Article

Knowledge management visualisation in regional innovation system collaborative decision-making

Authors:
  • Häme University of Applied Sciences
  • Hame University of Applied Sciences
Article

Knowledge management visualisation in regional innovation system collaborative decision-making

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Abstract

Purpose – This study was developed in response to the need to develop age-friendly smart living environments (SLEs) due to the complex demands placed on society by the ageing of the population. It sought to analyse the potential that knowledge visualisation offers collaborative decision making applied to the development of a multiple criteria framework supporting knowledge management (KM) through knowledge collaboration (KC) and knowledge sharing (KS) in the context of Regional Innovation Systems (RIS). Design/methodology/approach – Using a socio-technical approach, knowledgeable and experienced representatives of RIS innovation actors were brought together to develop a constructivist multiple criteria framework that integrates knowledge visualisation and collaborative decision-making techniques (i.e., cognitive mapping and system dynamics). Findings – The study introduces a multiple criteria model supporting KM encompassing conditions and practices of RIS innovation actors facilitating and encouraging KC and KS. The potential for knowledge visualisation in collaborative decision making is explored in great depth and illustrated in a case study setting. Practical implications – The panel members who participated in this study consider our methodological proposal to be extremely versatile and see great potential for further applications in RIS contexts. Originality – The combined use of cognitive mapping and system dynamics according to the strategic options development and analysis (SODA) approach offers a holistic and well-informed perspective on the issue in question. The literature reports no prior work of this methodological combination in the same research context.

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This study sought to develop a multiple-criteria decision support system for evaluating transfers of knowledge from higher education institutions (HEIs) to society at large. Drawing on a panel of knowledge transfer specialists, we developed the evaluation system by completing the three phases of the multiple-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach. The structuring phase used the strategic options development and analysis (SODA) methodology and cognitive mapping techniques. The evaluation phase applied the measuring attractiveness by a categorical-based evaluation technique (MACBETH), which allowed us to evaluate HEIs’ local and overall performance. The third phase consisted of formulating recommendations. Assuming a constructivist process-oriented stance, this research included a real-world application of the proposed system to Portuguese public HEIs. Our study demonstrates that HEI administrators can use the techniques applied to make strategic decisions when seeking to foster the transfer of knowledge to society at large.
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Sociotechnical transitions is an emerging research area that uses several methods, amongst which case study and simulation models are often applied. This paper focuses on system dynamics modelling and simulation research and its potential contribution to transition research. Current system dynamics work comes from a wide range of disciplines and spans across the micro, meso, and macro levels which transitions are predominantly analysed along. This overlap carries considerable potential as a conceptual and theoretical basis for transition research. The paper explores this potential and provides a cursory exposition of system dynamics research and exemplary work that is directly relevant to transition research. It raises a number of points that indicate the potential of system dynamics for transition research in terms of methodology and case study research, the behavioural aspects of transitions, and particular subject areas that lie at the organizational field level: technology platforms, business models and organizational change.
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Knowledge management (KM) is a field of research that has gained wide acceptance in the scientific community and management literature. This article presents a bibliometric overview of the academic research on KM in the business and management areas. Various bibliometric methods are used to perform this overview, including performance analysis and science mapping of the KM field. The performance analysis uses a series of bibliometric indicators, such as the h-index, productivity and citations. In addition, the VOSviewer software is used to map the bibliographic material. Science mapping uses co-citations and the concurrency of keywords. References were obtained from the Web of Science database. We identified and classified the most relevant research in the field according to journals, articles, authors, institutions and countries. The results show that research in this field has increased significantly in the last ten years and that the USA is the most influential country in all aspects in this field. It is important to consider, however, that science continues to advance in this and in all fields and that data rapidly change over time. Therefore, this paper fulfills an informational role that shows that most of the fundamental research of KM is in business and management areas.
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Aims and objectives: This paper presents a review of the literature about the built environment as it impacts the health of older people. It then introduces the gerontological nurse and researcher to the Our Voice framework for engaging older people as citizen scientists in order to empower them as agents of change in improving their local built environment and ultimately advancing community health. Background: Community-level strategies to promote successful ageing in place are critical both to optimising health outcomes and containing healthcare costs. Such strategies must take into account the influence of the built environment both on individual health behaviours and on overall community health. At the same time, the perspectives and experiences of older people themselves ought to inform policies and practices in a systematic way. Design: Integrative literature review. Method: A wide scan of English language articles published in the EMBASE, PubMed and CINAHL bibliographic databases was conducted. Additional articles were sourced by mining relevant reference lists (i.e., snowball sampling). Papers included were published between 2005 and 2016. Results: Three distinct components emerged from the review: the impact of the built environment on health-in particular the health of older persons; citizen science and its applicability for older people research; and the promise of the Our Voice citizen science framework to activate changes in the built environment that improve older peoples' health. Conclusion: The ageing of the world's population brings with it an increased population-level risk of chronic disease and disability. We present the Our Voice framework, developed by researchers at Stanford University, as a promising strategy for engaging and empowering older people as citizen scientists, as a framework to apply to gerontological nursing and improving community health. Implications for practice: Gerontology nurses are encouraged to: (i) Recognise the impact of the built environment and other community-level factors on the health of their patients. (ii) Encourage older adults to take an active role in documenting features of their environments that promote or hinder healthy living. (iii) Support policies and programmes that promote healthy environments.
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One of the fundamental features of policy processes in contemporary societies is complexity. It follows from the plurality of points of view actors adopt in their interventions, and from the plurality of criteria upon which they base their decisions. In this context, collaborative multicriteria decision processes seem to be appropriate to address part of the complexity challenge. This study discusses a decision support framework that guides policy makers in their strategic decisions by using a multi-method approach based on the integration of three tools, i.e., (i) stakeholders analysis, to identify the multiple interests involved in the process, (ii) cognitive mapping, to define the shared set of objectives for the analysis, and (iii) Multi Attribute Value Theory, to measure the level of achievement of the previously defined objectives by the policy options under investigation. The integrated decision support framework has been tested on a real world project concerning the location of new parking areas in a UNESCO site in Southern Italy. The purpose of this study was to test the operability of an integrated analytical approach to support policy decisions by investigating the combined and synergistic effect of the three aforementioned tools. The ultimate objective was to propose policy recommendations for a sustainable parking area development strategy in the region under consideration. The obtained results illustrate the importance of integrated approaches for the development of accountable public decision processes and consensus policy alternatives. The proposed integrated methodological framework will, hopefully, stimulate the application of other collaborative decision processes in public policy making.
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The aim of modern innovation policies is to enhance the innovation capability of regions, their organizations and people. Regional innovation system (RIS) theory has been one of the most popular frameworks for realizing innovation policies. Yet, adopting the perspective of sustainable innovation policy where innovation is also seen as a solution to various societal and environmental problems has been slow. Social enterprises (SEs) are discussed here as a means to address those problems, particularly through collaboration between sectors and focusing on social sustainability. The aim of this paper is to identify whether and in what way SEs are communicated as an innovative solution and as a source of innovations for economic and development activities through regional strategies. The data consist of regional innovation and business strategies from all Finnish regions, analysed using qualitative content analysis. We argue that there is a need to go deeper and include effective support mechanisms for SEs in these documents. Better inclusion of SEs as part of innovation systems and communicating this through regional strategies would help to develop SEs and to have them perceived as potential innovators and active entrepreneurial actors in innovation systems contributing to economically, environmentally and socially sustainable development.
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Asynthesis of the work of three noted authors provides a framework for collaborative decisions built on the foundation of decision analysis. A Nobel Prize winner provides a psychological foundation for the framework, an authority on harnessing the collective wisdom of organizations argues for the necessity of a mechanism for the aggregation of the decision makers' understandings, and a former senior executive for a Fortune 500 company describes a series of structured dialogues that supports the aggregation of understandings. The resulting collaborative decision process aggregates, rather than compromises, the understandings of decision makers. It makes explicit the aggregation of individuals' understandings of the frame of the decision to be made, the alternatives to be considered, the sources of value and risk, and, finally, the reasons for the resulting collaborative choice. In collaborative decision making, we do not strive for an optimum, a compromise, or a satisficing solution. Rather, collaborative decision making results in a significantly more valuable choice than the alternatives envisioned by any of the decision makers through the aggregation understandings. Though the collaborative choice was not envisioned by the decision makers, each feels ownership of it and explicitly agrees to implement it.
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Research and practice on knowledge management KM have shown that information technology alone cannot guarantee that employees will volunteer and share knowledge. While previous studies have linked motivational factors to knowledge sharing KS, we took a further step to thoroughly examine this theoretically and empirically. We developed a unified model that is comprehensive and yet parsimonious, based on the decomposed theory of planned behaviour DTPB with three sets of critical antecedents: psychological, organisational and technological that are theorised to influence KS behaviours. Results of a field survey of knowledge workers support the majority of hypothesised relationships, and explained 41.3% of the variance in the actual KS behaviours and 60.8% of the variance in the intention to share knowledge. These results far exceed the predictive powers achieved by previous studies. Among our significant findings include a strong positive influence of perceived enjoyment in helping others PEH and a strong negative influence of perceived loss of knowledge power PLK. Based on the findings, we discussed the study's implications for research and practice.
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Knowledge assets represent strategic resources and sources of organizational value creation. Their effective development and deployment is at the basis of organizational value creation capacity. However there is still a lack of applied approaches and tools explaining how knowledge assets dynamics take place in organizational value creation mechanisms. In particular, there is a managerial need to define decision-support frameworks that can enable managers to understand how knowledge assets interact each other and with organizational performance in order to support the achievement of company’s strategic objectives. A better understanding of why and how knowledge assets management initiatives can be turned into value creation mechanisms with positive impacts on business performance is fundamental to avoid misallocation of resources and to support management decisions.This paper proposes a systems thinking-based framework, the Knowledge Assets Dynamics Value Map (KAVDM), to explicate the working mechanisms by means knowledge assets can evolve on the basis of knowledge management initiatives and affect business performance improvements. The KAVDM offers a holistic view of the mechanisms at the basis of how knowledge assets are translated into organizational value. It supports the explanation and monitoring of how knowledge assets are interpedently and dependently linked, and how the management of one knowledge asset activates flow dynamics, that influence both other knowledge assets and business performance. Using the KAVDM managers can reflect upon the knowledge components grounding a company’s value creation and assess their mental models and views of the reality. Finally, an application of the KAVDM within a construction company is presented and its main managerial benefits addressed.
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Fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) were introduced as a tool to model the dynamics of qualitative systems and have been around for more than 20 years. However, how they have been used and the interpretations of their results are nowadays far from their original intended goal. This paper focuses on discussing the structure, the semantics and the possible use of FCM as tools to model and simulate complex social, economic and political systems, while clarifying some issues that have been recurrent in published FCM papers and reviewing some alternative approaches.
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Knowledge sharing is of crucial importance for organizations, due to the division of labor and accompanying fragmentation, specialization and distribution of knowledge. It is a means to achieve the organizational objectives. However, organizations have experienced that people do not always share their knowledge with others. Even when people know that they have to share their knowledge and with whom, when they have appropriate cognitive and communicative skills to do so, and also have the right communication technologies at their disposal, knowledge sharing does not always happen. Whereas existing literature has identified a variety of barriers for sharing knowledge, people’s motivations for sharing knowledge within organizations are still not fully understood. These motivations can be investigated by addressing the reciprocal nature of knowledge sharing, as being a social process. This research focuses on different kinds of relations within which knowledge sharing takes place and explains how different relational models influence knowledge sharing behavior. Furthermore, it explores how the relational models underlying knowledge sharing differ within different types of organizations. Based on two qualitative case studies, this research develops a theoretical and methodological framework for describing and analyzing the situated and relational nature of knowledge sharing.
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This article presents a set of grounded hypotheses on the interplay between communication and power relationships in the technological context that characterizes the network society. Based on a selected body of communication literature, and of a number of case studies and examples, it argues that the media have become the social space where power is decided. It shows the direct link between politics, media politics, the politics of scandal, and the crisis of political legitimacy in a global perspective. It also puts forward the notion that the development of interactive, horizontal networks of communication has induced the rise of a new form of communication, mass self-communication, over the Internet and wireless communication networks. Under these conditions, insurgent politics and social movements are able to intervene more decisively in the new communication space. However, corporate media and mainstream politics have also invested in this new communication space. As a result of these processes, mass media and horizontal communication networks are converging. The net outcome of this evolution is a historical shift of the public sphere from the institutional realm to the new communication space.
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This paper explores the nature of adaptive learning around new technology in organizations. To understand this issue, we examine the process of problem solving involving new production equipment during early factory use. We find that adaptation is a situated process, in that different organizational settings (1) contain different kinds of clues about the underlying issues, (2) offer different resources for generating and analyzing information, and (3) evoke different assumptions on the part of problem solvers. Consequently, actors frequently must move in an alternating fashion between different organizational settings before they can identify the causal underpinnings of a problem and develop a suitable solution. These findings suggest that traditional, decontextualized theories of adaptive learning and of collaboration could be improved by taking into account that learning occurs through people interacting in context—or, more specifically, in multiple contexts. Learning is often enhanced not just by bringing people together, but by moving them around to confront different sorts of clues, gather different kinds of data, use different kinds of tools, and experience different pressures relevant to a given problem. We discuss both managerial and theoretical implications of these findings.
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This article introduces the Japanese concept of "Ba" to organizational theory. Ba (equivalent to "place" in English) is a shared space for emerging relationships. It can be a physical, virtual, or mental space. Knowledge, in contrast to information, cannot be separated from the context—it is embedded in ba. To support the process of knowledge creation, a foundation in ba is required. This article develops and explains four specific platforms and their relationships to knowledge creation. Each of the knowledge conversion modes is promoted by a specific ba. A self-transcending process of knowledge creation can be supported by providing ba on different organizational levels. This article presents case studies of three companies that employ ba on the team, division, and corporate level to enhance knowledge creation.
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This study investigates the relationship between relationship learning and innovation. It discusses the difference and relationship between knowledge flow and knowledge stock as embodied in relationship learning. Results show that information sharing and joint sensemaking (knowledge flow) are positively associated with relationship-specific memory (knowledge stock), and indirectly influence both explorative and exploitative innovation through their effects on relationship-specific memory. This study also examines the role of learning intent of individual firms in relationship learning. Results indicate that stronger learning intent enhances the effect of information sharing on relationship-specific memory. Finally, the study discusses several implications of this research and offers suggestions for future research.