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Climate Change, Biodiversity, and Environmental Governance: Nature and People



Climate Change, Biodiversity, and Environmental Governance: Nature and People - Climate change, biodiversity, and environmental governance; - Some of the tendencies; - Some elements that need to change; - Key elements for the way forward; - Protected areas as key solutions (to CBD CoP-15; equity; governance; traditional communities; poor classes; urban areas etc.).
Climate Change, Biodiversity, and Environmental Governance:
Nature and People
cláudio C. Maretti, PhD.
Geography, USP; Post Doc (Collaborative
Conservation in Protected Areas lato sensu)
World Commission on Protected Areas,
IUCN, vice chair for South America
Área de Proteção Ambiental (APA) da
Costa dos Corais (categoria V UICN)
(foto do web site da Fundação Toyota do Brasil)
Climate change, biodiversity, and
environmental governance
Climate change, biodiversity, and
environmental governance
Relations between society and nature, but social responsibility as well
What some of us are doing with the rest of humankind?
What should be key principles?
Equity in reference to reduction of inequalities, of social
differences, as well as to respect the diversity
Keep possibilities for human sustainable development
Some of the tendencies
IPBES report (2019) shows ecosystems reduction,
species threats growth and major risks to humankind (
ecosystem-services etc.)
Each new report show the worsening of the
good life conditions, including human life
water, food production in land and fish
stocks etc.
(“Planetary boundaries”; Steffen et alii, 2015;
Moving beyond the planetary boundaries,
for our good life conditions
Some of the tendencies
Economic, social and environmental discussions continue separated, isolated from each
(considering economic, social and environmental tree equal pillars for the aimed development,
while there should be a hierarchy of dependencies)
Big geopolitical (including decision power) and economic (including quality of life) divide
Conflict growth in countries that are poor, forested, inequitable or with important
traditional peoples
Ecosystem conversion and degradation
Slow change in energy production
Some elements that need to change
Short term political and social perspectives
Excessive weight to the short-term financial implications (not economical
Excessive concentration of decisions that affects most of us
Low attention to nature-based solutions (and ecosystem-based
Technocratic (and alarmist) style of management of the environment
(including nature conservation)
(Folke et alii, 2016,
Not only pillars equilibrium, but mostly
hierarchy of dependencies
(Locke et alii, [s/d], A Nature-Positive World: The Global Goal for Nature)
Parque Nacional Iguaçu
(categoria II, internac. UICN)
(foto André Dib)
Key elements for the way forward
Key elements for the way forward
Participation, engagement and responsibility sharing i.e., decisions deconcentration, not waiting only for
governments to act and not blame others (instead of doing ourselves)
Focus on the transversal solutions, but not entirely; assure strategic and surviving resistance spaces
Promote protected areas as multiple solutions, but assure more open and inclusive governance and management
Rebuild local social participation
Reconnect local to global; human dimension to global processes
Any good (public) policy depends on good participation
Regulations are needed, but activism remain irreplaceable
More attention on the way (how we move, how we relate to others), than on the supposed aim (where to arrive)
(there is no “paradise”, much less waiting for us to arrive)
Benefits from nature as a fundamental human right
engagement and
responsibility sharing
Gestão participativa em ação
(foto para ICMBio)
Protected areas as key solutions
A sign of social illness?
But a resistance strategy, potentially
Protected areas as key solutions
Best conservation mechanism, as well as to the access of society
to the nature benefits
Nature-based solutions to face climate change, biodiversity
degradation and health crises
But need to overcome the lack of good interaction between their
management and the society
Need particular attention to equity
Both regarding the indigenous peoples and traditional communities, as well
as the poor areas in the big cities, facing attacks against their rights,
livelihoods sustainability, disasters and health problems
And people!
30% conservation in 2030
Including strongly local and traditional communities
and indigenous peoples, as well as poor urban classes
To CBD CoP-15
Recognition of traditional communities
and indigenous peoples rights
Poor urban classes access to nature
Respect to cultural diversity
Reserva Extrativista Cururupu
(categoria VI da UICN, com gestão compartilhada com comunidades tradicionais)
(web site Mar Sem Fim)
Traditional communities
(Trechos do município de São Paulo, Google Maps, 2021 mai. 04, por cCM.)
(Campinas, Plano Municipal do Verde, v. 3 Prognostico)
Equitable access to the
green and natural areas in
(Monaco, 2010, Sistemas de Áreas Verdes, Butantã)
Planning for urban areas
with nature-based
solutions, for instance
for avoiding floods
Water security in cities
Parque Nacional de Brasília
(categoria II, internac. UICN)
(fotos Edgard Thomas, Tony Winston,
Cultura Mix e Curta+)
(;;; etc.)
(Folke et alii, 2016,
Protected and green areas are key to the
wellbeing and health mostly in urban areas
Parques Nacionais Aparados
da Serra e Serra Geral
(categoria II UICN)
(foto para ICMBio)
Nature is good for you!
Offer to cultural
and social groups
social and
Build alliances
(From “my” local cultural
(Fotos: Prefeitura de Atibaia
do-itapetinga-grota-funda/; Renan Fatibello
Atibaia, SP, Brasil
Monumento Natural Estadual da Pedra Grande
e Parque Estadual Itapetinga (Fundação
Florestal) e Parque Natural Municipal da Grota
Funda (Prefeitura da Estância de Atibaia)
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