Konzeption und Implementierung von Mikro-City-Hubs als Baustein emissionsneutraler City-Logistik

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Die City-Logistik ist von Zukunftstrends in Handel, Industrie und Verkehr beeinflusst und aktuell einer Vielzahl von Trends und Herausforderungen ausgesetzt. Im Zuge des steigenden Handlungsbedarfs ist eine Forschungslandschaft mit unterschiedlichen Maßnahmen und Lösungsansätzen entstanden. Eine zentrale Rolle für die nachhaltige Gestaltung und Elektrifizierung der City-Logistik spielt die Integration von Mikro-City-Hubs. Die Merkmale eines Stückgutnetzwerks stellen dabei besondere Anforderungen an die Konzeption, Implementierung und Wirtschaftlichkeit von Mikro-City-Hubs.

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This paper reviews research published in the proceedings of the International Conferences on City Logistics in 2009, 2011 and 2013. The purpose is to analyse its relevance to urban logistics problems and to identify gaps. The results indicate that the research addresses mainly urban distribution problems from the authority and carrier perspective in a European and Asian context. Three conclusions can be drawn from the review. First, the research has to address a wider range of market segments; second, there is a need for more research from the shipper and receiver perspective; and third, more research addressing Asian and especially African cities is necessary.
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This paper presents concepts of city logistics for sustainable and liveable cities. City logistics can contribute to create more efficient and environmentally friendly urban freight transport systems. The application of innovative technologies of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) and ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems), the change in mind-sets of logistics managers, and public-private partnerships can promote city logistics policy measures. The procedure of urban freight transport management is described, which is an adaptive management system that uses the PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, and Act) cycle. Joint delivery systems with urban consolidation centres are also highlighted in particular focusing on the benefits and problems, the success factors, the role of municipalities and the transferability to other areas.
Electric freight vehicles have the potential to mitigate local urban road freight transport emissions, but their numbers are still insignificant. Logistics companies often consider electric vehicles as too costly compared to vehicles powered by combustion engines. Research within the body of the current literature suggests that increasing the driven mileage can enhance the competitiveness of electric freight vehicles. In this paper we develop a numeric simulation approach to analyze the cost-optimal balance between a high utilization of medium-duty electric vehicles – which often have low operational costs – and the common requirement that their batteries will need expensive replacements. Our work relies on empirical findings of the real-world energy consumption from a large German field test with medium-duty electric vehicles. Our results suggest that increasing the range to the technical maximum by intermediate (quick) charging and multi-shift usage is not the most cost-efficient strategy in every case. A low daily mileage is more cost-efficient at high energy prices or consumptions, relative to diesel prices or consumptions, or if the battery is not safeguarded by a long warranty. In practical applications our model may help companies to choose the most suitable electric vehicle for the application purpose or the optimal trip length from a given set of options. For policymakers, our analysis provides insights on the relevant parameters that may either reduce the cost gap at lower daily mileages, or increase the utilization of medium-duty electric vehicles, in order to abate the negative impact of urban road freight transport on the environment.
Transportation is one of the essential services in cities that contribute to the quality of life. As a result, efficient methods for transport planning have become increasingly important. Decision makers have considered collaborative strategies to reduce the overall cost of the supply process and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of urban logistics systems. This paper assesses the implementation of an electric fleet of vehicles in collaborative urban distribution of goods, in order to reduce environmental impacts while maintaining a level of service. An approach using mathematical modeling with multiple objectives, for tactical and operational decision-making, is proposed to explore the relationship between the delivery cost and the sustainability impact. This approach has been validated using real-data taken from the city of Bogotá, Colombia. Similarly, theoretical experiments in other countries have been performed to analyse the impact of the use of electric vehicles in the configuration of the transport network.
The location of logistics facilities significantly affects not only the activities of urban goods movement, but also the urban environment as these facilities represent major originators and receivers of freight. Recently, the phenomenon of logistics sprawl, i.e. the relocation of logistics facilities away from inner urban areas to suburban areas has received an increasing level of attention from both academics and policy makers. In this paper, a literature review of the various impacts of logistics sprawl is provided with a detailed taxonomy of the impacts. It has been observed that logistics sprawl contributed changes in geography of urban freight, increasing trucks' travelled distance and consequent emissions and impacting the commuting of logistics employment. The paper presents a summary of the empirical findings illustrating the additional distance trucks travel due to logistics sprawl in several European and North American cities. Furthermore, the paper provides an overview of the measures and policies implemented in various metropolitan areas to reintegrate small-scale logistics facilities within inner urban areas to act as consolidation centres.
In diesem Abschnitt soll zunächst abgegrenzt werden, welche Verkehrsbewegungen innerhalb eines Stadtgebiets Gegenstand von Konzepten zur City-Logistik sind. Es sei darauf hingewiesen, dass eine allgemeingültige Abgrenzung des städtischen Güterverkehrs vom gesamten Verkehrsaufkommen innerhalb einer Stadt auf Grund unterschiedlicher Betrachtungsweisen nicht möglich ist. Verkehrssegmente werden in wissenschaftlichen Analysen und der Verkehrsplanung unterschiedlich gebildet. Strauß konstatiert, dass der Begriff „städtischer Güterverkehr“ keinesfalls eindeutig definiert ist und hinsichtlich des Inhalts, der im Zusammenhang verwendeten Begriffe und ihrer hierarchischen Strukturierung Uneinigkeit herrscht.
Research has shown that time access restrictions in city centers might increase social sustainability aspects such as livability or safety, but might also increase the number of vehicles and the total distance travelled; which have negative environmental impact and can decrease economic sustainability. In this paper we see that this negative effect could also be the result of other access restrictions, like load factor restrictions, and may be related to factors other than the number of vehicles and total distance travelled. Such as if the distribution center is in the outskirts of the City and customers are situated outside the city center. In this study a common urban distribution network scenario is presented - the milk run - where only the load factor is changed. Increasing the load factor is usually regarded as a way of improving efficiency, but we observe that under certain conditions improving the load factor affects economic and environmental sustainability, by increasing total costs and emissions. Following insights from this study, policy makers and companies should be careful when using single key performance indicators in urban freight distribution.
Increasing traffic demand, recurring congestion and sophisticated e-commerce business models lead to enormous challenges for routing in city logistics. We introduce a planning system for city logistics service providers, which faces those challenges by more realistic vehicle routing considering time-dependent travel times. Time-dependent travel times arise from telematics-based traffic data collection city-wide. Well-known heuristics for the Traveling Salesman Problem and for the Vehicle Routing Problem are adapted to time-dependent planning data. Computational experiments allow for insights into the efficiency of individual heuristics, their adaptability to time-dependent planning data sets, and the quality and structure of resulting delivery tours.
Consumer-driven e-commerce
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