Slovakia. 91 UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, United Kingdom. 92 Land Use and Governance, Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research, Eberswalder Str. 84, Müncheberg, Germany. 93 UFR Sciences de la Nature, UR Gestion Durable des Sols, Université Nangui Abrogoua, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. 94 faculty of natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, 46417-76489, Noor, Mazandaran, Iran. 95 Production Systems, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Survontie 9 A, Jyväskylä, Finland. 96 Department of Zoology, Pachhunga University College, Aizawl, Mizoram, India. 97 Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, 30-1 Bolshoy Boulevard, Moscow, 121205, Russia. 98 SAS, INRAE, Institut Agro, 35042, Rennes, France. 99 Tropical Plant and Soil Sciences, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawai'i at Manoa, 3190 Maile Way, St. John 102, Honolulu, USA. 100 Ecologia Aplicada, Instituto de Zoologia y Ecologia Tropical, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Los Chaguaramos, Ciudad Universitaria, Caracas, Venezuela. 101 Department of natural Resource ecology and Management, Oklahoma State University, 008C, Ag Hall, Stillwater, USA. 102 UPR Systèmes de Pérennes, CIRAD, Univ Montpellier, TA B-34/02 Avenue Agropolis, Montpellier, France. 103 Department of Forest Ecology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, Prague, Czech Republic.
110 Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences, Division of Forest
  • Landscape
  • Ku Leuven
Conservación de la Biodiversidad, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Av. Rancho, poligono 2 A, Cd. Industrial de Lerma, Campeche, Mexico. 109 Department of Environmental Systems Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyoto, 602-8580, Japan. 110 Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences, Division of Forest, Nature and Landscape, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200E Box, 2411, Leuven, Belgium. 111 Research institute for nature and Forest, Gaverstraat 35, 9500, Geraardsbergen, Belgium. 112 School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences, Bern University of Applied Sciences, Länggasse 85, Zollikofen, Switzerland. 113 Soil Ecosystems, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Tietotie 4, Jokioinen, Finland. 114 Natural Area Consultants, 1 West Hill School Road, Richford, NY, USA. 115 Department of Zoology, PSMO College, Tirurangadi, Malappuram, Kerala, India, Malappuram, India.
122 Department of Ecology and Ecosystem Management, Technical University of Munich, Emil-Ramann-Str. 2, 85354, Freising, Germany. 123 Tembotov Institute of Ecology of Mountain Territories, Russian Academy of Sciences, I. Armand, 37a
  • Csiro Ocean
  • Atmosphere
  • New Csiro
  • Lucas Illawarra Road
  • Heights
  • Australia Nsw
CSIRO Ocean and Atmosphere, CSIRO, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, NSW, Australia. 117 UMR7144 Adaptation et Diversité en Milieu Marin, Station Biologique de Roscoff, CNRS/Sorbonne Université, Place Georges Teissier, Roscoff, France. 118 Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA. 119 UMR SAS, INRAE, Institut Agro Agrocampus Ouest, 35000, Rennes, France. 120 Forest Ecology and Restoration Group, Department of Life Sciences, University of Alcalá, 28805, Alcalá De Henares, Spain. 121 Adaptations du Vivant, CNRS UMR 7179, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 4 Avenue du Petit Château, Brunoy, France. 122 Department of Ecology and Ecosystem Management, Technical University of Munich, Emil-Ramann-Str. 2, 85354, Freising, Germany. 123 Tembotov Institute of Ecology of Mountain Territories, Russian Academy of Sciences, I. Armand, 37a, Nalchik, Russia. 124 Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, P.O Box 80216, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia. 125 Global Change Ecology and Evolution Research Group (GloCEE), Department of Life Sciences, University of Alcalá, 28805, Alcalá De Henares, Spain. 126 Department of Forest Resources, University of Minnesota, 1530, Cleveland Ave. N, St. Paul, USA. 127 Friends of the Mississippi River, 101 E 5th St. Suite 2000, St Paul, USA. 128 Biology, Biodiversity and Conservation Postgraduate Program, Federal University of Maranhão, Avenida dos Portugueses 1966, São Luis, Brazil. 129 Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, Kraków, Poland. 130 College of Natural Resources, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, WI, 54481, USA. 131 the Morton Arboretum, 4100 Illinois Route 53, Lisle, IL, 60532, USA. 132 Department Engineering for Crop Production, Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy (ATB), Max-Eyth-Allee 100, Potsdam, Germany.
139 Laboratory of Computational Ecology, Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology RAS -the Branch of Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vitkevicha str., 1, Pushchino, Russia. 140 Department of Zoology
School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Agriculture and Food Science Centre, Dublin, ireland. 134 UCD Earth Institute, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. 135 Landscape Ecology and Environmental Systems Analysis, Institute of Geoecology, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Langer Kamp 19c, Braunschweig, Germany. 136 Department of Ecology, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, Innsbruck, Austria. 137 institute for Alpine Environment, Eurac Research, Viale Druso 1, Bozen/Bolzano, Italy. 138 Laboratory of Ecosystem Modelling, Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institutskaya str., 2, Pushchino, Russia. 139 Laboratory of Computational Ecology, Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology RAS -the Branch of Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vitkevicha str., 1, Pushchino, Russia. 140 Department of Zoology, Khalsa College Amritsar, Amritsar, Punjab, India. Scientific Data | (2021) 8:136 | https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00912-z www.nature.com/scientificdata www.nature.com/scientificdata/ 141 Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, USA. 142
155 Laboratory of terrestrial ecosystems, Federal Research Centre "Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Juárez Autonomous University of Tabasco, Nanotechnology Engineering, Multidisciplinary Academic Division of Jalpa de Méndez, Carr. Estatal libre Villahermosa-Comalcalco, Km 27 S/N, C.P. 86205 Jalpa de Méndez, Tabasco, Mexico. 145 Unit Food & Agriculture, WWF-Netherlands, Driebergseweg 10, Zeist, The Netherlands. 146 Dpto. Ciencias, IS-FOOD, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Edificio Olivos -Campus Arrosadia, Pamplona, Spain. 147 Department of Soil, Water and Climate, University of Minnesota, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, St Paul, USA. 148 earth innovation Institute, 98 Battery Street Suite 250, San Francisco, USA. 149 University of California Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, USA. 150 Natural Resources & Environmental Management, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1910 East West Rd, Honolulu, USA. 151 Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, 21111 Lakeshore Road, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, canada. 152 The Nature Conservancy, 4245 Fairfax Drive, Arlington, USA. 153 Animal Ecology, Justus Liebig University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, Giessen, Germany. 154 Institute of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, Southwest Minzu University, Chengdu, China. 155 Laboratory of terrestrial ecosystems, Federal Research Centre "Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences", Institute of North Industrial Ecology Problems (INEP KSC RAS), Akademgorodok, 14a, Apatity, Murmansk, Province, Russia. 156 Key Laboratory of Geospatial Technology for the Middle and Lower Yellow River Regions (Henan University), Ministry of Education, College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng, China. 157 Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Post Office Box 65, FI 00014, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. 158 These authors contributed equally: Erin K. Cameron, Nico Eisenhauer. ✉ e-mail: helen.phillips@smu.ca