electrical engineering

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Ash handling system is an important process in the field of power generation. Coal is used as a source for generation of power in thermal power station all over the world. Coal handling is very important process because it creates ash and it will pollute the air and the environment. Earlier days, it is controlled manually and creates lot of smoke. Nowadays it becomes automatically controlled by embedded system or programmable logic controller. The advantages of automation is that the man power used is very less, cost is reduced, easily debugging and maintenance cost is grately reduced. The main study is to understand the components of the ash handling system and improvements currently available in the process of ash handling system

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Conference Paper
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The 15 years of successful implementation of wide-area measurement systems (WAMS) in the WECC power grid have shown significant value of WAMS data in system dynamic modeling and validation, FACTS control validation and pilot implementations of wide area protection schemes. The August 14 2003 blackout in the eastern interconnection of the North America revealed the urgent need for wide-area information acquisition for better power grid operations. The Eastern interconnection phasor project (EIPP) was launched in 2003 to deploy a WAMS system in the eastern interconnection. Development of IEEE C37.118, a standard for phasor data acquisition and transmission, will aid in deployment of phasor measurement systems for WAMS applications. Technologies of phasor measurement units (PMUs) with high precision time synchronization and phasor data concentrators (PDCs) for phasor data aggregation and event recording are key to the success of WAMS implementation. This paper reviews the WAMS development in the North America and presents current and potential WAMS applications including dynamic modeling and validation and wide-area control. Past experience shows a promising future of WAMS in improving power system planning, operation and control. However, there remain challenges to make phasor measurement consistent and to meet both slow and fast data application needs
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This paper looks at the performance of photovoltaic modules in nonideal conditions and proposes topologies to minimize the degradation of performance caused by these conditions. It is found that the peak power point of a module is significantly decreased due to only the slightest shading of the module, and that this effect is propagated through other nonshaded modules connected in series with the shaded one. Based on this result, two topologies for parallel module connections have been outlined. In addition, dc/dc converter technologies, which are necessary to the design, are compared by way of their dynamic models, frequency characteristics, and component cost. Out of this comparison, a recommendation has been made
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Solid-state switch-mode rectification converters have reached a matured level for improving power quality in terms of power-factor correction (PFC), reduced total harmonic distortion at input AC mains and precisely regulated DC output in buck, boost, buck-boost and multilevel modes with unidirectional and bidirectional power flow. This paper deals with a comprehensive review of improved power quality converters (IPQCs) configurations, control approaches, design features, selection of components, other related considerations, and their suitability and selection for specific applications. It is targeted to provide a wide spectrum on the status of IPQC technology to researchers, designers and application engineers working on switched-mode AC-DC converters. A classified list of more than 450 research publications on the state of art of IPQC is also given for a quick reference.
Conference Paper
Electric power grids are among the largest human-made control structures and are considered as critical infrastructure due to their importance for daily life. When operating a power grid, providers have to continuously maintain a balance between supply (i.e., production in power plants) and demand (i.e., power consumption) to keep the power grid's nominal frequency of 50 Hz or alternatively 60 Hz. Power consumption is forecast by elaborated models including multiple parameters like weather, season, and time of the day; they are based on the premise of many small consumers averaging out their energy consumption spikes. In this paper, we develop attacks violating this assumption, investigate their impact on power grid operation, and assess their feasibility for today's adversaries. In our scenario, an adversary builds (or rents) a botnet of zombie computers and modulates their power consumption, e.g., by utilizing CPU, GPU, hard disks, screen brightness, and laser printers in a coordinated way over the Internet. Outperforming the grid's countervailing mechanisms in time, the grid is pushed into unstable states triggering automated load shedding or tie-line tripping. We show that an adversary does not have to rely on smart grid features to modulate power consumption given that an adequate communication infrastructure for striking the (legacy) power grid is currently nearly omnipresent: the Internet to whom more and more power-consuming devices are connected. Our simulations estimate that between 2.5 and 9.8 million infections are sufficient to attack the European synchronous grid -- depending on the mix of infected devices, the current mix of active power plant types, and the current overall produced power. However, the herein described attack mechanisms are not limited to the European grid.
: In this paper, a non-isolated based single-stage integrated bidirectional converter has been proposed for plug-in electric vehicles, which has the capability to achieve all modes of vehicle operation, i.e., plug-in charging, propulsion, and regenerative braking. This integrated converter has improved efficiency of 2-2.5% in propulsion boost and regenerative braking buck modes over existing non-isolated integrated converters which leads to a long run of vehicle and saves the electricity usages. Despite the proposed converter has two inductors, size of second inductor is approximately reduced by 35-40% compared to single inductor converters. A detailed loss analysis of the proposed converter is investigated in propulsion boost and regenerative buck modes. Further, the design considerations of passive components are presented to achieve continuous conduction operation in each mode as well as low capacitor voltage ripple. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed converter.
This manuscript explores feeder reconfiguration in balanced networks and presents an efficient method to optimize the radial distribution system by means of simultaneous reconfiguration. Network Reconfiguration of radial distribution system is a significant way of altering the power flow through the lines. This assessment presents a modern method to solve the network reconfiguration problem with an objective of minimizing real power loss and improving the voltage profile in radial distribution system (RDS). A precise and load flow algorithm is applied and the objective function is formulated to solve the problem which includes power loss minimization. A Meta-heuristic Dragon Fly Algorithm (DFA) is utilized to restructure and identify the optimal strap switches for minimization of real power loss in a distribution network. The strategy has been tested on IEEE 16-bus, 33-bus and 69-bus systems to show the accomplishment and the adequacy of the proposed technique. The results demonstrate that a significant reduction in real power losses and improvement of voltage profiles.
This paper presents the applications of a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system in thermal power plants (TPPs). In fact, a supervisory system must take into account the physiological and cognitive features of the supervisory operator. The paper briefly discusses on the one hand the different steps of the application of a SCADA system and the difficulties to manage and on the other hand it presents three examples of the application of a SCADA system in a TPP in Tunisia and the instrumentations and the measurements used. The first application is related to a counting system of the natural gas, the second one is related to the supervision of pumps vibrations and the third one is related to the supervision of heavy fuel oil.
This paper deals with a new multilevel high-voltage source inverter with gate-turn-off (GTO) thyristors, Recently, a multilevel approach seems to be the best suited for implementing high-voltage conversion systems because it leads to harmonic reduction and deals with safe high-power conversion systems independent of the dynamic switching characteristics of each power semiconductor device, A conventional multilevel inverter has some problems; voltage unbalance between de-link capacitors and Larger blocking voltage across the inner switching devices, To solve these problems, the novel multilevel inverter structure is proposed.
This paper describes the development of a discrete-event simulation framework that emulates the interactions between the power grid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and examines whether the capacity of the existing power system can meet the PHEV load demand. The probability distribution functions for the arrival time and energy demand of each vehicle are extracted from real-world statistical transportation data. The power grid's limited generation and transmission capacities are considered to be the major constraints. Therefore, vehicles may have to wait to receive any charge. The proposed simulation framework is justified and described in some detail in applying it to two real cases in the United States to determine certain regions' grid potential to support PHEVs. Both Level-1 and -2 charging are considered.
Conference Paper
This paper presents a Zeta DC-DC converter as a power factor correction (PFC) converter which is operated in voltage control mode for speed control of a permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM). The proposed converter performs the PFC action and DC link voltage control in single stage and needs only one controller. The current multiplier approach with average current control is employed for PFC controller which is designed for continuous conduction mode (CCM) of operation. For the control of current and torque in the PMBLDCM, a rate limiter is designed in the reference voltage at DC link. Detailed design, modeling and performance of the proposed drive are presented for an air-conditioner driven by a PMBLDC motor of 0.817 kW, 1500 rpm rating. The designed PFC converter results in an improved power quality at AC mains in a wide range of motor speed and input AC voltage.
Recent large-scale blackouts in North America, Europe, and other countries raised great concerns over the reliability of our electric energy infrastructure and the economic impacts of blackouts. These blackouts were caused by a cascading sequence of events involving line outages, overloading of other lines, malfunctions of protection systems, power oscillations and voltage problems, and system separation and collapse. In this paper, common characteristics of blackouts are identified by analyzing the cascaded events of the blackouts. It is important to take appropriate control actions to alleviate overload and emergency conditions in a power system in order to avoid catastrophic power outages. This paper discusses available control procedures and emergency control systems needed to help prevent catastrophic outages. Economic losses from these blackouts in the U.S., Europe, and other countries were significant. An evaluation of the economic costs of blackouts can be used to estimate the benefits of emergency control systems that can be installed to prevent blackouts. This paper provides an overview of the assessment methods and procedures for evaluation of the economic costs of blackouts. This paper also describes the generic procedure of an event study to measure the economic impact of blackouts on the values of the firms in financial markets. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Conference Paper
This paper presents a case study describing the impact of charging process of plug in hybrid vehicles (PHEV) and all electrical vehicles (EV) on the supply grid. The paper shows the distortion produced in the grid by the simultaneous charge of a large fleet of vehicles and the corrective actions taken to guarantee the Electromagnetic Compatibility with other loads in the same grid. The goal of the investigation was to establish a design guide for parking facilities.
The growth of the photovoltaic effect from an interesting scientific phenomenon into one of the most efficient methods yet devised for converting solar energy directly into electrical energy is described. Attention is given to considerations of the optimum semiconductor material for solar energy conversion and how it changes with operating temperature. Experimental results are presented showing operating characteristics and conversion efficiencies of such materials as silicon, gallium arsenide, indium phosphide, cadmium sulfide, and others. The high voltage (∼100-v) photovoltaic effect from evaporated CdTe films is described. Included is a discussion of the major problems yet to be solved.
Conference Paper
Photovoltaic scavenging circuits have been presented to reduce installation and maintenance costs of wireless sensor networks. When small-size photovoltaic modules are adopted, optimizing the efficiency of the harvesting process and tracking the maximum power point ( MPP ) becomes very difficult, and the development of a photovoltaic harvester has to be preceded by extensive simulations. The paper focuses on the definition of the model for a small PV cell allowing the simulation of harvester systems. The model is validated on a case study of MPPT circuit for sensor networks.
Conference Paper
Deregulation of North American markets in electrical power promises serious new challenges to automatic control and to the information infrastructure in which automatic control is embedded. What kind of control is viable under deregulation? The economic consequences of controller performance promise to be very high. Will infrastructure costs and liability issues discourage use of wide area controls? Can controller performance be assured to the extent that controller services can be marketed in the same sense as other commodities? In the quest for power system reliability, what new balance is evolving between automatic control and less technical methods? The intent of this paper is to further the dialog between the power system and the automatic control communities on such issues. Examples taken from the Western System breakups of 1996 argue that full use of automatic control as a means for power system reinforcement is strongly contingent upon new infrastructure for planning and operation
There have been several key developments that make it conceivable that it would soon be possible to reduce the frequency and intensity of interconnected power system failures. System protection is one of the technologies undergoing radical changes that holds a strong promise that cascading system outages can be mitigated or even eliminated. The increasing use of digital relays that will allow the implementation of exciting new concepts has made this a strong possibility. In this article, we report on future concepts in power system protection, communication, wide area measurement systems (WAMS), system control, and electricity market considerations, Adding a summary of our own research in associated studies and our assessment of future investigations, our aim is to provide a blueprint for a secure power system infrastructure.
This paper deals with the power quality improvement in a conventional electronic load controller (ELC) used for isolated pico-hydropower generation based on an asynchronous generator (AG). The conventional ELC is based on a six-pulse uncontrolled diode bridge rectifier with a chopper and an auxiliary load. It causes harmonic currents injection resulting distortion in the current and terminal voltage of the generator. The proposed ELC employs a 24-pulse rectifier with 14 diodes and a chopper. A polygon wound autotransformer with reduced kilovolts ampere rating for 24-pulse ac-dc converter is designed and developed for harmonic current reduction to meet the power quality requirements as prescribed by IEEE standard-519. The comparative study of two topologies, conventional ELC (six-pulse bridge-rectifier-based ELC) and proposed ELC (24-pulse bridge-rectifier-based ELC) is carried out in MATLAB using SIMULINK and Power System Blockset toolboxes. Experimental validation is carried out for both ELCs for regulating the voltage and frequency of an isolated AG driven by uncontrolled pico-hydroturbine.
Recent work has shown that the profit maximizing problem for a generator in a competitive electricity market can be written as a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPECs). In this paper, the problem of optimal generator bidding when there is a single demand is considered. The simplifications to the MPEC afforded by the assumption on the demand are shown. When the demand is stochastic and assumed to be normally distributed, the optimization that each player undertakes is written as a chance constrained program. It is shown that the solution to this stochastic problem can be found by solving a deterministic MPEC. The problem is considered with and without supply capacity constraints. By considering each of these cases as a game theory problem, the existence and uniqueness of Nash points are analyzed. These properties of the Nash point are then inferred onto the stochastic problem.
Multilevel inverter technology has emerged recently as a very important alternative in the area of high-power medium-voltage energy control. This paper presents the most important topologies like diode-clamped inverter (neutral-point clamped), capacitor-clamped (flying capacitor), and cascaded multicell with separate DC sources. Emerging topologies like asymmetric hybrid cells and soft-switched multilevel inverters are also discussed. This paper also presents the most relevant control and modulation methods developed for this family of converters: multilevel sinusoidal pulsewidth modulation, multilevel selective harmonic elimination, and space-vector modulation. Special attention is dedicated to the latest and more relevant applications of these converters such as laminators, conveyor belts, and unified power-flow controllers. The need of an active front end at the input side for those inverters supplying regenerative loads is also discussed, and the circuit topology options are also presented. Finally, the peripherally developing areas such as high-voltage high-power devices and optical sensors and other opportunities for future development are addressed.
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