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Abstract

Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) (Col.: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) is an ambrosia beetle species native to subtropical Eastern Asia, with great concern due to its high invasive ability. This species has invaded 54 countries worldwide, including 4 European countries (Italy, France, Greece, and Spain); it was detected in Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Spain) in October 2019. In the present work, X. compactus is recorded for the first time in the Iberian Peninsula (Girona province, NE Spain); specimens were collected in Banyoles (August 2020, attacking twigs of Laurus nobilis and Liquidambar styraciflua) and Platja d’Aro (October 2020, attacking twigs of L. nobilis). Up-to-date information is presented about its geographical distribution, host plants, biology, symptoms, associate damages, and the possible origin of this species in Europe.

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The invasive ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus germanus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae: Xyleborini) is recorded for the first time infesting wine grapes in Italy. The type of the attack is illustrated and the possible causes of the onset of the infestation are discussed. Furthermore, given the continuously increasing number of alien wood-borer beetles introduced worldwide, we provide and discuss the updated world checklist of Scolytinae attacking Vitaceae, and Vitis sp. in particular.
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The Granulate Ambrosia Beetle Xylosandrus crassiusculus, an alien species of Asian origin, was recorded for first time in the Iberian Peninsula. Many specimens were collected in October 2016 in the Valencia region (Spain) from infested carob trees. The species is included in the EPPO Alert List as causing serious damage in many Mediterranean regions. A key for the morphological identification of the Xylosandrus species occurring in Europe is also reported.
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Invasive bark beetles are posing a major threat to forest resources around the world. DAISIE’s web-based and printed databases of invasive species in Europe provide an incomplete and misleading picture of the alien scolytines and platypodines. We present a review of the alien bark beetle fauna of Europe based on primary literature through 2009. We find that there are 18 Scolytinae and one Platypodinae species apparently established in Europe, from 14 different genera. Seventeen species are naturalized. We argue that Trypodendron laeve, commonly considered alien in Europe, is a native species; conversely, we hypothesize that Xyleborus pfeilii, which has always been treated as indigenous, is an alien species from Asia. We also point out the possibility that the Asian larch bark beetle Ips subelongatus is established in European Russia. We show that there has been a marked acceleration in the rate of new introductions to Europe, as is also happening in North America: seven alien species were first recorded in the last decade. We present information on the biology, origins, and distributions of the alien species. All but four are polyphagous, and 11 are inbreeders: two traits which increase invasiveness. Eleven species are native to Asia, six to the Americas, and one is from the Canary Islands. The Mediterranean is especially favorable for invasives, hosting a large proportion of the aliens (9/19). Italy, France and Spain have the largest numbers of alien species (14, 10 and 7, respectively). We point out that the low numbers for at least some countries is likely due to under-reporting. Finally, we discuss the difficulties associated with identifying newly invasive species. Lack of good illustrations and keys hinder identification, particularly for species coming from Asia and Oceania.
Article
We present the first record for Spain of the black twig borer, Xylosandrus compactus, an ambrosia beetle of Asian origin, collected from an infested carob tree located in Calvià (Majorca, Balearic Islands, Spain). X. compactus is included in the EPPO Alert List, and it has been recently reported causing damages in a Mediterranean maquis ecosystem in Italy and Southern France. Here, we discuss about the first steps of management of this Invasive Alien species (IAS), the eradication plan and the hypothesis of the path of introduction in this Western Mediterranean island.
Article
en The factors influencing the entry and the spread of the black twig borer, Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff), in the Mediterranean environment have not yet been characterized. Following its first report in Sicily (southern Italy) in 2016, and due to the high level of damage it causes on one of its host plants (Ceratonia siliqua L.), the flight activity of the pest was studied there. Monitoring was performed from spring 2017 to summer 2018 by exposing red cross‐shaped sticky traps combined with ethanol‐baited bottle traps. The three monitored sites were selected at different altitudes, representing the southern Mediterranean environment where the carob tree is widely present. The results showed that the pest populations are influenced by climatic factors. In particular, the first adults were caught when the maximum daily temperatures were stably higher than 20°C over several continuous days. Xylosandrus compactus occurred widely in the monitored territory and was continuously caught from spring to autumn. Furthermore, the traps used proved to be effective for intercepting the spring flight of the overwintering females. Moreover, the ability of the beetle to spread from a new infested area was also studied. It seems that the pest can spread more than 8 km from the last infested site of the previous flying season. It was not present above altitudes of 400 m in the conditions of the present study. This study represents the first step to better understand the behaviour of X. compactus in a newly colonized environment. Пepвыe дaнныe o лётнoй aктивнocти и pacпpocтpaнeнии жyкa‐дpeвecинникa Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) нa poжкoвыx дepeвьяx в Cицилии ru Haличиe и pacпpocтpaнeниe чepнoгo пoбeгoвoгo дpeвecинникa Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) в cpeдизeмнoмopcкoй oкpyжaющeй cpeдe eщё нe былo oпиcaнo. Пocлe eгo пepвoгo пpoникнoвeния нa Cицилию (юг Итaлии) в 2016 гoдy и в cвязи c выcoким ypoвнeм yщepбa, кoтopый oнa нaнocит pacтeнию‐xoзяинy (Ceratonia siliqua L.), былo пpoвeдeнo иccлeдoвaниe лётнoй aктивнocти этoгo вpeднoгo opгaнизмa. Moнитopинг пpoвoдилcя c вecны 2017 г. дo лeтa 2018 г. пyтём paзмeщeния клeйкиx лoвyшeк в фopмe кpacнoгo кpecтa в coчeтaнии c лoвyшкaми ‐ бyтылкaми c этaнoлoвoй пpимaнкoй. Tpи мecтa мoнитopингa, пpeдcтaвляющиx oкpyжaющyю cpeдy южнoгo Cpeдизeмнoмopья, гдe шиpoкo pacпpocтpaнeнo poжкoвoe дepeвo, были выбpaны нa paзныx выcoтax. Peзyльтaты пoкaзaли, чтo пoпyляции вpeднoгo opгaнизмa пoдвepжeны влиянию климaтичecкиx фaктopoв. B чacтнocти, пepвыe взpocлыe ocoби были пoймaны, кoгдa мaкcимaльнaя днeвнaя тeмпepaтypa cтaбильнo пpeвышaлa 20°C. Xylosandrus compactus шиpoкo вcтpeчaлcя нa нaблюдaeмoй тeppитopии и нeпpepывнo oтлaвливaлcя c вecны дo oceни. Кpoмe тoгo, эти лoвyшки oкaзaлиcь эффeктивными для выявлeния вeceннeгo лётa пpeзимoвaвшиx caмoк. Taкжe былa изyчeнa cпocoбнocть жyкa pacпpocтpaнятьcя из зoны пepвoгo oбнapyжeния. Пoxoжe, чтo вpeдный opгaнизм cпocoбeн pacпpocтpaнятьcя бoлee чeм нa 8 км oт пocлeднeгo зapaжённoгo yчacткa c пpeдыдyщeгo лётнoгo ceзoнa и пpиcyтcтвyeт нa выcoтax нe бoлee 400 м нaд ypoвнeм мopя. Дaннoe иccлeдoвaниe пpeдcтaвляeт coбoй пepвый шaг к лyчшeмy пoнимaнию пoвeдeния X. compactus в нoвoй кoлoнизиpoвaннoй cpeдe. Résultats préliminaires sur l'activité de vol et sur la distribution du scolyte des rameaux du caféier, Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff), sur le caroubier en Sicile fr Les facteurs influençant l'entrée et la dissémination de Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) dans l'environnement méditerranéen n'ont pas encore été caractérisés. Suite à son premier signalement en Sicile (sud de l'Italie) en 2016, et aux dégâts importants causés sur l'une de ses plante‐hôtes (Ceratonia siliqua L.), l'activité de vol de cet organisme nuisible a été étudiée. Un suivi a été effectué du printemps 2017 à l’été 2018, au moyen de pièges collants attractifs en forme de croix rouges associés à des bouteilles munies d'appâts à l’éthanol. Les trois sites de surveillance ont été sélectionnés à différentes altitudes, afin d’être représentatifs de l'environnement du sud de la Méditerranée où le caroubier est répandu. Les résultats ont montré que les populations de cet organisme nuisible sont influencées par des facteurs climatiques. Les premiers adultes ont notamment été capturés lorsque les températures maximales quotidiennes étaient supérieures à 20°C de façon récurrente sur plusieurs jours. Xylosandrus compactus est très répandu sur le territoire ayant fait l'objet d'un suivi, et y est capturé de façon continue du printemps à l'automne. De plus, les pièges utilisés se sont révélés efficaces pour intercepter le vol printanier des femelles hivernantes. En outre, la capacité du coléoptère à se disséminer à partir d'une nouvelle zone infestée a également été étudiée. Il semble que l'organisme nuisible peut se disséminer à plus de 8 km du dernier site infesté lors de la saison de vol précédente. Par ailleurs, il n’était pas présent à plus de 400 m d'altitude dans les conditions de la présente étude. Cette étude représente une première étape vers une meilleure compréhension du comportement de X. compactus dans un environnement récemment colonisé.
Article
Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), with the common name the Asian ambrosia beetle or the granulate ambrosia beetle, originates in tropical and subtropical regions of eastern Asia. It is one of the most widespread wood-boring beetles and among these one of the most successful invaders (IPPC 2017). Outside its native habitat, the species is present in Africa (Wood & Bright 1992, Atkinson et al. 2000), in Australia (IPPC 2017), on the Pacific Islands (Beaver 1976), in the Americas (Atkinson 1988, Rabaglia et al. 2006, Flechtmann & Atkinson 2016, Landi et al. 2017) and in Europe (Pennacchio et al. 2003, Nageleisen et al. 2015, Gallego et al. 2016, Francardi et al. 2017).
Article
Studies of symbioses have traditionally focused on explaining one-to-one interactions between organisms. In reality, symbioses are often much more dynamic. They can involve many interacting members, and change depending on context. In studies of the ambrosia symbiosis—the mutualism between wood borer beetles and fungi—two variables have introduced uncertainty when explaining interactions: imprecise symbiont identification, and disregard for anatomical complexity of the insects. The black twig borer, Xylosandrus compactus Eichhoff, is a globally invasive ambrosia beetle that infests >200 plant species. Despite many studies on this beetle, reports of its primary symbionts are conflicting. We sampled adult X. compactus and infested plant material in central Florida to characterize the fungal symbiont community using dilution series, beetle partitioning, and DNA-based identification. X. compactus was consistently associated with two fungal taxa, Fusarium spp. and Ambrosiella xylebori. Multivariate analyses revealed that A. xylebori was strongly associated with the beetle mycangium while Fusarium spp. were associated with the abdomen and external surfaces. The Fusarium spp. carried by X. compactus are not members of the Ambrosia Fusarium Clade, and are probably not mutualists. Fungal community composition of the mycangium was less variable than external body surfaces, thus providing a more consistent fungal inoculum. This is the first report of spatial partitioning as a mechanism for maintenance of a multimember ambrosia fungus community. Our results provide an explanation for discrepancies among previous reports, and suggest that conflicting results are not due to differences in symbiont communities, but due to inconsistent and incomplete sampling.
Article
Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff), an introduced ambrosia beetle, is established in at least 28 counties in Florida and has been reported from southeast Georgia. The fungal symbiont was identified as Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. The chaetal pattern of the head capsule is described. Average duration of the egg, larval, pupal, and adult maturation stages at room temperature was 5, 7.5, 7.5, and 8.5 days, respectively. Thirty-one plant species served as hosts of X. compactus in Florida. On flowering dogwood (Cornus florida L.) X. compactus overwintered principally as adults in twigs and small branches, began emergence during late February, began attacks on new twigs during March, and began producing brood during April. Highest population levels in flowering dogwood twigs occurred from June through September.
Article
In Belgium, the current distribution and abundance of Xylosandrus germanus (Coleoptera, Scolytidae), a relatively new species to the Belgian fauna, is poorly known. Therefore, data on the range and population levels of this ambrosia beetle, on a regional and local scale respectively, are presented. Based on those results, the beetles range is discussed. Among the analysed biotic and abiotic factors that could influence the species settlement and population levels, climatic ones, and temperature in particular, seem to exert a crucial influence.
Article
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