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COVID 19: The catalyst for digital transformation in the hospitality industry?

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Palavras-chave: Covid-19, crise, transformação digital, hotel, pandemia.
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Tourism & Management Studies, 17(2), 2021, 41-46 DOI:
COVID 19: The catalyst for digital transformation in the hospitality industry?
COVID 19: O catalisador para a transformação digital no sector hoteleiro?
Nuno António
NOVA Information Management School (NOVA IMS), Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal;
CITUR- Universidade do Algarve, Faro, Portugal;
Paulo Rita
NOVA Information Management School (NOVA IMS), Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal,
Received: 10.02.2021; Revisions required: 17.3.2021; Accepted: 15.04.2021
Despite its benefits related to efficiency, creating better customer
experiences, increasing revenue, and supporting decision-making,
until the outbreak of COVID-19 digital transformation was not on
many hotels’ strategic plans. However, like in many other industries,
the COVID-19 physical distancing good practices and governments’
restrictions acted as catalysts and promoted hotel digitalization. To
this end, a questionnaire was administered to 51 hotel managers to
verify if that happened in Portuguese hotels and what processes were
most impacted. Results showed that 92% of the hotel managers
agreed that COVID-19 promoted the digitalization of processes, with
most organizations considering that online meetings and technology
productivity tools are here to stay. Hotels’ digitalization has the
potential to generate high-efficiency gains both in public-facing
operations and back-office operations. This study highlights these
implications and intends to spur researchers to investigate the
practical impact of these implications on business efficiency and
social theory.
Keywords: Covid-19, crisis, digital transformation, hotels, pandemics.
Apesar dos benefícios relacionados com a eficiência, criação de melhores
experiências para o cliente, aumento da receita e apoio na tomada de
decisão, até ao aparecimento da COVID-19, a transformação digital não
fazia parte dos planos estratégicos de muitos hotéis. No entanto, as boas
práticas de distanciamento físico e as restrições atuaram como
catalisadores e aceleraram a digitalização dos hotéis. Para avaliar o efeito
da COVID-19 na transformação digital, foi administrado um questionário
a 51 gestores hoteleiros para verificar se isso acontece nos hotéis
portugueses e quais os processos que registam maior impacto. Os
resultados mostraram que 92% dos gestores hoteleiros concordam que a
COVID-19 incentivou a digitalização dos processos, sendo que a maioria
considera que as reuniões online e as ferramentas de produtividade
tecnológicas vieram para ficar. A digitalização dos hotéis tem o potencial
de gerar ganhos altamente eficientes tanto em operações voltadas para
o público quanto em operações de back-office. Este estudo destaca essas
implicações e visa estimular os investigadores a estudarem o impacto
prático dessas implicações na eficiência empresarial e na teoria social.
Palavras-chave: Covid-19, crise, transformação digital, hotel, pandemia.
1. Introduction
This manuscript has been written as a “research note” to
provide very much up-to-date information based on current
data regarding what hotel managers feel about digital
transformation. Our main motive is to share how COVID-19 is
propelling the hospitality sector to embrace digital
transformation and further use it. By doing so, we aim to foster
researchers to focus more attention on research in this field.
A new coronavirus causing an infectious respiratory disease
was found in late 2019. The first reported cases of what
became known as COVID-19 occurred in Wuhan, Hubei
province, China, in late December 2019. In January 2020, the
virus spread to other Chinese provinces, assisted by the
Chinese New Year migration, with Wuhan being a major
transport hub and rail interchange in the country. In February,
this severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) spread
rapidly throughout Europe, leading the World Health
Organization (WHO) to consider in March this continent as
being the active centre of the pandemic, which within that
same month also started to impact strongly in the Americas
(ECDC, 2020; WHO, 2020).
One of the consequences of this highly contagious disease was
a tsunami of hotel closures, together with a steep decline in
tourism and business travel taking place across the world. This
decline exerted devastating effects on the hotel industry
(Filimonau, Derqui, & Jorge Matute, 2020; Hao, Xiao, & Chon,
2020). Due to the acute negative financial implications of this
last resort deed, when an opening window was identified,
decisions of reopening hotels were considered but subjected to
a widespread list of cautious actions, namely, to attend public
health requirements, including a myriad of safety/hygiene
Notwithstanding being a medium-sized country, Portugal is a
prominent tourist destination worldwide, having the oldest
borders in Europe and situated in this continent’s extreme
south-west. Portugal was considered in 2019, for the third
consecutive year, the best tourist destination in the world,
receiving this award from the World Travel & Tourism Council /
WTTC (World Travel & Tourism Council, 2020). More recently,
in 2020, Portugal became the first European country to receive
the seal of ‘Safe Travels’ by WTTC. In the last five years (2014-
2019), Portugal’s tourist flows went up by an impressive 56%
António, N., & Rita, P. (2021). Tourism & Management Studies, 17(2), 41-46
(Turismo de Portugal, 2020). Unfortunately, due to the COVID-
19 pandemic that is affecting the world globally, the tourism
and hospitality figures for 2020 are expected to go down
significantly in a similar fashion with all other tourist
destinations across the globe.
The first cases of COVID-19 in Portugal were recorded on March
2, 2020 (Direção Geral da Saúde, 2020). Despite a number of
initiatives put in place, just over two weeks later, the
Portuguese government had to admit the country could not
contain the virus any longer and declared the state of
emergency, which lasted from March 18 to May 2.
Consequently, and like happened in many European countries,
Portugal also had to implement lockdown measures across the
country to sustain the rapid increase of cases of COVID-19.
Hence, many citizens had to stay at home and work from home,
and in just a few months, the landscape of work has altered
dramatically, which except for COVID-19 itself, has been the
radical change of 2020 (Waizenegger, McKenna, Cai, & Bendz,
All major consulting companies recognize that the COVID-19
outbreak is accelerating digital transformation in organizations
in many industries (Ernst & Young, 2020; Hernandez, 2020;
Kane, Phillips, Copulsky, & Nanda, 2020). In fact, a report from
Twilio calculated that COVID-19 accelerated companies’ digital
transformation strategy by an average of 6 years (Twilio, 2020).
For instance, the COVID-19 pandemic triggered a digital
transformation in the education sector (Iivari, Sharma, & Ventä-
Olkkonen, 2020) as well as in healthcare with a boost of
telemedicine services. Many services across the board were
compelled to accelerate digital transformation since many
service employees had to work remotely to keep service
businesses running (Bartsch, Weber, Büttgen, & Huber, 2020).
The real question is how technology can be leveraged to allow
employees to do their work more effectively and safely, and the
current situation is changing how people conceive work. To face
challenges and seize opportunities, employees also need digital
competencies to raise productivity (Soto-Acosta, 2020). What
happened in Portugal in terms of confinement was very
rigorous. Hotels were closed from the end of March to at least
June, so most organizations had to work remotely (if not in
total, at least partially).
By the way, it should not be a surprise to see companies satisfying
these much more pressing needs to increase significantly their
market capitalization, such as Teladoc Health (provides video-
conferencing consultations for customers with general medical
professionals, dermatologists, and behavioural health specialists)
and Zoom Technology (designs, produces, markets, sells, and
supports broadband and dial-up modems, Voice over Internet
Protocol products and services, and other communication-
related products) being as of February 10, 2021, up 158% and
382%, respectively, in just one year (Yahoo, 2021).
Unfortunately, despite its benefits for hospitality, such as saving
time, creating better customer experiences, increasing
revenue, and supporting decision-making, until the outbreak of
the COVID-19 pandemic, the digital transformation seemed not
to be on the strategic agenda of many hotels (Alrawadieh,
Alrawadieh, & Cetin, 2020; Lam & Law, 2019). This study was
set up to find if COVID-19 brought any change to this situation
and, with that, achieve a response to the following two research
1. Do hotels experience an acceleration in their digital
transformation process due to COVID-19?
2. What type of processes did the COVID-19 accelerate in the
2. Literature review
Digital transformation is a process where digital technologies
create disruptions, activating strategic responses from
organizations aiming to modify their value creation paths while
managing the structural changes and organizational difficulties
that affect both positive and negative results of this process
(Vial, 2019). The potential benefits of digitization are high. For
example, when information-intensive processes are digitized,
costs can be cut down to a staggering 90 per cent, and
turnaround times can improve by several orders of magnitude
(Shahar Markovitch, Paul Willmott, & Paul Willmott, 2014). A
digital transformation project encompasses significant
challenges since it requires implementing digital capabilities to
support business model transformations impacting whole
organizations, particularly operational processes, resources,
and internal and external users (Parviainen, Tihinen, Kääriäinen,
& Teppola, 2017).
Digital transformation has been identified as a significant
hospitality trend bringing new opportunities and tremendous
challenges to players in this crucial sector within the realm of
the tourism industry (Lam & Law, 2019). This movement is likely
to have significant impacts due to technology developments
and emerging new tourist demand, and major business areas
such as marketing and operations (Salazar, 2018). In fact,
despite transforming customer experiences being considered
the most visible aspects of transformation, firms can achieve
compelling benefits from the transformation of internal
processes via process digitization, worker enablement, and
performance management (Westerman, Bonnet, & McAfee,
2014). Employees are more often working from home and using
collaboration and networking tools to communicate with
anyone in the company regardless of wherever they are. These
tools are strong enablers of knowledge sharing and stimulate
real virtualization of individual work by separating the work
process from its location. The process of strategic decision-
making is being modified by digital transformation, allowing
managers to extend borderless strategic planning sessions.
However, the benefits of digital transformation are not
consensual. Some authors argue that despite digital
technologies’ ability to ease the burdens of aesthetic and
intellectual existence, digital technologies’ benefits are
António, N., & Rita, P. (2021). Tourism & Management Studies, 17(2), 41-46
overrated and driven by top Silicon Valley companies
(Ossewaarde, 2019; Roth, 2019). For that reason, these authors
recognize that social theory should itself evolve into a digital
social theory a useful social theory to observe a digitally
transformed society.
3. Methods
In order to answer the research questions raised above, a
survey was administered to hotel managers who participated in
the XVI National Congress of the Association of Hotel Directors
of Portugal (ADHP Associação de Diretores de Hotéis de
Portugal), which took place in Évora on October 15-16, 2020.
ADHP is an organization that represents Portuguese hotel
managers. In most cases, hotel managers present at the
congress work in hotel chains with multiple hotels and multiple
The survey was conducted during a discussion panel, using the
platform ( For this reason, questions had to be
kept at a low number and very concise. Hotel managers were
asked to use their mobile phones/computers to answer three
multiple-choice questions (see Table 1).
Table 1 - Survey questions
Type of answer
Do you consider that COVID-19 promoted the digitization of some
processes in your organization (ex: pre-check-in, self-check-in/out,
digital menus, online service reservations, among others)?
Single answer
In post-COVID, what do you think will be the percentage of
meetings, both internal (with employees) and external (with
customers, suppliers, and other partners), that will continue to be
held online?
Single answer
With the appearance of COVID-19, many organizations started to
use technological tools of productivity that they did not use before.
If this is the case for your organization, please indicate which tools
you began to use.
Multiple answers
4. Results and Discussion
A total of 51 hotel managers answered the questionnaire. Table
2 summarizes the respondents’ answers, both in frequency and
percentage of each of the three questions. These results are
explored below, question by question.
Table 2 - Survey summary statistics
File sharing in the "cloud"
Team management
Project/task management
Data analysis and visualization
As shown in Figure 1, 92% of hotel managers confirmed that
COVID-19 promoted some of their organization’s digitalization
processes. Results are in line with studies on different
industries, which described that the limitations and restrictions
imposed by the pandemic led most organizations,
independently of their area of business, to speed up their digital
António, N., & Rita, P. (2021). Tourism & Management Studies, 17(2), 41-46
Figure 1 - Digitization processes in the organization
Figure 2 shows that over 75% of the respondents consider that
at least half of their internal and external meetings will continue
to be held online. One interesting finding is that from the four
respondents who answered negatively to question one,
meaning that COVID-19 did not accelerate their organization’s
digital transformation, only one answered that in the future, all
meetings would be presential. The remaining three answered
that half of their meetings should be online.
Figure 2 - Online meetings in Post-Covid 19
Regarding the third question on which technological tools did
organizations use more due to the pandemic’s consequences,
as presented in Teble 2 and Figure 3, team management tools
were more often used (41 respondents, representing 80% of
the hotel managers). The second most used tool was the
sharing of files via cloud platforms, with 47% of the respondents
recognizing that the use of this type of tool increased in their
organizations. The rise in usage of these types of tools could be
related to the need for teams to work remotely, which requires
files to be accessed from anywhere and have tools to manage
teamwork (scheduling, online meetings, online chat, and other
team management functionalities).
Figure 3 - Use of technological productivity tools during Covid 19
Despite the changes in booking patterns caused by the
pandemic, only 25% of the respondents acknowledged having
increased the use of data analysis and visualization tools. Also,
only 20% of the respondents said that their organizations
increased the use of project/task management tools. In this
case, a discussion with hotel managers revealed that many used
“Team management” tools to manage projects/tasks.
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%
% of respondents
% of online meetings
0 10 20 30 40 50
Project/task management
Data analysis and visualization
File sharing in the cloud
Team management
António, N., & Rita, P. (2021). Tourism & Management Studies, 17(2), 41-46
From the 12 respondents who in question two answered that
online meetings after the pandemic would be reduced to 25 per
cent or less, nine answered that they increased the use of team
management tools, and five increased the use of file-sharing in
the cloud. This situation may indicate that hotel managers
perceive that online meetings are not beneficial. Still, they
accept that organizations should not stop working due to the
pandemic and should digitalize their processes to continue
running despite the adversities.
4. Conclusion and implications
This short but incisive survey shows that COVID was clearly a
catalyst for digital transformation in the hospitality industry.
According to the information collected from the surveyed hotel
managers, digitalization seems to continue, making the old
habits more likely to die out than to return.
This transformation can have multiple implications in the
industry. For example, the fact that employees not related to
public functions can work remotely could allow hotels to reduce
office areas in order to increase their outlets or public space. In
turn, working from home can be an important factor in
employee retention by allowing employees to choose their
work pace and better conciliate their professional and personal
life. A more satisfied workforce will also be more efficient.
Higher employee retention, coordinated with document
digitalization and cloud storage, can also foster better
knowledge management and process efficiency, improving
from basic changes, like converting presential to online
meetings. For example, many hotel companies’ regional
managers have regular face-to-face meetings. In other cases, in
some companies, a hotel manager is responsible for a cluster of
hotels, requiring him/her to rotate between hotels to have
meetings. Converting most of these meetings to online
meetings will decrease the costs of travelling and commuting to
meetings and save travel time to meetings. Not to mention the
positive effect on the environment. Additionally, the need to
manage a workforce working remotely and sometimes in
different working schedules can foster the adoption of projects
and processes management tools, which in turn can also
contribute to better efficiency. The general adoption of digital
tools for public attendance, such as self-check-in, self-check-
out, self in-room ordering, among other tools, has the potential
to generate additional efficiency gains.
Following this opportune exploratory study and considering the
importance of the topic to improve management and
streamline processes, more studies should be done on this
subject. Nonetheless, despite digital transformation’s
perceived benefits in the hospitality industry, there is no clear
empirical evidence of that. Therefore, future studies could
explore this gap and simultaneously contribute to social theory.
This study has its limitations. Considering the context where it
was administered, the empirical survey was based on a short
questionnaire without getting into more details on how hotels
were and where they are heading. With more time available,
future studies are advised to consider larger sample sizes, to go
beyond a single country, as well as to achieve a sample of
respondents from multiple sources (in this study was just one,
despite being a relevant association of hospitality managers
and directors).
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... In terms of the types of crises, much research during the last two decades is concerned with terrorist attacks, natural disasters like tsunamis and earthquakes or various crises and disasters in general [14]. Until recently, the outbreak of COVID-19 has drawn significant attention from tourism scholars across the world to understand the disastrous impacts on tourism [15,16]. This attention is probably due to the fact that the research on tourism crises is event-driven, which means the studies were often conducted promptly following the incidence of a particular crisis or disaster [17]. ...
... Using the full counting method with the minimum number of citations of a cited reference set to three, the analysis on cited references resulted in 16 meeting the threshold (see Figure 16). The three most cited references were: Lepp & Gibson [83] (total link strength: 16); Faulkner [11] (15) ...
... PRISMA four-phase flow diagram (n = included; e = excluded). Source: Adapted from Moher et al.[15]. ...
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The pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus (COVID-19) has significantly affected the tourism industry. Tourist destinations have adopted emergency measures and restrictions that have affected the mobility of individuals around the world. Beaches and resorts were empty, cities were deserted, people’s movements were stopped, and travel among different territories was strictly controlled. COVID-19-caused quarantine around the world has harmed people’s livelihoods and the world economy. This study aims to analyze the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the tourism industry and overall economic performance. Based on the research results and exploratory research of the literature, we listed in a synthesizing manner several measures to ensure the resilience of the tourism sector during the COVID-19 pandemic period.
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Turismul internațional a atins în plan global niveluri ridicate înainte de izbucnirea pandemiei, dar a fost, de asemenea, unul dintre cele mai afectate sectoare economice în 2020, când a existat un colaps real al activității turistice. Turismul este o activitate cu un grad ridicat de poluare, multe studii evidențiind faptul că industria hotelieră este un sector cu consum ridicat de energie și poluant. Pactul Verde (Green Deal), un proiect îndrăzneț al Uniunii Europene (UE) își propune să facă Europa neutră din punctul de vedere al emisiilor de carbon până în 2050. Turismul nu este un obiectiv prezentat în mod explicit în Pactul Verde (PV), dar, ținând cont de faptul că turismul este o activitate cu un grad ridicat de poluare trebuie să se adapteze noilor cerințe. Axată pe piața hotelieră clujeană, lucrarea analizează adaptarea hotelurilor la noile recomandări ale Comisiei Europene, implementarea PV, și trecerea la digitalizare, ca o nouă etapă, pentru un mediu mai curat. Cercetarea combină mai multe metode statistice descriptive și inferențiale pentru testarea ipotezelor formulate și pentru investigarea legăturilor dintre variabilele studiate, prin intermediul analizei unifactoriale one-way ANOVA. Totodată, s-a analizat și consistența internă a celor 62 de itemi ai chestionarului completat de cele 38 de hoteluri participante la studiu, obținându-se o valoare Cronbach-Alpha ridicată (0,88). Principalele concluzii desprinse indică un grad redus de familiarizare a angajaților hotelurilor cu prevederile PV. În plus, în special în cazul hotelurilor afiliate internațional și al celor de 4 și 5 stele, existența unei politici de dezvoltare durabilă este asociată cu orientarea spre producătorii locali atât pentru aprovizionarea cu produse agroalimentare, cât și cu produse cosmetice și de îngrijire personală. Pandemia de COVID-19 a accelerat procesul de digitalizare a hotelurilor din Cluj-Napoca. Cuvinte-cheie: Pactul Verde (PV), turism, digitalizare, oraș inteligent.
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COVID-19 has caused unprecedented challenges to our lives. Many governments have forced people to stay at home, leading to a radical shift from on-site to virtual collaboration for many knowledge workers. Existing remote working literature does not provide a thorough explanation of government-enforced working from home situations. Using an affordance lens, this study explores the sudden and enforced issues that COVID-19 has presented, and the technological means knowledge workers use to achieve their team collaboration goals. We interviewed 29 knowledge workers about their experiences of being required to work from home and introduced the term “enforced work from home”. This paper contributes to the affordance theory by providing an understanding of the substitution of affordances for team collaboration during COVID-19. The shifting of affordances results in positive and negative effects on team collaboration as various affordances of technology were perceived and actualised to sustain “business as usual”.
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This exploratory study reviews the overall impacts of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on China’s hotel industry. A COVID-19 management framework is proposed to address the anti-pandemic phases, principles, and strategies. This study also suggests that COVID-19 will significantly and permanently affect four major aspects of China’s hotel industry—multi-business and multi-channels, product design and investment preference, digital and intelligent transformation, and market reshuffle.
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Children of today have been surrounded by digital technology since their birth. However, children of today are not equally equipped for their technology rich future: various kinds of digital divides still prevail in the society and affect the young generation and their digital futures. Schools and education of children should undergo an extensive digital transformation to be able to meet the needs of the young generation and their digitalized future. The COVID-19 pandemic has suddenly and abruptly forced schools and education indeed to engage in such a transformation. In this study we examine the digital transformation initiated by the COVID-19 pandemic in the basic education of the young generation, the variety of digital divides emerging and reinforced, and the possible barriers reported along the way. We argue that information management research should better acknowledge children, their digitalized everyday life and their basic education as significant areas of concern. We should understand them as well as allow them to shape the education we offer in the context of higher education, but we should also aim at influencing the basic education of the young generation – for the purpose of equipping them with important skills and competencies for their digital futures but also for the purpose of arousing their interest in this important field, maybe even as a career option.
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This article outlines the basic design of digitally transformed social theory. We show that any digital world is created by the drawing and cross-tabling of binary distinctions. As any theory is supposed to be concerned with truth, we introduce to and insist on the distinction between true and false distinctions. We demonstrate how flexible matrix-shaped theory architectures based on true distinctions allow for the reduction and unfolding of the entire complexity of analogue social theories. The result of our demonstrations is the idea of a theoretical Supervacuus. The social equivalent of a universal Turing machine, this supervacuous social theory is virtually empty as it is based on only one proper theoretical premise (the idea of distinction [between true and false distinctions]), and therefore able to simulate all other social theory programmes. We conclude that our digitally transformed social theory design is particularly useful for observations of a digitally transformed society.
The COVID-19 pandemic is causing an unprecedented global health crisis with severe socio-economic consequences. This paper explores the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Digital transformation and vice versa. More especially, the article provides concrete reflections on whether and how the COVID-19 outbreak is accelerating digital transformation in organizations. The main conclusions of this work can be valuable to startups and traditional organisations that intend to explore or seize opportunities in digital transformation.
Purpose The COVID-19 pandemic has, besides the health concerns, caused an unprecedented social and economic crisis that has particularly hit service industries hard. Due to extensive safety measures, many service employees have to work remotely to keep service businesses running. With limited literature on leadership and virtual work in the service context, this paper aims to report on leadership effectiveness regarding employees' work performance in virtual settings brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach Drawing on the input–process–outcome (IPO) framework, this research investigates the effectiveness of leadership on service employees' work performance mediated by work-related tension, autonomy, and group cohesiveness. Furthermore, this study explores moderating effects of the service provider's digital maturity. To test the derived model, the authors collected survey data from 206 service employees who, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, unexpectedly had to transform to a virtual work environment. The authors analyzed the data using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Findings The results indicated that it took task- and relation-oriented leadership behavior to maintain service employees' work performance in a virtual environment during crisis situations. Further, results indicated mediating effects of service employees' individual job autonomy and team cohesiveness; surprisingly, work-related tension did not impact employees' work performance. Results offered service businesses guidance on how to effectively lead in times of crisis when service employees predominantly work in virtual environments. Originality/value This is the first empirical study to show how leadership affects service employees' work performance in a virtual work environment during crisis times. Thus, the study contributes to the scarce literature on the impact of leadership in service firms that have to operate in such a setting.
The COVID-19 pandemic will reduce the attractiveness of hospitality occupations. This particularly concerns senior management positions whose holders may substitute hospitality jobs with more secure and rewarding employment in other economic sectors. Organisational resilience of hospitality businesses, including their response to COVID-19, and corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices may, however, affect perceived job security of senior managers and, thus, influence their commitment to remain in their host organisations. This paper quantitatively tests the inter-linkages between the above variables on a sample of senior managers in hotels in Spain. It finds that the levels of organisational resilience and the extent of CSR practices reinforce perceived job security of managers which, in turn, determines their organisational commitment. Organisational response to COVID-19 affects perceived job security and enhances managers' organisational commitment. To retain senior management teams in light of future disastrous events, hotels should, therefore, strengthen their organisational resilience and invest in CSR.
In this article, it is argued that social theory must be renewed to comprehend the new power constellations and new challenges to aesthetic and intellectual ways of life that are being shaped by digital transformation. However, while social theory has to renew its tools in order to grasp previously unknown realities, it also runs the risk of being assimilated into the very process that it seeks to understand, or to assimilate so much of the dominant belief system that it loses its critical and creative potential. The aim of this article is to propose a particular, renewed social theory that consists in a recasting some social theoretic insights to be able to preserve aesthetic and intellectual potentials of critique and negation. Through the lens of this renewed social theory, digital transformation is understood as a form of economic domination, which, as this article shows, is sustained by un-enlightenment, that is, by fraudulent myths and misplaced metaphors.
Extant literature has increased our understanding of specific aspects of digital transformation, however we lack a comprehensive portrait of its nature and implications. Through a review of 282 works, we inductively build a framework of digital transformation articulated across eight building blocks. Our framework foregrounds digital transformation as a process where digital technologies create disruptions triggering strategic responses from organizations that seek to alter their value creation paths while managing the structural changes and organizational barriers that affect the positive and negative outcomes of this process. Building on this framework, we elaborate a research agenda that proposes [1] examining the role of dynamic capabilities, and [2] accounting for ethical issues as important avenues for future strategic IS research on digital transformation.
Hotels need to go through digital transformation to meet the changing demands of customers in the experience age and stay ahead of both traditional competitors and industry disruptors in an exponentially-evolving competitive environment. This requires hotels to have the right approach to technology, innovation, supported by the right working culture, be data-focused and customer-centric. A qualitative study was done to investigate the readiness of hotels in Asia for digital transformation. The findings, practical implications and future research ideas are presented.