Reinstatement of Kalanchoe [subg. Bryophyllum] sect. Alatae (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) for K. porphyrocalyx and K. uniflora, two Malagasy endemics

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Kalanchoe sect. Alatae Raym.-Hamet (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) is here reinstated in K. subg. Bryophyllum (Salisb.) Koord. Two Malagasy species, K. porphyrocalyx (Baker) Baill. and K. uniflora (Stapf) Raym.-Hamet, are included in the section.

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... Kalanchooideae) is here regarded as consisting of five subgenera: the geographically widespread autonymic one; as well as K. subg. Alatae (Raymond-Hamet 1933: 547) Gideon F.Sm., Shtein & D.-P.Klein in Smith et al. (2021a: 255) (Smith 2021a), K. subg. Bryophyllum (Salisbury 1805: t. 3) Koorders (1919: 170), and K. subg. ...
The endemic South African species Kalanchoe gideonsmithii (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) is described from KwaZulu-Natal, the eastern-most province of the country. The entire natural geographical distribution range of the species falls within the species-rich Maputaland-Pondoland Region of Endemism. Kalanchoe gideonsmithii is related to K. rotundifolia and K. decumbens, but differs from both by having most plant parts, including the flowers, bluish purple-infused. The leaves of K. gideonsmithii are narrowly oblong, like those of K. decumbens, but longer and of greater diameter than those of the latter species. In contrast, the leaves of K. rotundifolia are mostly oblanceolate to obovate to round in outline. The reproductive morphology of K. gideonsmithii is constant in terms of the size and shape of the corolla tube and lobes, with the distal part of the corolla tube and proximal part of the corolla lobes invariably becoming tightly twisted post-anthesis, as in K. decumbens and K. rotundifolia. At the level of the ovary the corolla tubes of K. gideonsmithii are generally dark orange- to purplish blue-infused, rather than somewhat to distinctly green-infused, as is usually the case in K. rotundifolia and, to a lesser extent, K. decumbens. The upper part of the corolla tube is consistently bright orange-red, with the centres of the adaxial surface of the corolla lobes a similar colour, or sometimes very slightly yellowish-infused in the centre. Kalanchoe gideonsmithii presents a combination of vegetative and reproductive morphological characters that warrants its recognition at species rank, especially following the recent description of the ‘rotundifolioid’ K. waterbergensis and the reinstatement of K. decumbens, also a relative of K. rotundifolia.
... Therefore, rather than breeding and selecting for compact plants and somewhat stunted, rounded, highly floriferous inflorescences, cut flowers with long 'stems', i.e., peduncles, tend to be more popular for keeping in a vase. We here describe material derived from K. lubangensis Fernandes (1980: 400) Smith et al. (2021a: 255) (Smith 2021), K. subg. Bryophyllum (Salisbury 1805: t. 3) Koorders (1919: 170), and K. subg. ...
Efforts to broaden and improve the genetic stock from which horticultural material of Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) is made available globally are ongoing. Apart from making small, lightweight , highly floriferous material-both single-and double-flowered-available to the in-and outdoor plant trades, work is also underway to select Kalanchoe material that can be sold as long-lasting cut flowers. Material derived from K. lubangensis × K. sexangularis, here described as K. ×forbesiae, shows promise as a source of cut flowers.
In terms of number of taxa accepted at present – about 180 – Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) is the third largest genus recognised in the family. Madagascar is home to more than one third of the recognised taxa with the rest spread across Africa, and the Near, Middle, and Far East. In terms of growth form (trees, various types of shrubs, herbs, epiphytes; all leaf succulents), Madagascar also harbours the greatest diversity found in the genus. Several Malagasy species of Kalanchoe have attracted significant research interest from horticultural, (eco-)physiological and invasions biological perspectives. However, the species that occur beyond Madagascar have not been studied to the same degree. This review provides a synthesis of field observations made over several decades, especially in southern Africa, and of available information on several aspects of kalanchoe biology and ecology assembled from a wide range of sources. Such synthesised knowledge is important for, inter alia, informing conservation management strategies for wild kalanchoe populations, as well as more widely for the grassland and savanna and, to a lesser degree, forest and thicket, habitats in which the species mostly occur.
The hybrid between Kalanchoe lateritia and K. sexangularis (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) is described as K. ×sogae. Like K. lateritia, virtually all plant parts of K. ×sogae are covered in a fine indumentum, but with the indumentum being less substantial in the case of this nothospecies. The leaves and stems of material of K. ×sogae are bright red-infused, especially when growing in full sun. This hybrid shows considerable horticultural potential and is more resistant against phytophagous insects than K. sexangularis.
The recent reinstatement of Kalanchoe decumbens Compton as well as the description of K. waterbergensis van Jaarsv. (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) necessitate a reassessment of the circumscription of K. rotundifolia (Haw.) Haw., thus far the morphologically most diverse kalanchoe indigenous to southern Africa. Material with bright green, generally orbicular to slightly obovate leaves that hitherto has been included in K. rotundifolia is here split off from the latter. The name K. klopperae Gideon F. Sm. & Figueiredo is published for this material.
Since 2016 the number of species of Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae) known from southern Africa has increased by more than 50%, from 13 to 20. We here describe the 21st species known from the subcontinent. As far as could be determined, this new species, K. benbothae, is endemic to northeastern KwaZulu-Natal, the eastern-most province of South Africa, with the entire natural geographical distribution range of the species falling within the Maputaland-Pondoland Region of Endemism. Kalanchoe benbothae fits in K. subg. Fernandesiae, a cluster of species with large, paddle- to soup plate-sized leaves, and dense, elongated, often club-shaped inflorescences. The closest relative of K. benbothae is K. luciae, which was described just over 110 years ago, and was the second representative of K. subg. Fernandesiae to have been described. Kalanchoe benbothae differs from K. luciae mostly in its reproductive morphology (corolla lobe colour and orientation, anther colour and presentation, filament length, pistil shape, and size and shape of the nectar scales).
Boiteau & Mannoni (1948: 58) proposed recognition of two varieties, apart from the typical one, in the Madagascan Kalanchoe porphyrocalyx (Baker 1883: 142) Baillon (1885: 469) (Crassulaceae subfam. Kalanchooideae). For one of these, the combination K. porphyrocalyx var. sulphurea (Baker 1887: 471) Boiteau & Mannoni (1948: 58) was validly published. However, for the other one their proposed ‘Kalanchoe porphyrocalyx var. sambiranensis Humbert ex Boiteau & Mannoni’ (Boiteau & Mannoni 1948: 58) was not validly published as it lacked a description or diagnosis in Latin, which by then had been one of the requirements for the valid publication of, inter alia, the scientific names of species and infraspecific taxa for 13 years, i.e., since 1 January 1935 (Art. 39.1 of the ICN, Turland et al. 2018). A valid combination for, along with a description of K. porphyrocalyx var. sambiranensis Humbert ex Gideon F.Sm. & Figueiredo, are published here.
Dioecious or rarely monoecious herbaceous perennial climbers, rarely ± woody, rarely spiny, often completely deciduous tropophytes from underground or above-ground tubers (sometimes with fissured corky bark) or rhizomes; sometimes with aerial tubers from L axils; L alternate or rarely opposite, petiole mostly well-developed, lamina entire or (palmately) lobed or more often heart-shaped, with few to many curved-ascending and again converging main veins; Inf paniculate or spicate from L axils; Fl small and often greenish, almost always unisexual, regular; Tep 6 in 2 series, basally usually united, often with Nec; male Fl with 6 St in 2 whorls (sometimes 1 whorl absent or as staminodes); Anth longitudinally dehiscent; female Fl without staminodes; Ov inferior of 3 united Ca with normally 2 ovules per locule, placentation mostly axile; Sty 3 or 1; Sti 3; Fr often 3-winged capsules, or fleshy berries; Se often winged.
The study presents an analysis of genotypic diversity in the genus Kalanchoe (Crassulaceae) on the level of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequences and the attempt to correlate this diversity with previous findings on ecophysiological behavior, habitat preference, infrageneric taxonomic position of the species and DNA polymorphism derived from RAPD-PCR data. The Kalanchoe species are mainly abundant in Madagascar and eastern continental Africa and perform in situ diverse modes of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), an ecophysiologically relevant adaptation of photosynthesis. Total DNA was extracted from 68 Kalanchoe species and varieties. The ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions of the nuclear RNA genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, cloned and sequenced. The alignments of the sequences were evaluated by distance (neighbor joining) and character state (maximum parsimony) methods. The main topologies of the obtained ITS phylogenetic trees were quite similar irrespective of the mode of evaluation and show: (A) within the Crassulaceae the genus Kalanchoe forms a monophyletic clade; and (B) within the genus the species form three main clusters which coincide well with the previously reported three infrageneric sections of the species distinguishable by classical taxonomic criteria, the mode of in situ CAM performance, and DNA fragment pattern obtained by RAPD-PCR analyses. Moreover, the ITS phylogenetic trees show that all African Kalanchoe species form a distinct group within the most derived of the three main clusters. This is consistent with the view that the center of phylogenetic radiation of the genus is located in Madagascar from where the species have spread into the continental Africa.
Systématique, écophysiologie et phytochimie
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