ArticlePDF Available

Impact of Socio Economic Status of Parents' on the Emotional Intelligence of Generation Alpha Kids

Authors:
  • Sri Ganesh School of Business Management

Abstract

Decade earlier, cognitive intelligence is considered as the significant method for estimating the knowledge of an individual, later specialists found that individuals with same degree of cognitive intelligence are not getting a similar level of success in life and it is found cognitive intelligence is not enough to make progress throughout everyday life (Parker et al., 2004), attention is given on emotional intelligence as people consider it as imperative factor shaping the success in life. Generation Alpha or Gen I (born after 2010) is the youngest generation and their intelligence and emotional intelligence is going to be the determinant of the nations' future, and we need to analyze the ways to improve the emotional intelligence of this generation. Several researches have done to examine the variables impacting emotional intelligence, aim of the present study is to analyze, how the socio economic status of the parents' influences the emotional intelligence of generation alpha kids.
International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering, Management & Applied Science (IJLTEMAS)
Volume IX, Issue V, May 2020 | ISSN 2278-2540
www.ijltemas.in Page 46
Impact of Socio Economic Status of Parents’ on the
Emotional Intelligence of Generation Alpha Kids
Dr. A. Chitra
Independent Researcher, Tamilnadu, India
Abstract:- Decade earlier, cognitive intelligence is considered as
the significant method for estimating the knowledge of an
individual, later specialists found that individuals with same
degree of cognitive intelligence are not getting a similar level of
success in life and it is found cognitive intelligence is not enough
to make progress throughout everyday life (Parker et al., 2004),
attention is given on emotional intelligence as people consider it
as imperative factor shaping the success in life. Generation
Alpha or Gen I (born after 2010) is the youngest generation and
their intelligence and emotional intelligence is going to be the
determinant of the nations’ future, and we need to analyze the
ways to improve the emotional intelligence of this generation.
Several researches have done to examine the variables impacting
emotional intelligence, aim of the present study is to analyze, how
the socio economic status of the parents’ influences the emotional
intelligence of generation alpha kids.
Keywords; Socio Economic Status, Emotional Intelligence,
Generation Alpha
I. INTRODUCTION
lready researches has proven the connection between
living condition and the monthly income of the parents
and the intelligence quotient of kids (Ghazi et al., 2012) as we
know the importance of emotional intelligence now studies
are emerging to inspect how the socio economic status of
parents’ impelling the emotional intelligence of the kids.
Socio Economic Status (SES) alludes to an individual’s status
in society, and this impacts individual’s experience since
childhood to adult (Hackman et al., 2010). It is additionally a
significant factor deciding the wellbeing, nutritional status,
mortality of the individual. According to Udai Pareekh’s
Socioeconomic Scale, Socio-economic Status is assessed with
the Caste, Occupation, Education, Land, Social Participation,
House, Farm power, Material possessions, and Family
members (Rabbanie Tariq Wani 2019). Concerning the
emotional state of adolescents, Goleman (1995), stated that
“there is a world-wide trend for the present generation to be
more troubled emotionally than the last; more lonely and
depressed; more angry and unruly; more impulsive and angry
and more nervous and prone to worry.” So it is essential to
consider the conduct of the present age
Rational thinking empowers human to comprehend
things with reason and cause, whereas emotions bolster them
to understand circumstances, which makes them as real
human being. (Salovey & Mayer, 1990) and defined EI as an
“ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and
emotions, to discriminate among them and use this
information to guide one’s thinking and action”. By building
up their emotional intelligence individuals can turn out to be
increasingly beneficial and they become progressively fruitful
at what they do, and help other people become progressively
profitable and effective as well. And it permits human to think
more innovatively and to utilize their feelings to take care of
issues.
Numerous explores have done to demonstrate the
connection among SES and cognitive intelligence and it has
been proven that the SES of parent’s especially educational
qualification of mother has more noteworthy impact on
cognitive intelligence of the kids(Smith et al.,1997)
Generation Alpha has anticipated to have more exposure to
electronic gadgets, even before understanding what it is. They
have more interactions with machines than human, as their
parents have better SES and affordability to offer electronic
gadgets, Gen Alpha has fewer chances for being with others
than their earlier generation. It is already proven that people
from nuclear family system and people who has constrained
opportunities to connect with others has less emotional
intelligence as they don’t have much chances to be with others
(Erkman & Kourkoutas, 2011). So this study is carried out to
examine whether the SES of the parents of Gen Alpha has
effect on their emotional intelligence or not.
II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
As indicated by the researchers by the age of three,
children are capable of perceiving and understanding various
emotions by focusing on nonverbal nods and facing feelings,
similar to bliss, sadness, and fear (Elksnin & Elksnin, 2003)
but in reality, many children do not enter school with adequate
skills to interact with others, and it depends on their
opportunities to be with others. Teachers are doing impressive
role in identifying the behavior of the kids rather than parents.
(Poulou, 2005).
(Nasir & Iqbal, 2015) has already proven the
influence of Demographic variables in predicting emotional
intelligence and it is the most constructive factor for the
development of emotional competencies. The significant
reason for the emotional inability and the inability to interact
with others was the parent’s destitution, causing
uncontrollable events impacts the emotions of
children(Webster-Stratton, Reid,2001& Hammond,2004) and
A
International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering, Management & Applied Science (IJLTEMAS)
Volume IX, Issue V, May 2020 | ISSN 2278-2540
www.ijltemas.in Page 47
it has been proven better environmental surroundings will
give better output. Even children reacting negatively for a
situation may also be because of social changes and changes
in family environment (Appleyard, et al., 2005) when a family
is impacted by poverty, they less likely to assist their children
in their problems because of their over stress, and they fail to
create protective boundaries for their kids, which may
influence their emotional intelligence (Anthony, et al.,2005)
It has been proven that Emotional Intelligence
enhances the performance of the students (Romanelli, et
al.,2006) and also makes people more productive (Carmeli &
Josman, 2006) so it is important to give due consideration for
one’s emotional intelligence. As many researches has already
proved that there is a strong relationship between SES of the
parents and the adolescent behavior and emotional
intelligence of their wards, this paper attempts to study the
emotional issues confronted by Gen Alpha due the SES of
their parents
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the study is to examine how the socio economic
status of the parents influences the emotional intelligence
factors (Self-Awareness, Managing Emotions, Empathy,
Motivating Self, Socialization) of the Gen Alpha kids.
Objectives
To study the socio economic status of the parents’ of
Generation Alpha kids
To study the emotional intelligence of Generation
Alpha kids
To study the relationship between socio economic
status of the parents’ and the emotional intelligence
of the kids.
Hypotheses of the Study
For the purpose of present study, the under-mentioned
hypotheses have been framed and tested by applying
appropriate statistical tools.
There is no significant association and relationship between
socio economic status of the parents and the emotional
intelligence of Gen Alpha kids.
III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Data Source
This study is based on primary data
Data Collection
Structured questionnaire consisting Udai Pareekh’s Socio
Economic Scale and The Shuttle Emotional Intelligence Scale
for Children are used for collecting the primary data.
Research Design
Udai Pareekh’s scale for measuring the socio economic scale
was used to collect data about the socio economic status of the
parents of Gen Alpha. During the parents teachers meeting
Questionnaires were given to the parents and guidance was
given to fill it. The Shuttle Emotional Intelligence Scale for
Children was used to measure the emotional intelligence was
used to measure the emotional intelligence of Generation
Alpha kids. Using cluster sampling technique 123 students of
fourth standard of one Government school, one private school
under State Board and one private school under Central Board
(as there is no Government school in Salem following central
board syllabus that is not considered) in Salem district was
considered as samples for this study.
Tools of Analysis
Appropriate statistical tools like percentage analysis, chi-
square and correlation are applied to get a valid conclusion.
IV. ANALYSIS
Socio economic status of the parents
According to Udai Pareek Scale respondent who got more
than 40 score is considered to have very high socio economic
status, score between 39-30 is considered to have high socio
economic status, between 29-20 is considered to have
moderate socio economic status between 19-10 is considered
as low socio economic status and below 10 is considered as
very low socio economic status. From percentage analysis we
came to know out of 120 respondents 5% of the parents are
belongs to very low socio economic status category, 4%
belongs to low socio economic status category 40% have
moderate socio economic status and 51% has high socio
economic status. No one respondent belongs to very high
socio economic status category. So most of the parents’ of
generation alpha kids belongs to high socio economic status
category and very few only belong to very low socio
economic status.
Emotional Intelligence of Generation Alpha kids
Based on The Shuttle Emotional Intelligence Scale
for Children Regarding emotional intelligence 2% of the
respondents strongly disagree about their emotional
intelligence 5% of the respondents are disagree about their
emotional intelligence, 15% are neither agree nor dis agree
78% are agree about their emotional intelligence.
Socio Economic Status of parents’ and Emotional Intelligence
of Generation Alpha kids.
Factor
Chi-
square
value
P Value
Result
Socio Economic Status of parents’
and Emotional Intelligence of
Generation Alpha kids
105.21
0.000
Significant
@ 1%
International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering, Management & Applied Science (IJLTEMAS)
Volume IX, Issue V, May 2020 | ISSN 2278-2540
www.ijltemas.in Page 48
From the table it could be well understood that the
emotional intelligence of generation alpha kids has been
influenced significantly by the socio economic status of the
parents’. Based on overall percentage, the kids of the parents
who have very low socio economic status has no idea about
their emotional intelligence, and 61% of the kids who parents’
has high socio economic status are strongly agree with their
emotional Intelligence. It signifies the strong association
between the socio economic status of the parents and the
emotional intelligence of the kids
Correlation
The correlation between socio economic status of the parents’
and the emotional intelligence of the kids is 0.662 (66.2%), it
re assures that the emotional Intelligence of the Gen Alpha
kids is influenced by the socio economic status of the parents.
V. DISCUSSION
In earlier days, it was assumed that children who did not
perform well in academics were considered as mentally unfit
and were castigated accordingly. An increasing body of
literature proved that many children who are “failing” at
school are doing so because of their lack of social-emotional
intelligence (Chandler, 1984). Emerging researches has
emphasized like rational intelligence, emotional intelligence is
also important for the success in life. Even it is more
important than the rational intelligence. Because the former
one supports an individual in his analytical decision, but the
later helps him to understand his own emotions and even the
emotions of others and supports in emotional decisions.
When the family is affected by poverty, the outcomes may
influence in parenting and create stress to the children which
will affect their emotional intelligence too. (Anthony et al.,
2005)our analysis shows the students who’s parents has low
socio economic status are not good in emotional intelligence
and we could find a good association and positive correlation
between these two factors. The economic inability of the
parents makes the kids to feel inferior, which prevents them
from interacting with others and it provides more chances to
increase their life stress. So by increasing the socio economic
status of the parents the confidence level of the kids’ and the
kids’ interaction with the society and their emotional
intelligence can be developed.
REFERENCES
[1]. Anthony, L., Anthony, B., Glanville, D., Naiman, D., Waanders,
C., & Shaffer, S., (2005). The relationships between parenting
stress, parenting behaviour and preschoolers’ social competence
and behaviour problems in the classroom. Infant and Child
Development, 14, pp. 1..33-154
[2]. Appleyard, K., Egeland, B., Van Dulmer, M. &Sroule, L., (2005).
when more is not better: The role of cumulative risk in child
behavior outcomes. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry,
46, pp. 235-245.
[3]. Carmeli, A., &Josman, Z. E.(2006). The relationship among
emotional intelligence, task performance, and organizational
citizenship behaviors. Human Performance, 19, pp. 403-419.
[4]. Chandler, L. (1984). Behavioral responses of children to stress. In
J. Humphrey (Ed.). Stress in childhood, New York, NY: AMS
Press.pp. 47-61.
[5]. Dona Rai,(2017). Assessment of Emotional Intelligence and
Emotional Maturity of Undergraduate Students, International
Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences,6 (4), pp. 75-80.
[6]. Elksnin, L., &Elksnin, N. (2003). Fostering social emotional
learning in the classroom. Education, 124, pp. 63-68.
[7]. Erkman, F. &Kourkoutas, E. (2011). Interpersonal acceptance and
rejection: Social, emotional, and educational contexts. Florida:
BrownWalker Press.
[8]. Ghazi et al., (2012) The negative impact of living environment on
the intelligent quotient of the primary school children in Baghdad
city, Iraq: a cross sectional study, BMC Public Health .
[9]. Goleman, D., (1995). Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam
Books
[10]. Hackman D. A, Farah M. U, Meaney M. J.(2010) Socioeconomic
status and the brain: mechanistic insights from human and animal
research. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience. 11 (9 ), pp. 651-659
[11]. Mayer, J.D. &Salovey, P,(1997).What is emotional intelligence?
Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence: Educational
Implications:,New York: Basic Books.
[12]. Nasir&iqbal. (2015) Relationship of demographic factors with
emotional intelligence of university student.
[13]. Parker J.D.A.,Summerfeldt L.J.,Hogan M.J. and Majeski S.A.
(2004). Emotional intelligence and academic success: examining
the transition from high school to university. Personality and
Individual Differences, 36(1), pp. 63-172.
[14]. Poulou,M.(2005).The prevention of emotional and behavioral
difficulties in schools: Teachers’suggestions. Educational
Psychology in Practice, 21, pp. 37-52.
[15]. Rabbanie Tariq Wani, (2019) socioeconomic status scales-
modified kuppuswami and UdaiPareekh’s scale updated for 2019,
Journal of family medicine and primary care. 8 (6), pp. 1846-
1849.
[16]. RomanelliF.,Cain J., & Smith, K., M. (2006). Emotional
intelligence as a predictor of academic and/or professional
success. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 70(3).
[17]. Salovey P,Mayer J,Caruso D.(2004). Emotional Intelligence:
Theory, Findings, and Implications. Psychology Inq, pp. 197215.
[18]. Schuttle,N.S ,Malouff J.M, Hall L.E, Haggerty D. J (1998).
Personality and individual difference, development and validation
of a measure of emotional intelligence,25(2),pp.167-177.
[19]. Smith J. R,Brooks-Gunn J, Kelbanov P. K, (1997). Consequences
of living in poverty for young children’s cognitive and verbal
ability and early school achievement, New York Russell Sage
Foundation , pp. 132-189.
[20]. Van Hook, M. J. (1990). The Iowa farm crisis: Perceptions,
interpretations, and family patterns. New Directions for Child
Development, 46, pp. 71-86.
[21]. Webster-Stratton C, Reid J & Hammond M.(2001). Social skills
and problem-solving training for children with early-onset conduct
problems: Who Emotional Intelligence in Early Adolescence
benefits? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, pp.
943-952.
[22]. Webster-Stratton,C., Reid, M., & Hammond, M. (2004). Treating
children with early-onset conduct problems: Intervention
outcomes for parent, child, and teacher training. Journal of
Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(1), pp. 105-124.
... There are four type of consumer buying behaviour: [1] Complex buying behaviour, [2] Dissonance-reducing buying behaviour, [3] Habitual buying behaviour and [4] Variety seeking behaviour. ...
... As corporate governance also provides guidelines for achieving corporate objectives, it effectively covers all areas of management, start from business plans and internal controls to performance appraisal and corporate disclosure. The study of Bechrer (2004) and Rabia Jahani In some cases family members are also major influencers, especially kids are the prominent influencers (Chitra, 2020). When it is a non-durable, price of the product and the discounts available holds the first position in purchasing decision (Gopinath and Kalpana, 2011b), but it is not same for the case of durables (Kimes and Sheryl, 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
Computer is the integral part of every individual's life in present era. That too in present scenario everybody needs their computer to carries over their daily operations. This increased need of computers need the customer's opinion and factors influencing the decision on computer purchase. This paper elucidates the consumer's behavior and perception during computer purchase in Salem district. The study has conducted with the objective of analyzing the perception of consumer during computer purchase and the factors influencing the computer purchase, and to suggest the factors to be considered while marketing the computers. The list of computer users is obtained from various sources and 300 samples were selected for this study based on stratified random sampling technique with equal weight age to each statra. The data was collected by send structured questionnaire to the customer's email address which is collected from various selling outlets. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive analysis and chi squire analysis. Analysis explains certain demographic factors have influence on the perception on computers and family and other close circle, monthly income, occupation are also has role in determining the purchase. Even though we have tailor made computers, branded one is the choice of the customer that too the customers prefer buying in stores rather than online purchase.
... The attention and the understanding level of the students are comparatively low in online classes (Chitra, 2020a). Already the Generation Alpha is more prone to electronic gadgets (Chitra, 2020b) and Covid-19 has worsen the situation. ...
Chapter
The current research examine to study To study the impact of political behavior in organization and stress of the employees in higher educational institutions. The investigation was tied up to college level to have an experimental understanding about the prevailing political behavior in the institutions and to know the ways which create stress to the employees. The information were gathered from the staffs of chosen from colleges in Trichy. The information was genuinely examined by frequency and percentage analysis. The outcomes of political behavior have a significant impact on employee performance due to the stress in college level. But the main reason for the stress was the political atmosphere in the higher educational institutions. The research concluded that the organization should take some measures to overcome the stress caused by the political behavior and also have to adopt some good strategies to tackle politics prevailing in the organization through that they can diminish the political impact in the organization and enhance employees. The future researcher can likewise play out the investigations in different settings.
... Thereby, children become emotionally depressed. The development of the socioeconomic situation of the parents is very momentous to enhance the mental intelligence and self-confidence of the children [20]. Through Literature Review we have presented our research more scientifically by taking ideas. ...
Article
Full-text available
A nation's most valuable resource is its children. In the future, a nation will be controlled in the same way that a kid will develop. The majority of parent's lack expertise about how to help their children develop a positive outlook. We concluded in our study by analyzing the association between parental excessive affection and the development of children's intelligence. Through the use of a questionnaire, information was gathered from 531 families. Whereas 43 percent of parents show excessive affection to their children, while 45 percent lavish proper affection. On the other hand, in our study, 48 percent of the children had an IQ score of less than 49. We have identified the alterations in their child's brain as a result of their parents' blind affection and have also identified remedies to the problem. We analyzed it so that the growth of children's intelligence is not hampered by their parents' excessive affection and that the parents and children enjoy a close relationship with their parents.
... Finally it's all about having control on their own life. The way they brought up and their social environment is also has influence on their level of empowerment (Chitra, 2020). The empowerment has three dimensions; one is 'Economic empowerment' which means, instead of spending their entire life in kitchen, they must have their own source of earning, no matter how small or big it is, but they should avoid depending others for all their requirements. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background of the Study: In recent decade's government has realized the prominence of improving the position of women and is taking substantial steps to strengthen the position of women in India. Though the supports are available, still there are barriers in empowering them. This paper is to investigate the role of knowledge management in empowering the women entrepreneurs. The term 'Knowledge Management' includes knowledge creation, knowledge storing, knowledge sharing, application of knowledge and knowledge management. This paper investigates the importance of knowledge management. Impact of these variables in empowering the women entrepreneurs of Tiruchirappalli District was attempted to study in this paper. Objectives of the Study: the study was conducted to investigate the impact of socio economic variables in knowledge management and women empowerment. It also examines the relationship between knowledge management and women empowerment. Methodology: by using stratified random sampling technique, 195 samples were collected form the women entrepreneurs. The required data related to socio economic profile of the respondent, knowledge management and empowerment were collected by using questionnaire. Furthermore, the statistical tool namely chi-square analysis, correlation and regression were used to analyst the collected data. Conclusion: Socioeconomic factors influence and knowledge management factors are considered to have noteworthy impact in the process of empowering the women entrepreneurs.
Article
Full-text available
People love to talk about generations, especially when the feeling is that the world is rapidly changing. Terms such as millennials or Generation Z are already used worldwide, even if the sociological origins of the generation theory are less known by the general public. Although Generation Z was defined as digital natives, there are voices trying to suggest that a new digital native generation is here, and its name is Generation Alpha or screenagers. We are not sure if there is a clear border between these digital native generations, although there are some recent findings identifying them as more curious, creative, or self-determined than their predecessors. The technology dependence also brings relational and emotional issues, and we used the term of "screamagers" to describe their ill-tempered behaviors. However, there is a risk of devolving into stereotyping, when the scientific evidence on this topic, for now, seems to be scarce. Perhaps it is too early to speak about a new generation and more scientific studies are needed to increase our understanding of the evolution of people born after 2010.
Research
Full-text available
Background of the Study: In today's competitive environment, organizations are looking ways success and they know their potential is on Human Resource Management. Enhancing the knowledge level of employees and making them emotionally intelligent will become the competitive edge of the organizations. Likewise the intense competition among education intuitions made them to think about recruiting talented faculties and the means of retaining them. Objective: The current study is focused on analyzing the association among socio economic factors with knowledge management; emotional intelligence and the relationship of emotional intelligence with knowledge management of teaching faculties. Methods: To analyses the objective 250 was collected through questionnaire from the college faculties of Salem district and the results were derived using chi-square, correlation and regression analysis. Finding and Suggestions: Some of the socio economic factors are impacting the level of knowledge management and emotional intelligence and some are not. Similarly, the components of emotional intelligence are found to have constructive relationship and significant influence on knowledge management of the faculties. Hence the educational institutions are suggested to give importance to emotional intelligence of their faculties, to enhance their faculty's knowledge management.
Article
Full-text available
Nursing is considered one among the stressful professions. Over workload inadequate felicities, and sometimes the profession itself would be the cause of the stress to the Nurses. The professional stress of the Nurses creates so many adverse effects and creates negative effects to the persons who depend on the Nurses as the Occupational Stress reduces their concentration in medication. These made this study as essential one. Weiman Occupational Stress Scale was used to construct questionnaire to collect the data from Nurses and required statistical tools were used to analyses the relationship of stress causers with demographic factors and the impact of stress on the physical and mental health of the respondents. The results of the study were found that the Nurses were confronting high level of Occupational Stress during the period of Lockdown. The main stressors were over workload, in adequate felicities, fear of getting affected by the Corona virus and inadequate quality time with family. The demographic factors have significant relationship with the causes of Occupational Stress and the impact of Occupational Stress on the physical, emotional and Psychological state of Nurses is also immense. So enough measures have to be taken to moderate the stress level of Nurses as it is required for Nurses themselves and the patients depending them.
Article
Full-text available
Back Ground: Self-Actualization factors equanimity is the major influencing factor on A cross-sectional design and survey method were utilized to collect the data and the stratified purposive random sampling method and in SEM model, AMOS 20 used in this study. Findings: Based on the results of the three-mediating model, Job Satisfaction model has mediation effect between Self-Actualization highly significant compared other mediation model Job Involvement and Organizational Commitment. Conclusion: The researcher concluded that Self-Actualization is a vital contribution to job influences Job Satisfaction of Academic Leaders in Tamil Nadu Universities.
Article
Full-text available
Background / Objectives: Self Actualization denotes to an individual's longing for self-fulfilment, and the inclination of an individual to become actualized in his potential. This fondness getting increased one specifically wants to become everything that he is capable of becoming (Gopinath, 2020 a). Even though the term was coined by Goldstein, it was familiarised by Maslow as a pinnacle of need in his in his hierarchy of needs. This inclination of attaining one's potential makes him work smarter and harder and he might always look for the opportunity for Self-Actualisation. When his efforts are recognised by the organization the employee will get Job Satisfaction; which may leads to Organisational Commitment in future. Methods / Statistical Analysis: In this research, the researcher attempted to study the relationship between Self-Actualisation and Organisational Commitment and the role of Job Satisfaction in Organisational Commitment. For this purpose the researcher used descriptive research design and collected 419 samples with the help of multi stage sampling technique. Findings: The study found that there is significant positive relationship between self-actualisation and job satisfaction indicating that academic leaders with higher level of self-actualisation are more satisfied and committed in their job. Conclusions: The structural equation model revealed that academic leader's self-actualisation is significantly and positively related to organizational commitment, job satisfaction. The researcher concludes programs and activities should be organized by academic leaders to improve self-actualisation by means of which their level of satisfaction and organisational commitment can be improved.
Article
Full-text available
Socioeconomic status (SES) is one of the prime factors influencing the health status of a nation. It is the measure of the social standing of the individual or a family and has a wide impact on an individual/family's health, educational attainment, diet, lifestyle, etc., The per capita income of citizens is a major factor that decides the SES of the population. The affordability and utilization of the health facilities depend on the socioeconomic profile of the population. The periodic changes in the consumer price of goods globally as well as nationally due to inflation warrants that it is mandatory to constantly update the income-based socioeconomic scales so as the assessment is made correctly in practice. We are making an attempt to provide an updated Kuppuswamy and Udai Pareekh's socioeconomic scales for 2019.
Article
Full-text available
The transition from high school to university was used as the context for examining the relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement. During the first month of classes 372 first-year full-time students at a small Ontario university completed the short form of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i:Short). At the end of the academic year the EQ-i:Short data was matched with the student's academic record. Predicting academic success from emotional intelligence variables produced divergent results depending on how the former variable was operationalized. When EQ-i:Short variables were compared in groups who had achieved very different levels of academic success (highly successful students who achieved a first-year university GPA of 80% or better versus relatively unsuccessful students who received a first-year GPA of 59% or less) academic success was strongly associated with several dimensions of emotional intelligence. Results are discussed in the context of the importance of emotional and social competency during the transition from high school to university.
Article
Full-text available
Environmental factors play a very important role in the child development process, especially in a situation like that of Iraq. Thirteen years of economic sanctions followed by the 2003 war and 8 years of unstable security have affected the daily life of Iraqi families and children. The objective of this study was to assess the associations between living environment domains and child intelligence quotient (IQ) score. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 529 children aged 7-8 years from five primary schools in Baghdad during September-October, 2011. The five schools represent people living a range of conditions, and include of both high and low socio-economic groups. Living environment was assessed by 13 questionnaire items, consists of three domains: physical safety , mental stress and public services. While IQ was assessed by Raven Colored progressive matrices. Among the participants, 22% were of low intelligence versus 77% of high intelligence and 19% lived in a poor environment. There were significant associations between the mental stress and service living environment domains and child IQ (p = 0.009 and p = 0.001, respectively). In Iraq, child IQ was found to be associated with the mental stress and service domains of the living environment. This study findings will help authorities in their efforts to improve living environment.
Article
Full-text available
Young children develop social and emotional competence through interactions with others in the two major contexts in which they spend time: home and preschool. This study examined whether parenting stress in the home context is related to the children's behaviour while in preschool. Previous research has suggested that parenting stress negatively influences parenting behaviour, which in turn has been shown to impact children's development. This study examined the direct relationship between parenting stress and children's behaviour in two types of preschool programmes: private day care centres and Head Start. Parenting stress was significantly related to teacher ratings of social competence, internalizing behaviours, and externalizing behaviours, and the effects of parenting behaviour do not appear to mediate this relationship. Parenting stress was most strongly related to children's social competence. Parents' reports of expectations for their child's behaviour appear to weakly moderate the relationship between externalizing behaviour and parenting stress. This study suggests that examination of a parent's level of stress, in addition to parenting practices, may be important in research and interventions with preschool children's behaviour and social competence. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Teachers are highly concerned about students with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (EBD). Lately, much emphasis has been given to the field of prevention in schools, through the Competence-Enhancement Perspective. Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) provide the necessary skills to be acquired by students. The current study explored Greek in-service teachers' perceptions of the most important cognitive, emotional and social skills students should possess, in order to prevent the occurrence of EBD. It was found that teachers emphasised the importance of emotional skills. The study acknowledges teachers' significant role in children's social and emotional learning and advocates their involvement in the design of skills programmes for EBD pupils.
Article
Human brain development occurs within a socioeconomic context and childhood socioeconomic status (SES) influences neural development--particularly of the systems that subserve language and executive function. Research in humans and in animal models has implicated prenatal factors, parent-child interactions and cognitive stimulation in the home environment in the effects of SES on neural development. These findings provide a unique opportunity for understanding how environmental factors can lead to individual differences in brain development, and for improving the programmes and policies that are designed to alleviate SES-related disparities in mental health and academic achievement.
Article
Economic changes in the Farm Belt have undermined the security of life on the family farm. Rural adolescents are trying to come to terms with the meaning of the "farm crisis" for their identity and for their future.