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Chapitre 3. Le Comité de la sécurité alimentaire mondiale dix ans après la réforme

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Abstract

Lors de la flambée des prix des denrées alimentaires en 2007 et 2008, des pays considérés depuis longtemps en situation de sécurité alimentaire ont été confrontés à la baisse des importations du fait des mesures protectionnistes mises en place par les pays exportateurs (DEFRA, 2010 ; Sharma, 2011). Cette crise des prix alimentaires, amplifiée par la crise économique mondiale et par la crise environnementale persistante, a remis en cause les présupposés dominants relatifs à la sécurité alimentaire, l’agriculture et le développement. Les décideurs politiques ont dû déchiffrer un nombre croissant de variables, dont les enjeux environnementaux, les évolutions démographiques, la hausse des prix de l’énergie, la demande de biocarburants, la dépréciation du dollar américain, des conditions climatiques défavorables et des chocs commerciaux, des achats de panique et des restrictions aux exportations (Headey, Malaiyandi et Shenggen, 2009). Un effort international a été déployé pour répondre à la crise, qui se solda par le lancement d’un certain nombre d’initiatives et par la réforme d’organisations existantes (Duncan et Barling, 2012). L’une des réformes majeures fut celle du Comité de la sécurité alimentaire mondiale des Nations unies (CSA). Avec cette réforme, le CSA entreprit sa transformation de « l’organisme le plus ennuyeux de l’ONU » (entretien 2012) en « la première plateforme inclusive internationale et intergouvernementale de coordination des politiques de sécurité alimentaire

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