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Abstract

Studying the variables that describe the spatial ecology of threatened species allows us to identify and prioritize areas that are critical for species conservation. To estimate the home range and core area of the Endangered (EN) Amazon river dolphin Inia geoffrensis , 23 individuals (6♀, 17♂) were tagged during the rising water period in the Amazon and Orinoco river basins between 2017 and 2018. The satellite tracking period ranged from 24 to 336 d (mean ± SE = 107 ± 15.7 d), and river dolphin movements ranged from 7.5 to 298 km (58 ± 13.4 km). Kernel density estimates were used to determine minimum home ranges at 95% (K 95 = 6.2 to 233.9 km ² ; mean = 59 ± 13.5 km ² ) and core areas at 50% (K 50 = 0.6 to 54.9 km ² ; mean = 9 ± 2.6 km ² ). Protected areas accounted for 45% of the K 50 estimated core area. We observed dolphin individuals crossing country borders between Colombia and Peru in the Amazon basin, and between Colombia and Venezuela in the Orinoco basin. Satellite tracking allowed us to determine the different uses of riverine habitat types: main rivers (channels and bays, 52% of recorded locations), confluences (32%), lagoons (9.6%), and tributaries (6.2%). Satellite monitoring allowed us to better understand the ecological preferences of the species and demonstrated the importance of maintaining aquatic landscape heterogeneity and spatial connectivity for effective river dolphin conservation.
ENDANGERED SPECIES RESEARCH
Endang Species Res
Vol. 45: 269–282, 2021
https://doi.org/10.3354/esr01133 Published July 29
© The authors 2021. Open Access under Creative Commons by
Attribution Licence. Use, distribution and reproduction are un -
restricted. Authors and original publication must be credited.
Publisher: Inter-Research · www.int-res.com
*Corresponding author:
federico.mosqueraguerra@gmail.com
Home range and movements of Amazon river
dolphins Inia geoffrensis in the Amazon and
Orinoco river basins
Federico Mosquera-Guerra1, 2,*, Fernando Trujillo1, Marcelo Oliveira-da-Costa3,
Miriam Marmontel4, Paul André Van Damme5, Nicole Franco1, Leslie Córdova5,
Elizabeth Campbell6,7, 8, Joanna Alfaro-Shigueto6, 7, 8, José Luis Mena9,
Jeffrey C. Mangel6, 7, 8, José Saulo Usma Oviedo3, Juan D. Carvajal-Castro10,11,
Hugo Mantilla-Meluk12,13, Dolors Armenteras-Pascual2
1Fundación Omacha, 111211 Bogotá, D.C., Colombia
2Grupo de Ecología del Paisaje y Modelación de Ecosistemas-ECOLMOD, Departamento de Biología,
Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 111321 Bogotá, D.C., Colombia
3World Wildlife Fund (WWF) − Brazil, Colombia, and Peru, Rue Mauverney 28, 1196 Gland, Switzerland
4Instituto de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá, 69.553-225 Tefé (AM), Brazil
5Faunagua, 31001 Sacaba-Cochabamba, Bolivia
6ProDelphinus, 15074 Lima, Peru
7School of BioSciences, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9EZ, UK
8Carrera de Biología Marina, Universidad Cientifíca del Sur, 15067 Lima, Peru
9Museo de Historia Natural Vera Alleman Haeghebaert, Universidad Ricardo Palma, 1801 Lima, Peru
10Grupo de Investigación en Evolución, Ecología y Conservación (EECO), Programa de Biología, Universidad del Quindío,
630004 Armenia, Colombia
11Department of Biological Sciences, St. John’s University, 11366 Queens, NY, USA
12Grupo de Investigación en Desarrollo y Estudio del Recurso Hídrico y el Ambiente (CIDERA), Programa de Biología,
Universidad del Quindío, 630004 Armenia, Colombia
13Centro de Estudios de Alta Montaña, Universidad del Quindío, 630004 Armenia, Colombia
ABSTRACT: Studying the variables that describe the spatial ecology of threatened species allows
us to identify and prioritize areas that are critical for species conservation. To estimate the home
range and core area of the Endangered (EN) Amazon river dolphin Inia geoffrensis, 23 individuals
(6f, 17m) were tagged during the rising water period in the Amazon and Orinoco river basins
between 2017 and 2018. The satellite tracking period ranged from 24 to 336 d (mean ± SE = 107 ±
15.7 d), and river dolphin movements ranged from 7.5 to 298 km (58 ± 13.4 km). Kernel density
estimates were used to determine minimum home ranges at 95% (K95 = 6.2 to 233.9 km2; mean =
59 ± 13.5 km2) and core areas at 50% (K50 = 0.6 to 54.9 km2; mean = 9 ± 2.6 km2). Protected areas
accounted for 45% of the K50 estimated core area. We observed dolphin individuals crossing coun-
try borders between Colombia and Peru in the Amazon basin, and between Colombia and
Venezuela in the Orinoco basin. Satellite tracking allowed us to determine the different uses of
riverine habitat types: main rivers (channels and bays, 52% of recorded locations), confluences
(32%), lagoons (9.6%), and tributaries (6.2%). Satellite monitoring allowed us to better under-
stand the ecological preferences of the species and demonstrated the importance of maintaining
aquatic landscape heterogeneity and spatial connectivity for effective river dolphin conservation.
KEY WORDS: South America · Satellite telemetry · Kernel density · Cetaceans · Neotropical rivers ·
Conservation · Protected areas · Transboundary
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This authors' personal copy may not be publicly or systematically copied or distributed, or posted on the Open Web,
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Endang Species Res 45: 269–282, 2021
1. INTRODUCTION
The home range of animals is an important spatial
ecological variable operating as a proxy for a species’
biological needs (Kenward 2001, Hemson et al.
2005), and its key resource supply (Flores & Bazzalo
2004). Among other biological variables, the home
range of some cetacean species is related to (1) ani-
mal body mass (Harestad & Bunnel 1979, Swihart et
al. 1988, Gubbins 2002); (2) sex and age (Wells 1991);
(3) the density of conspecifics; and (4) the distribution
of mates (Ostfeld 1990). In addition, home ranges are
good predictors of productivity and habitat hetero-
geneity, enabling ecological comparisons among
geo graphically distinct populations (Ballance 1992,
Gubbins 2002, Ouellette & Cardille 2011).
Areas within home ranges are not occupied homo-
geneously (Dixon & Chapman 1980, Samuel et al.
1985); some of the areas that are used more fre-
quently are called ‘core areas’, and are often associ-
ated with greater resource density (Samuel et al.
1985, Powell 2000, Oshima et al. 2010). When identi-
fying the extent of home ranges and, in particular,
core areas, it is also essential to identify a species’
critical habitats to help guide population manage-
ment (Ingram & Rogan 2002, Semino et al. 2002,
Rayment et al. 2009) and design protected areas.
There are several methodological approaches that
can be used to estimate home ranges and core areas.
From location data points it is possible to produce
utility distributions (UD) that describe the differences
in the intensity of home range use (Powell 2000,
Oshima et al. 2010). Kernel density estimators are
useful for quantifying the intensity of habitat use
(Worton 1989, Ouellette & Cardille 2011) and are
among the most robust and widely applied non-para-
metric statistical methods for estimating the proba-
bility of the occurrence of individuals (Seaman &
Powell 1996, Seaman et al. 1999, Powell 2000,
Oshima et al. 2010).
Spatial ecological assessments for aquatic species
have been conducted for a number of cetaceans, in -
cluding harbor porpoise Phocoena phocoena (Svee-
gaard et al. 2011), Hector’s dolphin Cephalorhynchus
hectori (Rayment et al. 2009), common bottlenose
dolphin Tursiops truncatus (Defran et al. 1999, Gub-
bins 2002, Wells et al. 2017), franciscana dolphin
Pontoporia blainvillei (Bordino et al. 2008), Guiana
dolphin Sotalia guianensis (Flores & Bazzalo 2004,
Rossi-Santos et al. 2006, Azevedo et al. 2007, Wede -
kin et al. 2007, Oshima et al. 2010), and Amazon river
dolphin (Martin & da Silva 1998, 2004a). This last
study was conducted in the Mamirauá Sustainable
Development Reserve in Brazil and represents the
first long-term home range study of adult river dol-
phins (N = 53) using VHF radio transmitters.
The dynamic nature of hydrological systems pres-
ents a considerable challenge for numerically deter-
mining the spatial ecological variables of aquatic
organisms, especially due to the logistical constraints
related to individual detection and identification.
The latter is particularly true for Amazon river dol-
phins, which are highly mobile top predators able to
cover long distances (hundreds of kilometers) in rel-
atively short periods (days) with a possible differen-
tial use of habitat by males and females (Martin & da
Silva 1998, 2004a, Trujillo 2000, Gómez-Salazar et al.
2012c, Mosquera-Guerra et al. 2018).
Amazon river dolphins are subdivided into 2 sub-
species: Inia geoffrensis geoffrensis that are distrib-
uted across the Amazon (da Silva 2002) and Orinoco
basins (Herrera et al. 2017), and I. g. boliviensis, found
along the Mamoré, Iténez, and Madeira rivers (Aliaga-
Rossel 2002, Aliaga-Rossel et al. 2006, Gravena et al.
2014). Considered as Endangered (da Silva et al.
2018), Amazon river dolphins are among the most
threatened aquatic mammals. Their populations are
declining due to (1) deliberate killing and bycatch
(Trujillo et al. 2010, Mintzer et al. 2016, da Silva et al.
2018); (2) habitat degradation through timber ex -
ploitation, agricultural expansion, and gold mining;
(3) climate change (Mosquera-Guerra et al. 2015,
2019, 2020); and (4) the construction of hydropower
dams, primarily in Brazil (Anderson et al. 2018). To
date, there are 175 dams that are operating or are
under construction in the Amazon basin, as well as at
least 428 more planned over the next 30 yr, including
21 large dams (Forsberg et al. 2017, Latrubesse et al.
2017, Anderson et al. 2018, Almeida et al. 2020).
Dams have transformed 16.4% of the distribution of
I. g. geoffrensis in the Amazon basin, 22.9% in the
Orinoco basin, and 54.9% in the Tocantins-Araguaia
hydrographic complex (Mosquera-Guerra et al. 2018).
Currently, 2 dams exist within the range of I. g.
boliviensis in the Madeira River (Gravena et al. 2014,
2015).
The intensity and scale of threats to Inia popula-
tions in South America require urgent action to
quantitatively determine the spatial requirements of
these cetaceans in different ecosystems throughout
their range. In this study, we used satellite tracking to
collect quantitative spatial information on Amazon
river dolphins across 5 rivers in the Amazon and
Orinoco basins with special attention to an assess-
ment of home ranges and core areas, use of protected
areas, and transboundary movements.
270
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Mosquera-Guerra et al.: Satellite tracking Amazon river dolphins
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1. Study area
This study was conducted from October 2017 to
December 2018 across 5 rivers in the Amazon and
Orinoco basins. Captures were made along transects:
(1) from the lower Juruena River sub-basin in Brazil
and the Cururu River, including its confluence with
the Teles Pires River in the Tapajós River basin; (2) in
the main channel of the San Martín River in Bolivia,
from its confluence with the San Joaquin River to the
border between Beni and Santa Cruz provinces;
(3) from the confluence of the Atacuari and the Ama-
zon River in Colombia to the Zaragoza Creek, includ-
ing the Tarapoto wetland complex, and the conflu-
ence of the Loretoyacu and the Amazon rivers; (4)
from the mid-basin of the Orinoco River in Colombia,
including its confluences with the Bita and Meta
rivers; and (5) from the confluence of the Huallaga
and Marañón rivers in Peru to the confluence of the
Ucayali and the Marañón rivers, including the con-
fluence with the Marañón and Tigre rivers (Fig. 1).
Ecological and threat variables considered here
included: (1) biogeographic influence and water
types, i.e. black, clear, white, and mixed (Sioli 1984,
Junk & Furch 1993, Hoorn & Wesselingh 2010); (2)
habitat types, i.e. main rivers (channels and bays)
with várzea (forests flooded by whitewater), conflu-
ences, tributaries, and lagoons with igapó (Amazon
forests flooded by blackwaters) (Trujillo 2000, Martin
& da Silva 2004b, Gómez-Salazar et al. 2012c);
(3) proximity to protected areas, i.e. national and
regional natural parks, reserves, and Ramsar sites;
and (4) threats to river dolphin populations, i.e. gold
mining, dams, and by-catch (Table 1).
2.2. Dolphin capture protocol and
measurement recording
Only adult individuals were selected for tagging,
and their age class was estimated based on body
length, following the methods of da Silva (2009) and
Martin & da Silva (2018), and avoiding females with
calves (see Table 2).
Field work was conducted in locations previously
investigated by Gómez-Salazar et al. (2012a, 2012b),
Mosquera-Guerra et al. (2019), and Trujillo et al.
(2019) in the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon and
the Orinoco River in Colombia (conservation and
abundance estimates); Pavanato et al. (2016) in the
Tapajos River, Brazil (conservation and abundance
estimates); and Aliaga-Rossel & Guizada Duran
(2020) in San Martín and Iténez, Bolivia (abundance
estimates).
Capture locations were chosen based on accessi-
bility, river width, and water depth. We implemented
2 different capture techniques depending on the
river width. The first technique was employed in
water courses less than 300 m wide. Two small boats
(6−8 m length, propelled by 20−40 hp outboard
motors) were used to set two 300 m nets with 5 cm
mesh size. The first net was placed 100 m upstream
and 100 m downstream from the observed target
group. Fishermen walking along the banks of the
river then slowly moved the upstream net toward the
dolphin group. Once the net had been moved 50 m
downstream, a third net was deployed by a boat
without an outboard motor to avoid scaring the ani-
mals. The aim of this operation was to steer the indi-
viduals in the direction of the riverbank. The second
technique was used in water courses wider than
300 m. One end of the net was fixed to a 3 m pole
held by a fisherman close to the riverbank. From this
fixed point, the net was rapidly extended around the
target dolphin group by a motorboat, forming a half-
moon with a radius of 100 m upstream. As dolphins
were caught in the nets, they were immediately
untangled and carefully transported to the riverbank
or to a processing platform in a motorboat.
As part of our protocol, a veterinary team was pres-
ent throughout the capture procedure to monitor the
health of the animals according to cardiac and respi-
ratory rates. The whole procedure lasted around 10
to 45 min. There was no evidence that individuals
experienced excessive stress. No increase in heart
and respiratory rates, or sudden movements of head
or caudal fins were noted, as have been previously
documented as signs of stress (Martin et al. 2006). In
the event of excessive stress, our safety protocol
required that the capture operation would immedi-
ately be halted and the dolphin released.
2.3. Tag specification, permissions,
and method of attachment
The tags used were SPOT-299A and SPOT6-F sin-
gle-point fin mounted satellite tags (Wildlife Com-
puters), 20.8 cm long, 2.0 cm wide, 2.5 cm high, and
weighing 62 g. The tags had an 18 cm long flexible
antenna, plastic wings, and a 6.5 × 2.0 cm tail. The
tags were positioned on each side of the trailing edge
of the dorsal fin, with a matching 0.8 cm diameter
hole in each for attaching the tag 3.5 cm anterior to
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Endang Species Res 45: 269–282, 2021
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