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Abstract

Objective To evaluate the efficacy of abdominal binders in reducing postoperative pain, patient distress and surgical postoperative sequelae after cesarean delivery (CD). Methods A comprehensive search in electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central) was performed up to February 2021. Selection criteria included randomized clinical trials investigating the application or not of abdominal binder after CD. The primary outcome was postoperative pain, measured using the visual analog scale (VAS) pain score. Secondary outcomes were divided into short- and long-term postoperative outcomes, including patient distress, need for additional pain medications, time to mobilization, return to normal daily activities, surgical site infection, fascial dehiscence or incisional hernia, and rectus abdominis diastasis. The summary measures were reported as mean difference with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) using the random effects model of DerSimonian and Laird. An I² (Higgins I²) value of greater than 0% was used to identify heterogeneity. Results Four RCTs involving 601 women were included for meta-analysis: 310 (51.6 %) were randomized to the abdominal binder and 291 (48.4 %) to no abdominal binder group. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups for VAS score either at 24 h (MD −0.97, 95 % CI −2.23 to 0.30; p = 0.13) and at 48 h (MD −0.30, 95 % CI −0.71 to 0.11; p = 0.15). Conversely, there was a significant reduction in postoperative distress (SDS) both at 24 h (MD −2.23, 95 % CI −3.77 to −0.70; p = 0.004) and 48 h (MD −2.37, 95 % CI −3.86 to −0.87; p = 0.002). Conclusion The present meta-analysis shows that the use of abdominal binders after CD significantly reduces patient distress.

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... A study investigating whether the type of birth, cesarean or vaginal, has a variable effect on the outcome of certain exercises would also inform clinical decisions. In light of evidence supporting the successful management of post-caesarean recovery 33 using abdominal binder, a study investigating the use of binders in restoring functional abdominal wall control may be of future interest, as well. ...
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Diastasis rectus abdominis (DRA) is a condition commonly prevalent in the immediate postpartum period and decreasing in prevalence during the first year after delivery. The condition is pathologic when it interferes with activities and quality of life. The condition is frequently assessed using the interrectus distance. The purpose of this systematic review was to pool and analyze studies examining the use of exercise and companion modalities for the treatment of DRA among postpartum women. Systematic review (PROSPERO CRD42021277067). A systematic search for articles published in CINAHL, MEDLINE, and PubMed was conducted. Included articles identified exercise as a component of treatment for DRA for postpartum women. The quality of the studies was evaluated using the appropriate NHLBI quality assessment tool. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane ROB-2 and ROBINS-1 tools. The database search yielded 38 titles; 16 more were located as secondary searches. Fourteen articles remained for final inclusion: 9 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 5 cross-sectional studies. Interventions with significant DRA improvements included traditional abdominal exercises (AE) with deep core stability, AE with pelvic floor muscle exercises, crunch exercises, drawing-in exercises with AE, and neuromuscular electrical stimulation with AE. Article quality varied from poor to good across RCTs and poor to fair for non-RCTs. Although these findings support the use of AE to reduce interrectus distance and improve quality of postpartum life, future research should investigate exercise selection based on the results of more multifaceted and clinically meaningful assessments.
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Caesarean section is associated with moderate-to-severe postoperative pain, which can influence postoperative recovery and patient satisfaction as well as breastfeeding success and mother-child bonding. The aim of this systematic review was to update the available literature and develop recommendations for optimal pain management after elective caesarean section under neuraxial anaesthesia. A systematic review utilising procedure-specific postoperative pain management (PROSPECT) methodology was undertaken. Randomised controlled trials published in the English language between 1 May 2014 and 22 October 2020 evaluating the effects of analgesic, anaesthetic and surgical interventions were retrieved from MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane databases. Studies evaluating pain management for emergency or unplanned operative deliveries or caesarean section performed under general anaesthesia were excluded. A total of 145 studies met the inclusion criteria. For patients undergoing elective caesarean section performed under neuraxial anaesthesia, recommendations include intrathecal morphine 50-100 µg or diamorphine 300 µg administered pre-operatively; paracetamol; non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; and intravenous dexamethasone administered after delivery. If intrathecal opioid was not administered, single-injection local anaesthetic wound infiltration; continuous wound local anaesthetic infusion; and/or fascial plane blocks such as transversus abdominis plane or quadratus lumborum blocks are recommended. The postoperative regimen should include regular paracetamol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with opioids used for rescue. The surgical technique should include a Joel-Cohen incision; non-closure of the peritoneum; and abdominal binders. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation could be used as analgesic adjunct. Some of the interventions, although effective, carry risks, and consequentially were omitted from the recommendations. Some interventions were not recommended due to insufficient, inconsistent or lack of evidence. Of note, these recommendations may not be applicable to unplanned deliveries or caesarean section performed under general anaesthesia.
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Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of abdominal binder usage on mobilization, postoperative pain, and distress after cesarean delivery. Materials and methods: This prospective randomized controlled study was conducted between September 1, 2017 and January 31, 2018 at Bakirkoy Dr. Sadi Konuk Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. A total of 89 women undergoing elective cesarean were randomized to the study (binder, n=45) or control (no binder, n=44) groups. Patients in the study group were fitted with a binder before leaving the operating room. Mobilization (6-minute walk test), postoperative pain (measured by Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire and Visual Analog Scale), and perceived distress status of both groups were evaluated within 8th (first mobilization time), 24th, and 48th h of surgery. Results: We found that the binder group (BG) walked longer than the control group during the 6-minute walking distance test. At the first mobilization time (postoperative 8th h), the BG (99.4±27.3 m) covered significantly more distance than the control group (81.0±22.2 m) (p=0.001) in the walking distance test. At postoperative 24th h, the McGill pain score in the BG was significantly lower than that in the control group (p=0.004). For all three test times, the Symptom Distress Scale of the BG was lower than that of the control group (postoperative 8th h p=0.024, 24th h p<0.001, and 48th h p<0.001). Conclusion: The evidence is consistent with abdominal binder usage after cesarean section decreasing the feeling of distress and increasing mobility.
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Objective To compare the effect of abdominal binder versus no binder after major abdominal surgery and cesarean section on various post-operative recovery parameters. Materials and methods This is a randomized controlled trial conducted at the Department of General Surgery and Obstetrics, Civil Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. All those patients aged ≥18 years having abdominal surgery including elective and emergency abdominal surgery and cesarean sections with American Society of Anesthesiologists Class I-III were included in the study. Randomization was done using the sealed envelope method by the principal investigator. The intervention group wore an abdominal binder postoperatively while the control group did not use it. Mobilization and the pain status of both groups were evaluated on the first, fourth, and seventh days after surgery. Results Primary outcome variables were mobility, assessed via 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and postoperative pain, evaluated via visual analogue scale. There was no statistically significant difference in the 6MWT distance before (p = 0.278) and on postoperative day one of the surgery (p = 0.0762). However, the difference was significant on fourth (p < 0.001) and seventh day (p value < 0.001). With regards to the pain status, patients in the binder group reported significantly less postoperative pain on first, fourth, and seventh (p value < 0.001) day compared to the non-binder group. Conclusion The use of abdominal binder postoperatively significantly reduced pain and improved mobility in both obstetric and surgery patients.
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Background A potential non-pharmacologic way to reduce postoperative pain and bleeding is using an abdominal binder during postoperative recovery. This study aims to determine the effect an elastic abdominal binder has on postoperative pain and hemorrhage after cesarean delivery. Methods A randomized, single-site, pilot trial was conducted at two prenatal care clinics and an academic hospital in Kansas. Beginning in April 2013, 60 patients were enrolled if delivering via cesarean. Participants were randomized to receive an abdominal binder or to a control group (did not use binder). Pain levels were reported by questionnaire one day after surgery using a 0 to 10 scale, with 10 being the worst pain. Patient characteristics and blood loss were assessed by medical record review. Results Of the 56 patients completing the study, 29 (51.8%) were randomized to the binder group and 27 (48.2%) were randomized to the control group. The binder group reported significantly lower pain score (p = 0.019) and average pain score (p = 0.024). There was no difference in body mass index, age, previous surgery, infant birth weight, estimated blood loss, and average dose of pain medication during the first 24 hours after the cesarean delivery between the two groups. There was no difference in pre- and post-operative hemoglobin levels by treatment group (p = 0.406). Conclusions Abdominal binders may be associated with improved postoperative pain scores but did not affect postoperative hemorrhage.
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Objectives: To investigate the effect of non-elastic/elastic abdominal binders on intra-vesical pressure (IVP), physiological functions, and clinical outcomes in laparotomy patients at the perioperative stage. Methods: This prospective study was conducted from May to October 2014 at the Trauma Surgery Department, Daping Hospital, Chongqing, China. Laparotomy patients were randomly divided into non-elastic abdominal binder group (28 patients), and elastic abdominal binder group (29 patients). Binders were applied for 14 days following the operation, or until discharge. Demographic information, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II) scores (prior to the operation, on the first day after operation, the day IVP measurement was stopped, and one day before discharge), and outcomes were recorded. The IVP was measured before the operation to postoperative day 7. Results: There were no significant differences in the demographic information, outcomes, SOFA or APACHE-II scores between the 2 groups. Initial out-of-bed mobilization occurred earlier in the elastic binder group (3.2 ± 2.0 versus 5.0 ± 3.7 days, p =0.028). A greater increase in IVP was observed in the non-elastic binder group than in the elastic binder group (2.9 ± 1.1 versus 1.1 ± 0.7 mm Hg, p =0.000). Conclusion: Elastic binders have relatively little effect on IVP and are more helpful at promoting postoperative recovery than non-elastic binders. Therefore, elastic binders are more suitable for clinical use. Saudi Med J 2016; Vol. 37 (1): 66-72 doi: 10.15537/smj.2016.1.12865 How to cite this article: Zhang HY, Liu D, Tang H, Sun SJ, Ai SM, Yang WQ, et al. The effect of different types of abdominal binders on intra-abdominal pressure . Saudi Med J 2016; 37: 66-72 .
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Objectives: To investigate the effect of non-elastic/elastic abdominal binders on intra-vesical pressure (IVP), physiological functions, and clinical outcomes in laparotomy patients at the perioperative stage. Methods: This prospective study was conducted from May to October 2014 at the Trauma Surgery Department, Daping Hospital, Chongqing, China. Laparotomy patients were randomly divided into non-elastic abdominal binder group (28 patients), and elastic abdominal binder group (29 patients). Binders were applied for 14 days following the operation, or until discharge. Demographic information, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II) scores (prior to the operation, on the first day after operation, the day IVP measurement was stopped, and one day before discharge), and outcomes were recorded. The IVP was measured before the operation to postoperative day 7. Results: There were no significant differences in the demographic information, outcomes, SOFA or APACHE-II scores between the 2 groups. Initial out-of-bed mobilization occurred earlier in the elastic binder group (3.2 ± 2.0 versus 5.0 ± 3.7 days, p=0.028). A greater increase in IVP was observed in the non-elastic binder group than in the elastic binder group (2.9 ± 1.1 versus 1.1 ± 0.7 mm Hg, p=0.000). Conclusion: Elastic binders have relatively little effect on IVP and are more helpful at promoting postoperative recovery than non-elastic binders. Therefore, elastic binders are more suitable for clinical use.
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Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have become increasingly important in health care. Clinicians read them to keep up to date with their field [1],[2], and they are often used as a starting point for developing clinical practice guidelines. Granting agencies may require a systematic review to ensure there is justification for further research [3], and some health care journals are moving in this direction [4]. As with all research, the value of a systematic review depends on what was done, what was found, and the clarity of reporting. As with other publications, the reporting quality of systematic reviews varies, limiting readers' ability to assess the strengths and weaknesses of those reviews. Several early studies evaluated the quality of review reports. In 1987, Mulrow examined 50 review articles published in four leading medical journals in 1985 and 1986 and found that none met all eight explicit scientific criteria, such as a quality assessment of included studies [5]. In 1987, Sacks and colleagues [6] evaluated the adequacy of reporting of 83 meta-analyses on 23 characteristics in six domains. Reporting was generally poor; between one and 14 characteristics were adequately reported (mean = 7.7; standard deviation = 2.7). A 1996 update of this study found little improvement [7]. In 1996, to address the suboptimal reporting of meta-analyses, an international group developed a guidance called the QUOROM Statement (QUality Of Reporting Of Meta-analyses), which focused on the reporting of meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials [8]. In this article, we summarize a revision of these guidelines, renamed PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses), which have been updated to address several conceptual and practical advances in the science of systematic reviews (Box 1). Box 1: Conceptual Issues in the Evolution from QUOROM to PRISMA Completing a Systematic Review Is an Iterative Process The conduct of a systematic review depends heavily on the scope and quality of included studies: thus systematic reviewers may need to modify their original review protocol during its conduct. Any systematic review reporting guideline should recommend that such changes can be reported and explained without suggesting that they are inappropriate. The PRISMA Statement (Items 5, 11, 16, and 23) acknowledges this iterative process. Aside from Cochrane reviews, all of which should have a protocol, only about 10% of systematic reviewers report working from a protocol [22]. Without a protocol that is publicly accessible, it is difficult to judge between appropriate and inappropriate modifications.
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Background and aim: The use of abdominal binders after laparotomy is a question of habit. Scientific evidence of their usefulness is limited. The aims of this work were to review the scientific literature and to depict the practices of French surgeons regarding the use of these devices. Methods: A systematic review of the literature about the use of abdominal binders after laparotomy was conducted. In order to depict surgeons' habits, an anonymous questionnaire was sent to all surgical departments affiliated to the FRENCH network (Federation of Surgical Research) and their surgical contacts. They were all asked about their use of binders, the type of binders they ordered, the expected benefit, the cost and the need for a randomized trial in this field. Results: Only four trials have been published regarding the use of abdominal binders after laparotomy, all with a small number of patients. Some authors suggested that wearing binders procured a benefit in terms of postoperative comfort, but no significant difference was found. One study also suggested an improvement in respiratory volumes. No study focused on incisional hernia. Regarding the survey of practices, 50 questionnaires were retained for the final analysis (one questionnaire per department of surgery). The use of this device is really very frequent in France (94 % of surgeons order them), a habit usually acquired during the training in surgery. The main expected benefit is the prevention of abdominal wall dehiscence (83 %), but also an improvement in patients' postoperative comfort and pain (66 %). Although some surgeons order an abdominal binder for all their patients, most use them in selected patients (according to the operation and the patients' characteristics). Conclusion: Abdominal binders are frequently ordered by French surgeons after laparotomy. The expected benefit is the prevention of abdominal-wall complications, even though no data actually support this practice. Binders might have a benefit in terms of postoperative pain relief, but this needs to be analyzed. A prospective randomized trial is warranted.
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Objective: Funnel plots (plots of effect estimates against sample size) may be useful to detect bias in meta-analyses that were later contradicted by large trials. We examined whether a simple test of asymmetry of funnel plots predicts discordance of results when meta-analyses are compared to large trials, and we assessed the prevalence of bias in published meta-analyses. Design: Medline search to identify pairs consisting of a meta-analysis and a single large trial (concordance of results was assumed if effects were in the same direction and the meta-analytic estimate was within 30
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We reviewed the risks and benefits of vaginal and cesarean delivery to help frame the inherent trade-offs that should be considered as part of the informed consent discussion between patients and providers. We performed a targeted literature review for common complications of childbirth. Approximately 30% of women will experience a maternal or neonatal complication during childbirth. Both cesarean and vaginal delivery is associated with well-known measurable short- and long-term maternal and neonatal complications and benefits. Childbirth is not risk free. There are data available that can guide the informed consent process with objective quantifiable data that patients and providers can use to weigh risks and benefits of delivery methods.
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Purpose: Immobility and pain are modifiable risk factors for development of venous thromboembolism and pulmonary morbidity after major abdominal surgery (MAS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of abdominal incision support with an elasticized abdominal binder on postoperative walk performance (mobility), perceived distress, pain, and pulmonary function in patients following MAS. Methods: Seventy-five patients scheduled to undergo MAS via laparotomy were randomized to experimental (binder) or control (no binder) groups. Sixty (33 male, 27 female; mean age 58±14.9 years) completed the study. Preoperative measurements of 6-minute walk test (6MWT) distance, perceived distress, pain, and pulmonary function were repeated 1, 3, and 5 days after surgery. Results: Surgery was associated with marked postoperative reductions (p<0.001) in walk distance (∼75-78%, day 3) and forced vital capacity (35%, all days) for both groups. Improved 6MWT distance by day 5 was greater (p<0.05) for patients wearing a binder (80%) than for the control group (48%). Pain and symptom-associated distress remained unchanged following surgery with binder usage, increasing significantly (p<0.05) only in the no binder group. Conclusion: Elasticized abdominal binders provide a non-invasive intervention for enhancing recovery of walk performance, controlling pain and distress, and improving patients' experience following MAS.
Article
Background: Abdominal binder is a non-pharmacological method of relieving pain after surgical procedures. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of the abdominal binder in relieving pain and distress scores after cesarean delivery (CD). Search strategy: The following terms were searched: cesarean section, cesarean, caesarean, abdominal deliveries, C-section, abdominal delivery, abdominal binding, binder, and abdominal binder. Selection criteria: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with patients undergoing CD receiving an abdominal binder compared with non-users of the abdominal binder. Data collection and analysis: Five electronic databases were searched until November 2019. Records were screened for eligibility. Data were extracted independently and analyzed. The main outcomes were pain and distress scores. Results: The final analysis included six RCTs. Overall effect estimate favored the abdominal binder group over the control group in the following outcomes: VAS pain scores after 24 hours (mean difference [MD] -1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] -3.14 to -0.39; P=0.01), VAS scores after 48 hours (MD -1.21; 95% CI -1.51 to -0.90; P>0.001), distress score after 24 hours (MD -1.87; 95% CI -3.01 to -0.73; P=0.001), and distress score after 48 hours (MD -1.87; 95% CI -3.07 to -0.67; P=0.002). Conclusion: The abdominal binder could be an effective, simple, non-pharmacological option of relieving pain and distress after CD.
Article
Objective. We conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate the effects of abdominal binder in abdominal surgeries. Methods. Through literature retrieval in globally recognized databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central), trials investigating the application of abdominal binder in abdominal surgeries were systematically reviewed. The main outcomes, namely, 6-minute walk test (6MWT), visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, and symptom distress scale (SDS) score, were pooled to make an overall estimation. I ² index was calculated to identify heterogeneity, and sensitivity analysis was performed to validate the stability of main results and explore the source of heterogeneity. A funnel plot and Egger’s test were applied to assess publication bias. Results. Ten randomized controlled trials consisting of 968 subjects were ultimately included for the pooled estimation. Abdominal binder significantly increased the distance of 6MWT with standard mean difference (SMD) of .555 ( P < .001) and decreased the scores of VAS and SDS with SMD of −.979 ( P < .001) and −.716 ( P < .001), respectively. Despite of the significant heterogeneity indicated by I ² index statistic, the results of sensitivity analysis revealed the reliability of the main conclusions. While we identified no obvious publication bias regarding 6MWT (Egger’s test P = .321), it seemed that significant publication biases existed with respect to the estimation of VAS ( P < .001) and SDS ( P = .006). Conclusion. The current meta-analysis verified that abdominal binder efficiently promoted recovery after abdominal surgeries in terms of facilitating mobilization, alleviating pain, and reducing postoperative distress. More rigorously designed clinical trials with large sample size are expected to further elaborate its clinical value.
Article
Background Midline laparotomy is an unavoidable approach to many surgical procedures. Many surgeons prescript the use of postoperative abdominal binder during the first mobilization after surgery. The use and the cost effective of this device is still debated by many surgeons. Methods PubMed, EMBASE and the CENTRAL were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials (RCT) comparing patients who wore abdominal binder (“binder”) and patient who did not wear any abdominal binder (“non-binder”) up to March 2020. The primary outcomes measured in the comparison were postoperative pain, pulmonary functions, the entity of physical activity, the comfort. A meta-analysis of relevant studies was performed using RevMan 5.3. Results wearing an abdominal binder after midline laparotomy seems to reduce postoperative pain on first and third postoperative day, to improve the physical activity on third postoperative day, and not affect pulmonary functions. Generally, an elastic abdominal binder is well tolerated during postoperative. Conclusions the use of elastic abdominal binder permits a comfortable early postoperative mobilization reducing pain, increases physical activity and seems to not affect pulmonary functions.
Article
The Elastic abdominal binder has been widely employed by clinicians for pain relief, wound complications prevention, improved pulmonary function, and stabilisation. However, these proposed benefits have not been properly examined in women following caesarean delivery. We aimed to examine the effects of post-caesarean elastic abdominal binder use on recovery by comparing post-operative pain, mobility and quality of life. Pregnant women undergoing caesarean delivery were randomly assigned into two groups: abdominal binder (90 patients) and control (90 patients). The primary outcomes included the daily visual analogue scale pain scores and the distance from the six-minute walk test. Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. There was no significant difference in pain scores and six-minute walking distance between the study groups. There was no significant between-group difference in quality-of-life dimensions, overall health status, and post-operative complication. The positive effects of elastic abdominal binder use following caesarean delivery could not be demonstrated in this study. • Impact statement • What is already known on this subject? Elastic abdominal binder is commonly used after laparotomy to support incision. There was evidence to support the benefit of abdominal binder in reducing psychological distress during the first five days following laparotomy for other indications. From limited number of studies addressing caesarean section, the evidence for the benefits of the binder on pain, symptom distress, and change in haemoglobin level is conflicting. • What do the results of this study add? In contrast to the results of the previous study, the beneficial effects of abdominal binder on pain reduction, functional recovery, and quality of life following caesarean delivery could not be demonstrated in this study. • What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? The use of elastic abdominal binder after caesarean delivery is not associated with reduction of postoperative pain, faster functional recovery, and improved quality of life in our population. Further studies in other population with different characteristics may be worthwhile.
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential benefits of use of an abdominal binder after cesarean birth. Study design and methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted at a Magnet-designated, academic medical center in the southwest United States. English- and Spanish-speaking adult women scheduled for an elective cesarean birth were randomized to the intervention or control group. Outcomes were measured for the first 48 hours postoperatively, including pain, medication use, and self-reported symptom distress. Results: Randomization resulted in balanced groups. Women who used the abdominal binder after cesarean birth reported a decrease in pain after ambulation, whereas women in the control group reported an increase in pain after ambulation (p < .001). Women in the binder group reported less distress on the Breathe and Cough items of the Symptom Distress Scale than those in the control group. On postoperative day 2, women in the binder group used more ibuprofen (p = .002) and acetaminophen (p = .027) than the control group. Clinical implications: Use of an abdominal binder by women after cesarean birth can decrease pain, potentially enhancing speed of postoperative recovery. As a nursing intervention, abdominal binders may offer women a safe nonpharmacologic option to provide postoperative comfort.
Article
Background: This Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Guideline for postoperative care in cesarean delivery will provide best practice, evidenced-based recommendations for postoperative care with primarily a maternal focus. Objective: The pathway process for scheduled and unscheduled cesarean delivery for this Enhanced Recovery After Surgery cesarean delivery guideline will consider time from completion of cesarean delivery until maternal hospital discharge. Study design: The literature search (1966-2017) used Embase and PubMed to search medical subject headings that included "Cesarean Section," "Cesarean Delivery," "Cesarean Section Delivery," and all postoperative Enhanced Recovery After Surgery items. Study selection allowed titles and abstracts to be screened by individual reviewers to identify potentially relevant articles. Metaanalyses, systematic reviews, randomized controlled studies, nonrandomized controlled studies, reviews, and case series were considered for each individual topic. Quality assessment and data analyses evaluated the quality of evidence, and recommendations were evaluated according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system as used and described in previous Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Guidelines. Results: The Enhanced Recovery After Surgery cesarean delivery guideline/pathway has created a pathway for postoperative care. Specifics include sham feeding, nausea and vomiting prevention, postoperative analgesia, nutritional care, glucose control, thromboembolism prophylaxis, early mobilization, urinary drainage, and discharge counseling. A number of elements of postoperative care of women who undergo cesarean delivery are recommended, based on the evidence. Conclusion: As the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery cesarean delivery pathway (elements/processes) are studied, implemented, audited, evaluated, and optimized by the maternity care teams, there will be an opportunity for focused and optimized areas of care and recommendations to be further enhanced.
Article
Purpose: No national policies or clinical practice guidelines have been identified regarding best practices in addressing postoperative pain after abdominal surgery with adjunctive nonpharmacologic therapies, such as abdominal binders. Design: Integrative review. Methods: An integrative review was conducted using Cochrane, PubMed, Medline, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases, collecting articles published within the last 5 years regarding abdominal binder use after adult gastrointestinal surgeries. Findings: Five articles met inclusion criteria. Two articles provided statistically significant results regarding reduction in pain, whereas the other three suggested likely postoperative pain reduction, subjective improved pain, and comfort among other benefits. Conclusions: The use of abdominal binders postoperatively does not increase risk or harm to the patient. Researchers suggest that this intervention may not only offer analgesic benefits but also may increase patient satisfaction and decrease psychological distress. However, because of the limited evidence, additional high-level randomized controlled trials regarding abdominal binder use to address postoperative pain are needed.
Article
In this Series paper, we describe the frequency of, trends in, determinants of, and inequalities in caesarean section (CS) use, globally, regionally, and in selected countries. On the basis of data from 169 countries that include 98·4% of the world's births, we estimate that 29·7 million (21·1%, 95% uncertainty interval 19·9–22·4) births occurred through CS in 2015, which was almost double the number of births by this method in 2000 (16·0 million [12·1%, 10·9–13·3] births). CS use in 2015 was up to ten times more frequent in the Latin America and Caribbean region, where it was used in 44·3% (41·3–47·4) of births, than in the west and central Africa region, where it was used in 4·1% (3·6–4·6) of births. The global and regional increases in CS use were driven both by an increasing proportion of births occurring in health facilities (accounting for 66·5% of the global increase) and increases in CS use within health facilities (33·5%), with considerable variation between regions. Based on the most recent data available for each country, 15% of births in 106 (63%) of 169 countries were by CS, whereas 47 (28%) countries showed CS use in less than 10% of births. National CS use varied from 0·6% in South Sudan to 58·1% in the Dominican Republic. Within-country disparities in CS use were also very large: CS use was almost five times more frequent in births in the richest versus the poorest quintiles in low-income and middle-income countries; markedly high CS use was observed among low obstetric risk births, especially among more educated women in, for example, Brazil and China; and CS use was 1·6 times more frequent in private facilities than in public facilities.
Article
This paper reviews implementation of ERAS and its financial implications. Literature on clinical outcomes and financial implications were reviewed. Reports from many different surgery types shows that implementation of ERAS reduces complications and shortens hospital stay. These improvements have major impacts on reducing the cost of care even when costs for implementation, and investment in time for personnel and training is accounted for. The conclusion is that ERAS is an excellent example of value based surgery.
Article
Objective: To examine whether chewing gum after cesarean delivery hastens the return of gastrointestinal function. Methods: All randomized controlled trials comparing the use of chewing gum in the immediate postoperative recovery period (i.e. intervention group) with a control group were included in the meta-analysis. The primary outcome was time to first flatus in hours. Meta-analysis was performed using the random effects model of DerSimonian and Laird, to produce summary treatment effects in terms of mean difference (MD) or relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: 17 trials, including 3,041 women, were analyzed. Trials were of moderate to low quality with different inclusion criteria. In most of the included trials chewing gum was given right after delivery, three times a day for 30 minutes each and until the first flatus. Women who were randomized to the chewing gum group had a significantly lower mean time to first flatus (MD -6.49 hours, 95% CI -8.65 to -4.33), to first bowel sounds(MD -8.48 hours, 95% CI - 9.04 to -7.92), less duration of stay (MD -0.39 days, 95% CI -0.78 to -0.18), lower time to first feces (MD -9.57 hours, 95% CI -10.28 to 8.87) and to first feeling of hunger (MD -2.89 hours, 95% CI -4.93 to -0.85), less number of episodes of nausea or vomiting (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.87), less incidence of ileus (RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.80) and significantly higher satisfaction. Conclusion: Gum chewing starting right after cesarean delivery three times a day for about 30 minutes until the first flatus is associated with early recovery of bowel motility. As simple, generally inexpensive intervention, providers should consider implementing cesarean postoperative care with gum chewing.
Article
Objective: To assess the effect of using abdominal binders on pain, distress, and postpartum hemorrhage after cesarean delivery. Methods: The present prospective randomized controlled trial enrolled patients undergoing non-emergency cesarean deliveries in Gonbad-e Kavus, Golestan Province, Iran, between January 22 and October 23, 2015. Patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio by blocks of four or six to a control group or to use an abdominal binder after delivery; all patients received routine care. The primary outcomes were visual analog scale-assessed pain, symptom distress scale (SDS)-assessed distress, and hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Participants and researchers were masked to treatment assignments until after cesarean delivery, and data analysis was unmasked; intention-to-treat analyses were performed. Results: There were 89 patients enrolled in each group, with no differences in baseline pain scores, SDS scores, and hemoglobin and hematocrit levels between the groups (all P>0.05). Pain and SDS scores were lower in the binder group at all post-baseline time points compared with the control group (all P<0.001). Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were higher among patients who received binders 36 hours after baseline (both P<0.001). There was one patient who experienced hemorrhage in the binders group and one patient requested removal of their binder. Conclusions: Patients who received abdominal binders reported less pain, lower SDS scores, and higher hemoglobin and hematocrit levels following cesarean delivery. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Chapter
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects of chewing gum to reduce the duration of postoperative ileus and to enhance postoperative recovery after a caesarean section.
Article
Objective: To determine whether abdominal binders effectively control pain and distress after cesarean delivery. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted between April and November, 2014, among women undergoing cesarean delivery (low-transverse skin incision) at two US hospitals. Participants were randomly allocated to either the abdominal binder or control groups on entry to the operating suite. Masking was not possible. Patients in the abdominal binder group were fitted with a device before leaving the operating room and were encouraged to wear it constantly, although breaks were allowed. The primary outcomes were postoperative distress (measured by the Symptom Distress Scale [SDS]) and pain (measured by a visual analog scale [VAS]). Individuals who asked to be removed from the study within 6hours of surgery were excluded from analyses. Results: Analyses included 87 patients in the abdominal binder group and 68 in the control group. The abdominal binder and control groups did not differ in postoperative day 1 VAS (3.1±2.1 vs 3.4±2.3; P=0.33), postoperative day 2 VAS (3.0±1.9 vs 3.8±2.2; P=0.16), postoperative day 1 SDS (21.5±5.4 vs 21.8±5.1; P=0.87), and postoperative day 2 SDS (19.4±4.8 vs 19.9±5.0; P=0.53). Conclusion: Postoperative pain and distress scores after cesarean delivery were not affected by abdominal binders. ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT02129894.
Article
Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of gum chewing, early oral hydration, and early mobilization after cesarean birth on intestinal sounds, passing gas, and intestinal evacuation. Design: Randomized controlled study. Setting: This study was conducted at the Obstetrics Service of the one Obstetrics and Child Diseases Hospital. Participants: A total of 240 females divided into 8 groups of 30 subjects each were included within the scope of the sample. Methods: The women who underwent cesarean birth were divided into eight groups by using 2(3) factorial test levels, depending on the use of three different methods of gum chewing, early oral hydration, and early mobilization. No intervention was applied to the women in the control group. For the other seven groups, the intestinal sounds were checked every 30 minutes with a stethoscope over the abdomen and the first time of passing gas and the first evacuation time were recorded by asking the mother. The data were evaluated with numbers, mean, and percentage calculations, Student's t test, one-way variance analysis, correlation, and Tukey HSD test. Results: The intestinal sounds were heard earlier, gas was passed earlier, and bowel movements were earlier in the first group that received all interventions compared to the other groups (p < .05). The patient could not be discharged before 48 hours had passed after the cesarean birth according to the hospital protocol and the time of discharge was therefore not affected by interventions. Linking evidence to action: All of the three different interventions, such as gum chewing, early oral hydration, and early mobilization after cesarean birth, increase intestinal motility. The interventions are recommended during postoperative routine care to shorten hospital stay and prevent postoperative ileus.
Article
Pain control and early ambulation are two important postoperative goals. Strategies that decrease morphine use while increasing ambulation have the potential to decrease postoperative complications. In this study the authors sought to determine the effect of an abdominopelvic binder on postoperative morphine use, pain, and ambulation in the first day after surgery. The authors randomly assigned 75 patients undergoing abdominal gynecologic surgery to either binder or not after surgery. Demographic data and surgical characteristics were collected. Outcome variables included morphine use, pain score, time to ambulation, and number of ambulations. A group at high risk for decreased mobility was identified and the binder increased the number of ambulatory events by 300%, 260%, and 240% in patients with vertical incisions, age over 50 years, and complex surgeries, respectively. Morphine use and pain scores were not significantly different. The binder increased ambulations in the subset of patients at the highest risk for postoperative complications: elderly, cancer patients, and vertical incisions. Routine use of the binder may benefit particularly high-risk gynecologic surgical patients.
Article
Introduction: Evidence for the effect of post-operative abdominal binders on post-operative pain, seroma formation, physical function, pulmonary function and increased intra-abdominal pressure among patients after surgery remains largely un-investigated. Methods: A systematic review was conducted. The PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched for studies on the use of abdominal binders after abdominal surgery or abdominoplasty. All types of clinical studies were included. Two independent assessors evaluated the scientific quality of the studies. The primary outcomes were pain, seroma formation and physical function. Results: A total of 50 publications were identified; 42 publications were excluded leaving eight publications counting a total of 578 patients for analysis. Generally, the scientific quality of the studies was poor. Use of abdominal binder revealed a non-significant tendency to reduce seroma formation after laparoscopic ventral herniotomy and a non-significant reduction in pain. Physical function was improved, whereas evidence supports a beneficial effect on psychological distress after open abdominal surgery. Evidence also supports that intra-abdominal pressure increases with the use of abdominal binders. Reduction of pulmonary function during use of abdominal binders has not been revealed. Conclusion: Abdominal binders reduce post-operative psychological distress, but their effect on post-operative pain after laparotomy and seroma formation after ventral hernia repair remains unclear. Due to the sparse evidence and poor quality of the literature, solid conclusions may be difficult to make, and procedure-specific, high-quality randomised clinical trials are warranted.
Article
Girdles and abdominal binders may reduce pain and stabilize the abdominal wall after laparotomy, but a risk for increased intra-abdominal pressure and decreased lung function is also hypothesized. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an abdominal girdle after midline laparotomy in a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-three patients undergoing laparotomy were randomized to wear an elastic girdle postoperatively and 25 were randomized to no girdle. Pulmonary function was evaluated with; forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume during one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and cough PEF. Pain was recorded using a visual analog scale (VAS). All patients completed the ventral hernia pain questionnaire (VHPQ) before surgery and at the end of the study. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured via an indwelling urinary catheter. Wound healing was assessed from photographs. FVC, FEV1, PEF, and cough PEF were reduced by about 30 % after surgery, but there were no differences between patients with or without a girdle (ANOVA). Intra-abdominal pressure and wound healing were the same in both groups. Pain was significantly lower on day 5 in the girdle group (p = 0.004). An individually fitted elastic girdle used after midline laparotomy was found to be safe, as this did not affect lung function, coughing, intra-abdominal pressure, or wound healing. The immediate decline in lung function after surgery is restrictive and due to anesthesia and the surgical procedure. Pain was significantly decreased in the girdle group. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01517217.
Article
Abdominal binders are ordered by some surgeons postoperatively for patient comfort and to prevent wound complications. There has been some question as to the compressive effect that an abdominal binder has on pulmonary function. We prospectively randomized 54 patients undergoing a midline laparotomy incision to two groups: a "binder" group and a "no binder" group. Preoperative pulmonary function tests (vital capacity and incentive spirometry) were measured. Postoperatively, pulmonary function tests, pulse oximetry, oxygen requirement, pulmonary and wound complications, pain control, time to ambulation, and hospital length of stay were examined. Vital capacity as a per cent of preoperative values on postoperative Day 1 for the binder and nonbinder groups were 64.7 and 54.6 per cent, respectively, but this was not statistically significant. Average level of pain using the visual analog pain scale on postoperative Days 1 through 3 in the binder versus nonbinder groups was 4 versus 8, 3 vs 6, and 3 versus 7, respectively. Time to ambulation was 18.6 hours in the binder group and 16.7 hours in the nonbinder group. Hospital length of stay in the binder and nonbinder groups was 3.9 days and 3.7 days, respectively. We conclude that abdominal binders in our patients with midline abdominal incisions had no significant effect on postoperative pulmonary function, but seemed to help with pain control.
Article
In order to elucidate the circulatory and respiratory effects of a newly developed abdominal compression binder 25 healthy, normal weight subjects were studied. In supine position the central haemodynamics were measured and estimated with a Finapress device. Lower extremity venous haemodynamics were measured in supine position with venous occlusion plethysmography. In an upright-seated position arterial oxygen saturation was measured by a pulseoxymeter for 1 h before spirometry was performed with a turbine flow measurement device. All the tests were performed in a randomized order with or without the abdominal compression binder. The results show that the compression binder significantly increases the venous volume in the lower extremities as showed by a reduction in the venous capacitance in the lower extremities and a reduction in the stroke volume and cardiac output, while it does not influence the pulmonary volumes. It is concluded that the applied abdominal binder significantly affects peripheral and central haemodynamics. It should therefore be used with caution when in the supine position for longer periods, as the pooling of blood it induces in the lower extremities may have implications for the risk of deep venous thrombosis formation.
Article
Symptom distress was defined as the degree of discomfort reported by the patient in relation to his/her perception of the symptoms being experienced. The ten symptoms included in the symptom distress scale were nausea, mood, appetite, insomnia, pain, mobility, fatigue, bowel pattern, concentration and appearance. The scale was tested on fifty-three patients with advanced medical conditions. Total symptom distress scores for these patients ranged from ten to forty-one; the mean was twenty. The reliability coefficient alpha was .82143 and the standardized alpha was .82557. More testing of the scale is needed, especially with different types of chronic diseases and visible signs of illness.
Article
The current understanding of pain processing mechanisms, the different pharmacologic drugs, and other nonpharmacologic means that can be used to manage postobstetric operation pain are reviewed.
Article
Unlabelled: When deciding on neuraxial medication (e.g., spinal opioids) for cesarean delivery (CS) under regional anesthesia, anesthesiologists make treatment decisions that "trade off" relieving pain with the potential for increased risk of side effects. No previous studies have examined obstetric patients' anesthesia preferences. Researchers administered 100 written surveys to pregnant women attending our institutions' expectant parent class. We determined patients' preferences for importance of specific intraoperative and postoperative anesthesia outcomes using priority ranking and relative value scales. We also explored patients' fears, concerns, and tolerance regarding CS and analgesics. Eighty-two of 100 surveys were returned and analyzed. Pain during and after CS was the greatest concern followed by vomiting, nausea, cramping, pruritus, and shivering. Ranking and relative value scores were closely correlated (R2 = 0.7). Patients would tolerate a visual analog pain score (0-100 mm) of 56 +/- 22 before exposing their baby to the potential effects of analgesics they receive. In contrast to previous general surgical population surveys that found nausea and vomiting as primary concerns, we found pain during and after CS as parturients' most important concern. Common side effects such as pruritus and shivering caused only moderate concern. This information should be used to guide anesthetic choices, e.g., inclusion of spinal opioids given in adequate doses. Implications: Medical care can be improved by incorporating patients' preferences into medical decision making. We surveyed obstetric patients to determine their preferences regarding potential cesarean delivery anesthesia outcomes. Unlike general surgical patients who rate nausea and vomiting highest, parturients considered pain during and after cesarean delivery the most important concern.
Article
To study women's experience of postoperative pain and pain relief after cesarean birth and factors associated with pain assessment and the birth experience. Descriptive patient survey. Data were collected through a questionnaire. The outcome variables were assessments of pain using a Visual Analog Scale and women's birth experience measured on a seven-point Likert scale. Central Swedish county hospital, maternity unit. The sample consisted of 60 women undergoing cesarean birth. Women reported high levels of experienced pain during the first 24 hours. Seventy-eight percent of the women scored greater than or equal to 4 on the Visual Analog Scale, which can be seen as inadequately treated pain. There was no difference between elective and emergency cesarean births in the levels of pain. In spite of high levels of pain, women were pleased with the pain relief. The risk of a negative birth experience was 80% higher for women undergoing an emergency cesarean birth compared with elective cesarean birth. Postoperative pain negatively affected breastfeeding and infant care. There is a need for individual and adequate pain treatment for women undergoing cesarean birth, as high levels of pain interfere with early infant care and breastfeeding.
Early oral intake and gastrointestinal function after cesarean delivery: a systematic review and meta-analysis
  • Hsu
Hsu Y-Y, Hung H-Y, Chang S-C, Chang Y-J. Early oral intake and gastrointestinal function after cesarean delivery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol 2013;121:1327-34, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0-b013e318293698c.