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An IoT Based Intelligent Parking System for the Unutilized Parking Area With Real-Time Monitoring Using Mobile and Web Application


Abstract and Figures

Despite the continuous growth in car number, the number of parking places in cities remains inadequate. This proposed solution aims to resolve this issue by providing an automated car parking system with the help of Internet of Things (IoT). The project has implemented features like automated parking service, location tracking, parking management, real-time invoice generation, and payment system. The system can be implemented at a very minimal cost that helps the parking spot owner to earn by providing solutions to the general people who struggle for the lack of parking spots on daily basis. Along with IoT, Image processing, object detection, Firebase and GPS GSM modules, and various other technologies were used for developing the system. The system is integrated with a web-based application and android application for ensuring a better customer experience. The system also works in offline mode.
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An IoT based Intelligent Parking System for the
Unutilized Parking Area with Real-Time
Monitoring using Mobile and Web Application
A. Z. M. Tahmidul Kabir1, Al Mamun Mizan2, Plabon Kumar Saha3, Md. Shajedul Hasan4, Mohitosh Pramanik5,
Akib Jawad Ta-Sin6, Fatema Tuj Johura7, Akil Mohammad Hossain8
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering[1,2], Department of Computer Science and Engineering[3,7,8], Department of
Computer Engineering[4,5,6]
American International University-Bangladesh
Dhaka-1229, Bangladesh 1, almamuneee15@gmail.com2, pkumarsaha71@gmail.com3, szdhasan71@gmail.com4,
mohitoshpm@gmail.com5, akibtasin707@gmail.com6, fatema.fx51@gmail.com7, akilhossain29@gmail.com8
AbstractDespite the continuous growth in car number,
the number of parking places in cities remains inadequate.
This proposed solution aims to resolve this issue by providing
an automated car parking system with the help of Internet of
Things (IoT). The project has implemented features like
automated parking service, location tracking, parking
management, real-time invoice generation, and payment
system. The system can be implemented at a very minimal cost
that helps the parking spot owner to earn by providing
solutions to the general people who struggle for the lack of
parking spots on daily basis. Along with IoT, Image processing,
object detection, Firebase and GPS GSM modules, and various
other technologies were used for developing the system. The
system is integrated with a web-based application and android
application for ensuring a better customer experience. The
system also works in offline mode.
Keywords Parking share, IoT system, Automated parking,
Image processing, Android app. YOLOv3-tiny.
Along with the development of the global economy,
vehicular transportation usage is increasing every day. As
more people are opting to have a personal vehicle,
transportation systems are undoubtedly making a significant
impact on individuals and society's every day. However,
despite myriad conveniences and benefits, its adverse effects
are being noticed nowadays, especially when it comes to
parking. The population of the developing countries is
increasing rapidly as each day goes by. Besides the
population growth, the demand for personal vehicle is also
growing simultaneously. In the megacity Dhaka, car owners
face a severe challenge in finding empty parking spot for
their vehicles. The available parking spaces also face
congestion for not having parking availability information.
Media reports show that approximately 15,000 new vehicles
& 85,000 motorbikes are being registered daily in Dhaka city
[1],[2]. In India, 303,143.000-unit new vehicles were
registered in 2019, which surpassed all previous records [3].
In Pakistan, new vehicle registration has increased 9.6%
higher compared to 2017, and the percentage is on the rise
ever since [4] the available parking spaces in these countries
are inadequate to meet the increasing demand. Even in
developed countries, finding a parking spot can often be a
nightmare for drivers. In the U.S.A., drivers spend 17 hours
yearly to find a vacant parking spot [5] in Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia; the drivers may have to wait up to 25 minutes
every day to find an empty parking spot. In the least
developed countries, drivers are often vocal and aggressive
over occupying a parking spot. Media report shows that
drivers in 58% drivers New Delhi (58 percent), 44% in
Bangalore (44 percent), 43% Nairobi (43 percent), and 37%
drivers in Milan have either taken part in a fight or vocal
argument over occupying specific parking space [6]. Events
like these often cause congestion at the parking lot's entry
point, leading to a traffic jam on the road.
Currently, IoT is a significant research area. Many
researchers have created various projects using IoT, such as
farming automation [7], home automation [8], etc. This
project also uses IoT to design a parking solution that will
benefit both the driver and the homeowner. The goal of this
system is to find a nearby suitable parking spot for them.
There are two modes for the system, namely offline and
online mode. In the online mode, the user must have the
mobile application installed on their smartphone. The
advantage of the online mode is that the user can explore
nearby parking spots and see details such as available spots,
specific location, rent of the nearby parking lots. On the
other hand, if the user has no app installed or no smartphone
but looking to book a spot after finding a parking nearby
parking spot then offline mode is designed for them. In the
offline, the user can see details of a parking spot such as
parking rent rate, available parking spot from a display
situated near the parking lot. From the data, the user can
choose to book a spot after going through the booking
procedure. For making the system fully automated, the
system stores details like the number of entering and exiting
vehicles and compute the hourly billing system for the
lender. This automated system can be used in a congested
zone like shopping malls, offices, hospitals, cinema halls,
stadiums, etc. This system allows drivers to find parking
spaces near their location from unused parking spots
throughout selected parts of the city. This also provides
landowners with extra income from their unused parking lot.
This system is assembled with technologies like Arduino,
raspberry pi 4, etc.
The paper [9] proposed a smart parking platform
consisting of an IoT-based system and mobile application.
The system comes with three modules where; the first
2021 International Conference on Intelligent Technologies (CONIT)
Karnataka, India. June 25-27, 2021
978-1-7281-8583-5/21/$31.00 ©2021 IEEE
module provides the driver with the shortest path to the
parking place with Beacons and NFC readers. The second
module provides the driver guidance to prevent collision
between cars in the parking lot, and the final module displays
parking reservation information. The authors of [10]
suggested an IoT-based parking monitoring system that
features a low-cost sensor system alongside a fully automatic
payment facility that rules out the necessity of any
user/driver interaction. The system consists of vehicle
transceiver device sensors, motion detectors, global
navigation satellite system (GNSS) sensing techniques. The
study [11] suggested an IoT-based cloud-integrated smart
parking system for college campuses. The system consists of
an IoT module to monitor available & occupied parking
spaces and maintains a web-based mobile application for
pre-book parking spaces. This study [12] introduced a
wireless parking system. This NB-IoT technology-based
system comes with microcontrollers, geomagnetic sensors,
and NB wireless modules. The geomagnetic sensor collects
the intensity of the magnetic field around the parking space.
The microcontroller collects data from a sensor via wireless
modules and determines real-time parking space availability
using algorithms. The authors of [13] proposed a
personalized parking management system that adopts
Environment, Device, User, and Service-based ontology. The
system shows available parking spots on a mobile
application. The real-time information is provided by sensors
available in the parking lot. Upon availability, the system
provides parking space that is closest to the user's
destination. A parking system architecture was proposed by
the authors of the paper [14] where the system uses low-cost
IoT sensors for parking availability data collection and offers
efficient routing with these devices by data aggregation. The
authors of [15] proposed developing an IoT-cloud platform
that provides an efficient way for parking vehicles. This
central system obtains information through sensors
implemented in parking sites. Finally, the system sends a
suitable and convenient parking spot location to the end-user
through mobile or web application. A smart parking
architecture was proposed by the authors of the paper [16],
which comes with an e-parking system with Multi-agent
features such as detection of vehicle entry & exit, vacant
parking spot, vehicle guidance system, parking spot booking
through a smartphone application, and automated fee
payment. This architecture includes usage of different
sensors for detection of vehicle presence, access control &
vacant slots, a combination of RFID and ALPR for
identification, and a smart booking agent for handling
booking requests and payment procedures. Authors of Paper
[17] suggested a smart parking system that utilizes artificial
intelligence, IoT, and a multi-agent system to improve
Casablanca city's urban transportation. The system contains
different agents. RFID agent, Terminal Tickets, OCR
Camera, and Entrance Barricade are aggregated as Entrance
Agent, which determines vehicles identity, subscription, and
authorization to enter the parking lot. Control agent works
with Preference agent and Display agent to allocate parking
spots according to drivers parking usage history and
preference and thus displaying the allocated parking spot for
the target vehicle. The authors of [18] proposed an
automated architecture for smart parking system using IoT,
Artificial Intelligence, and multi-agent systems. The
architecture uses an RFID agent for vehicle identification
and parking subscription validation, payment agent for
automated parking fee collection, sensor agents for vacant lot
detection, control agent for authorizing vehicle entry and
operating sensor and display agents, display agent for
guiding target vehicle to the vacant destination, entry & exit
agents and lastly preference agent for receiving driver's
preference over parking spots. A technique introduced by the
paper [19] uses a smart parking system based on distributed
cloud architecture of IoT. The system is combined with a
distributed swarm intelligence technique to improve the time
to find the nearest vacant parking space based on the state of
traffic on the road. The proposed system collects real-time
traffic state using a combination of RSU (Road Sensor Unit)
and Google Traffic Services Using cloud services. The
system uses the Ant system algorithm and traffic state to find
a parking spot at an optimal distance. This IoT system
handles all remote communications via internet and cellular
connection. The authors of the paper [20] proposed a novel
method called Parking Rank, which used factors like total
available parking space, parking fair, and service scopes to
reasonably and efficiently allocate parking spaces. The
following paper [21] proposed an IoT smart parking system
that uses an Image Processing System, Programmable Logic
Controller & IoT Cloud system. The system used different
sensors that kept track of entering & exiting vehicles and
vacant parking spaces. Image Processing System and RFID
scanning to determine the car's dimension & license plate.
The control system uploads car data to the cloud database
and allocates a suitable vacant space for parking the car. The
user can receive parking information and check duration via
an application on their phone. The authors of paper [22]
suggested an Agent-oriented Smart Parking
Recommendation System called ASPIRE. This system
considers the driver’s preferences such as parking type,
maximum parking fare, and car holder’s tolerance of walking
from destination to parking. The system consists of IoT
implementation, vehicular networks, GPS, and imaging
system. The authors of [23] published a paper that proposed
an algorithm for a smart parking allocation system. The
smart parking allocation algorithm (SPA) could predict
driver behavior and estimate future parking traffic based on
previous parking records history. With these predictions,
SPA matches the parking demands and the available parking
grids with improved efficiency. A Smart Parking
Management System (SPMS) was suggested by authors of
paper [24], which uses an RFID scanner management
system, IR sensors, and mobile application that allows real-
time interaction of drivers with car park infrastructure. The
paper Also emphasizes reducing driver’s time and effort to
find vacant parking spaces in large multi-storey car parks by
single or multiple parking slot assignments. The authors of
the journal [25] introduced the alternating direction method
of multipliers (ADMM) algorithm-based approach to solving
the cost minimization problem for parking assignment while
balancing parking demand among multiple parking lots
(PLs). An automobile parking system was suggested in paper
[26] using IR Sensor, RFID Module, and Money Recharge
System. IR sensor detects the incoming vehicles and
determines the availability of parking space. RFID tag lets
authorized vehicles access available parking space and
deduct a payable amount from their debit/credit card.
Researchers of Christopher Newport University suggested a
smart parking system for college campuses in their paper
[27]. This system consists of a mobile application for drivers,
machine learning vision, and a tracking system for the
distribution of vacant parking spaces. Researchers at Hohai
University suggested and implemented a parking lot
management system in three modules using the Dijkstra and
Floyd algorithm in their conference paper [28]. The First
module handles parking information, parking fee, and space
management on the administrator level. The second module
guides a vehicle to its allocated parking space, determines
their parking fee by calculating vehicle entry and exit time
from the parking lot, and delivers payment information to the
driver before leaving. The final module is in charge of
storing data regarding parking lot information query, past
parking records & revenue query. A decentralized smart
parking system was suggested by the authors of the paper
[29]. This low latency system uses a fog computing and
Internet of Things (IoT) based infrastructure to characterize a
real-world scenario, run an in-depth analysis using a 3D-Ray
Launching (3D-RL) tool, and validates the result through a
real-world campaign to provide smart parking services. A
smart disabled parking system was proposed in paper [30]. It
consists of RFID, database authentication, different sensors
& cloud technology methods that work together to ensure the
limited disabled-parking spaces are occupied by authorized
personnel. The authors of [31] suggested a smart parking
system using IoT for colleges and universities in the US. The
parking system utilizes IoT sensors & computer vision-based
surveillance cameras for vehicle count and a web application
for monitoring parking spaces, providing real-time parking
space availability, floor-level parking capacity estimation,
and prediction of occupancy. In paper [32], researchers of
Binus University proposed a smart parking system using IoT.
The device utilizes sensors and cloud servers for real-time
parking space monitoring, Image processing for license plate
checking, using sensors for validating cars checking in &
checking out. It also uses automatic cashier machines to
deduct parking fees through various payment methods and
automatic parking spot reservation systems. In paper [33], a
prototype for an E-parking system was suggested based on
IoT. The system emphasizes on detecting improperly parked
vehicles and automated collection of parking fees. It uses a
local parking management system (LPMS) consisting of
parking meters consisting of sensors, alarm system, camera,
GSM module for wireless communication, etc. Wireless
communication between the central parking management
system (CPMS) and LPMS is done via GSM modules. A
smart parking system was suggested based on Bluetooth Low
Energy (BLE) technology by the authors of the paper [34].
The system uses unique BLE beacons to guide users to a free
parking system, a database server to store parking space
usage alongside vehicle metadata, a mobile app with which
drivers can make automated payments based on real-time
usage of parking space.
This project is divided into two parts namely Electronic,
and Software. Both parts have a significant contribution to
this development. Both portions are combined together to
achieve the final output. The job of the electronic part is to
design, build, and test the functionality of the circuit
accordingly. The importance of software is essential for
managing this project automatically. Each component is
managed by programming. It’s an integrated system where
electronic circuits and software have all come together to
assemble this parking solution.
Fig. 1. Use case diagram.
A. Use Case Diagram of This Project
The use case diagram (figure 1) visualizes the whole
solution. In this solution, the user registers with his phone
number, where the phone number is verified by the system.
After verification, the user logs into the system. After login,
the user selects the parking spot, and the YOLO object
detection model verifies the vehicle type. After the
verification, the user chooses the parking spot, pays the
owner, and enters the number of hours to book the spot to
confirm the booking.
B. Image Processing for Vehicle Type Detection
To identify a vehicle, Image processing was used.
YOLOv3-tiny was used to train the model that identifies
vehicles. The object detection model was trained using the
YOLOv3-tiny algorithm. YOLO is a deep learning-based
object detection algorithm. The algorithm is trained using
the COCO dataset. The data set contains 80 types of labeled
objects. There are various kinds of object detection
algorithms such as Region-Based Convolutional Neural
Networks (R-CNN), Histogram of Oriented Gradients
(HOG), Single Shot Detector (SSD), YOLO (You Only
Look Once) [35] etc. Although RCNN is very accurate, it is
very slow. SSD is very fast, but the accuracy rate drops
significantly. In terms of both speed and accuracy, YOLO
tends to be very accurate. The model is deployed in the
Raspberry pi microprocessor. When the user gives the
uniquely generated key for booking completion, the
raspberry pi camera module takes the customer vehicle
image. The image is passed through the model, and the car
type is successfully identified by the YOLOv3-tiny model.
After successful identification, the automated entrance gate
is opened for 20 seconds. Figure 1 shows an output of a
vehicle detection using the YOLOv3-tiny model where the
confidence rate is 0.9987.
Fig. 2. Vehicle detection using YOLOv3-tiny.
Floating-point operations per second (FLOPS)
5.56 Bn
Frames Per Second (FPS)
C. Offline Parking Mode
Figure 3 shows the process of the offline parking mode.
At the beginning of the offline mode (the user has no
previous account and must register on the spot) system,
when a user comes in front of the parking gate for parking,
the Arduino and LCD displays to let us know, "Do you want
to park?". If the user inputs yes through the keypad, the
Raspberry Pi microprocessor processes the image through a
camera module to determine what type of vehicle it is. After
that, the system asks for the duration of the booking. After
giving the data, the user is asked to enter their mobile phone
number where an O.T.P message is sent on the phone
number. The user must use this OTP number to confirm the
Fig. 3. Offline parking flow diagram.
D. Prototype of This Project
Fig. 4. (a) Prototype of the system, (b) vehicle entry.
Fig. 5. One time password received by user.
Figure 4 (a) is the prototype of the system where there is
a display at the parking lot's entry gate through which
various aspects of parking can be seen. Figure 4 (b) shows a
car entry in the parking lot, and the one-time password that
the system sends to the user at the time of entry is shown in
figure 5.
E. Web Application
C# as server-side programming and HTML, CSS,
AngularJS as design and client-side was used to create the
web application. This application allows the lender to view
the current status of his vehicle. The lender is able to see
how long ago his vehicle was parked and how much his bill
was, as shown in figure 6. MS SQL Server Database was
used in this system. This information is visualized
underneath figure 7 and figure 8.
Fig. 6. Web application view.
Fig. 7. Database design view.
Fig. 8. Database select data view.
F. Online Parking With Mobile Application
The devices store data such as vehicle type, available
vehicle spots, the hourly rate per vehicle type, duration of
the booking period, lender mobile number, parking location,
lender address, and payment type. All this information is
stored in the firebase database. The system has both online
and offline capability. For the online capability, a user can
both book the parking spot from the website and the android
application. In both web and mobile applications, the user
who wants to register must sign in order to use the system.
The user must provide a mobile phone no, password, mobile
payment method type, and give permission to access geo-
location to sign in. The geo-location is used to show nearby
available parking spots. The available spots are displayed as
a breadcrumb in the map, as shown in figure 9(a). The
application uses Google Maps API to load the map in the
application and show the breadcrumb. Many previous
projects have done the similar process to do this similar task
[36], [37]. The user can click each breadcrumb to see
specific parking details like available spots, hourly rate, and
specific address. To confirm a booking, the user has to input
vehicle type, booking duration. After the booking, the user
will be given a unique code which will be verified on the
parking lot. After the verification, the vehicle type is
verified using image processing. After entering balance is
being deducted from the user account and transacted to the
parking owner. Similar functionalities are also done using
the web application. The parking owner can also see details
using the admin dashboard, as shown in figure 9(b).
Fig. 9. (a) Parking lot booking through App, (b) Admin dashboard
mobile view.
The table below shows the cost details of the project.
However, while implementing the project in the real world,
the cost may vary depending on the LCD display size and
the cost of the servo gate. If the parking lot owner wants to
make the system fully automated, then the servo gate must
be integrated; otherwise, this cost will be reduced because
many commercial and residential buildings that have an
available parking space tend to have a caretaker.
Raspberry Pi 4
Raspberry Pi Camera
Arduino Mega
LCD display
Servo Motor
Power Supply
Battery (4500mAh)
The proposed system is a fully automated system. In the
online mode, the system is completely man less, and the
offline mode requires very little human supervision. The
system has both online and offline modes for operating.
Online mode benefits the user by finding them nearby
parking spot. In that mode, they can see the details of
available spots and prices. Consequently, it makes it easier
to find a nearby parking spot. But the offline mode also let
the users book parking spot very conveniently. The system
makes make lives of people easier by providing an
automated parking providing system. Also, the system
benefits the parking lenders as they can generate money
from every booking where previously the parking facilities
might have been unused.
This project uses modern technology to resolve an issue
that must be dealt with, especially for the cities. Big cities in
developing areas face numerous problems for lack of
parking places. Often for not knowing proper parking
places, the parking is being done on the roadside that can
result in traffic jams which is already a recurring issue in the
cities. Again, there are various situations where parking on
the road is not allowed, which can create a lot of hassle if a
car owner does not know a place to park their car or vehicle.
This project tries to ramify these issues by helping them find
their nearby, ideal parking place. Also, the parking lender is
financially benefited from the rent, where usually the
parking space may have been unused. The system benefits
the mass people from the hassle they face for parking issues
in large cities. Additionally, the system is very low-priced to
implement but provides the lenders with the opportunity to
earn hefty by utilizing the empty parking spot.
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... Recently, Kabir et al. [32] offered a solution to address car parking challenges by implementing an automated car parking allocation system. e system incorporated Web 4.0 technology and the Internet of ings (IoT). ...
... is research also supports Kabir et al. [32] and Peyal et al. [33] from Bangladesh that a megacity like Dhaka city requires a cost-effective parking solution. Income earning opportunities for car park owners, sophisticated car parking opportunities for car owners, and improved city car parking systems are some compliments highlighted of social capital utilization in this research. ...
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The mobile car parking (MCP) app provides users to locate a car park and park his/her car, which is expected to contribute to sustainable transportation. Previous mobile phone-based studies have also advocated that mobile apps create a social network among the users. However, MCP studies have yet not addressed the notion of such social capital which is expected to contribute to the sustainable transportation in a city. MCP, in fact, can also create a communication network among car owners, drivers, and car park owners and offer a unique base for studying social capital and resource utilization opportunities. To reduce the gap in existing studies, in this study, an android-based MCP app was developed as a tool to study the components of social capital. After developing the MCP app, two focus group studies were conducted to explore the components an MCP app can provide. Lastly, we linked the social capital components to the sustainable transportation goals. This research pinpointed several social capital components that are addressable to sustainable transportation, including information exchange, communication, connectedness, time-saving capabilities, mobility, coordination, plan-based journeys, and an opportunity to generate income from the social network. Moreover, very few studies have reported that social capital empirically contributes to time-saving capabilities, mobility, sustainable transportation through improved coordination in car parking management, and improved journey based on car parking decisions which are new contributions to social capital. This research is significant, as most of the mobile-based social capital research concentrated on bonding, bridging, and networking among social network members. However, this research has expanded the components of social capital in many directions. Furthermore, from the research methodological perspective, this research adopts a new approach through a combination of experimental research and focus group study.
... With the above scenario in mind, we have presented an IoT-based black box system for automobiles in this paper. IoT is one of the most widely used research areas in modern research, especially in the case of remote monitoring [9]- [11]. In this project, IoT has been used to remotely preserved black box information. ...
Conference Paper
Reckless driving is one of the prominent causes of human-based vehicle collisions, which are gradually increasing. Furthermore, due to a lack of real-time evidence, very few further investigations are done to determine the actual causes of these accidents. The central theme of this titled paper is to construct a few sensor-based black box systems that will assist us in reducing traffic collisions by giving accurate instructions to the driver constantly. At the same time, it will upload the evidence to its server for further analysis. Firstly, there is a variety of sensors in this black box system, including LIDAR, alcohol sensors, a camera, and RFID. This technology also has a method for detecting the driver's drowsiness. All of the information will be shown on a monitor directly in front of the driver's seat. Lastly, the relevant authority will receive information on the vehicle's condition and location via GPS and GSM.
... The application adds Google Maps API in the application and shows the breadcrumbs. A similar approach was taken by other previous projects to achieve this task [41] - [43]. To see parking details such as available parking spot, hourly rate as per vehicle type, specific address by clicking on each breadcrumb. ...
Full-text available
The parking place number still remains insufficient despite the continuous growth in vehicle number. This study proposed a solution using modern technology to resolve these parking issues. The proposed solution is an automated parking management system that reduces parking scarcity by providing unused car parking places. This project has used IoT, mobile application, a web application to serve the following services, parking management, parking place availability monitorization, real-time invoice generation, payment system and, parking management. By proving this system, the hassle of people will be reduced as they are getting updates on nearby available parking spots. Alongside IoT, mobile application, web application other technologies such as GPS -GSM module, image processing method, and other technologies were integrated. The system offers both web and android app-based solutions for better customer experience and easy usage. Moreover, there is also an offline mode to use the system.
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As the number of transports on the road increases every day, so does the number of accidents. Reckless driving and consuming alcohol are two of the leading causes of accidents. Apart from these issues, the safety of humans and vehicles is also critical. A thorough investigation is required to minimize the accident rate and improve human safety, particularly if an incident occurs. The purpose of this study is to develop a few sensor-based black box system that will help us reduce traffic accidents by continuously providing precise guidance to the driver. At the same time, the evidence will be uploaded to its server for further evaluation. This system also includes a way of detecting drowsiness in the driver. Finally, using global positioning system (GPS) and global system for mobile communications (GSM), the relevant authorities will get information on the vehicle's condition and whereabouts. For security purposes, a panic button is introduced here to get emergency help from the security personnel by detecting the victim’s area.
This study describes a parking sensing system based on the internet of things (IoT) that uses robust outdoor vehicle localization and recognition algorithms. Although parking occupancy monitoring systems have come a long way, intelligent parking payment is rarely investigated in smart parking research. This study presents a revolutionary low-cost sensor system that allows for real-time parking occupancy monitoring and payment without user or driver input. The proposed onboard vehicle transceiver device (VTD) sensor will be implemented without the need for new components to be installed in each parking lot. It provides advantages in terms of detection and payment dependability and cost savings through reduced system complexity, infrastructure investment, and battery replacement costs. A two-fold sensing method is used to accomplish reliable vehicle detection and parking occupancy monitoring.
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span>Women have progressed a lot in terms of social empowerment and economics. They are going for higher education, jobs, and many other similar endeavors, but harassment cases have also been on the rise. So, women’s safety is a big concern nowadays, especially in developing countries. Many previous studies and attempts were made to create a feasible safety solution for women. Out of various features to ensure women’s safety in critical situations, location tracking is a very common and key feature in most previously proposed solutions. This study found mechanisms of sending the location to different types of recipients in various women safety solutions. In addition, the advantages and drawbacks of location sending methods in women's safety solutions were analyzed.</span
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In today’s world, the vast majority of people in large cities rely on automobiles. As a result, automobile parking has become an important part of our daily life. As a result, with such a vast population and a fast-paced world, vehicle parking has become a major concern. Such issues cause stress and strain, which might result in accidents. To help them out in such situations, a “smart” approach for running multilevel parking systems efficiently. To automate the parking procedure by monitoring metrics such as distance and available parking spaces, NodeMCU and IBM Cloud are used. The distance is measured, and the information is sent to Node-RED over the MQTT protocol. The Node-RED dashboard allows the user to view availability from any location. If the distance is too great, the space is unoccupied. If the parking area is fully occupied, the owner or person in control of the parking lot is also notified. This is accomplished by combining IFTTT and Node-RED. Watson is a virtual assistant that helps consumers with a variety of questions.
Conference Paper
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This paper discusses an IoT based home automation system through which home security, room air quality check, and emergency assistance can be obtained. This system can automatically provide home safety, but the user can also control the system manually if desired. The system uses the NodeMCU module as the mainboard and has a mobile application for remote monitoring. In addition to air quality detection, the system can detect CFCs used in the air conditioning system to avoid accidents. If any unwanted incident occurs, the system will immediately turn off the home's main power connection and send the house's status in the form of a notification to the user's mobile app. Also, an essential feature of the system is that the system is able to block the entry of any unwanted person in the house. There is also an assistant robot to prevent fire accidents initially.
Conference Paper
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This paper represents an IoT based tracking system, through which it is very easy to track the child, elder, or any type of luggage. This system has separate features for tracking each of these things, which have been completed by the IoT device and the Android app. It is possible to track anything manually or automatically with this device. NodeMCU, GPS, and GSM have been used as hardware to build the system, and Firebase Server and Google API services have been used for the Android app. Parcel exchange has become very common nowadays. With this system, in addition, the location of the parcel can be easily tracked, and administrative help can be taken for any unforeseen situation.
Conference Paper
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Advanced Parking Management Systems, representing an essential part of modern transportation systems, are being designed to improve key challenges facing the transportation industry in metropolitan cities. Long commuting times, high congestion levels, and extreme carbon emissions have led researchers to focus on tackling these critical challenges facing our everyday living. This paper aims to design green parking and a truly sustainable solution that reduces CO2 emissions, congestion, and commuting times. This is achieved by developing a proof-of-concept of an original IoT-based and eco-friendly parking system. This system, named Eco-Parking, uses a tag or mobile application for parking id authentication, relies on IR sensors to monitor the real-time parking space availability using MQTT, and allocates the car park space according to vehicular emission class (Equa Index).
Conference Paper
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As the population grows and the quality of life of the people improves, leading to heightened demand for salubrious food. As a result, indoor farming has become a very popular day by day and the use of technology in agriculture is noteworthy. The most beneficial feature of indoor farming is that it can produce healthy food using less farmland and workers. In this paper, a system will be acquainted through which it is possible to manage an indoor farm automatically at a very low cost. Whereby it is possible to water the farm plants when required, provide specific light to each plant for photosynthesis, constrain the concentration of CO2 on the farm, which is suitable for the plants, etc. In addition, the whole arrangement can be managed from any location through a mobile app. This system comprises an ancillary robot that provides fertilizer to the farm's plants and real-time monitoring of the entire farm. The robot permits the user to define its task in advance or users can give instructions from any place at any time by using the app.
Conference Paper
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Women endure a lot of sexual harassment these days which is becoming alarming day by day. The situation is extremely serious in developing countries as well as underdeveloped ones. Consequently, it poses a significant challenge to women's empowerment as well as to a country's budgetary growth. In this project, we are advancing an IoT device along with an android app that can make women's movement safer. Women can get swift and supreme safety support by pressing the device's emergency switch. If any incident occurs, this device can track the user’s location in real-time and send it to the nearby police box and volunteer. The user can also get location of the nearest safe zone by this device as well. In addition, this device functions in both online and offline mode. If there is no internet available, the user can still use the device to access the nearest police box and volunteer support. The device consists of Arduino nano, GPS, GSM, Bluetooth, etc. The aggregate of all these elements collectively offers this device to be affordable and easy to navigate.