Decoding Grounded Theory for Software
Faculty of Information Technology
Abstract—Grounded Theory, while becoming increasingly pop-
ular in software engineering, is also one of the most misunder-
stood, misused, and poorly presented and evaluated method in
software engineering. When applied well, GT results in dense
and valuable explanations of how and why phenomena occur in
practice. GT can be applied as a full research method leading
to mature theories and also in limited capacity for data analysis
within other methods, using its robust open coding and constant
comparison procedures. This technical brieﬁng will go through
the social origins of GT, present examples of grounded theories
developed in SE, discuss the key challenges SE researchers face,
and provide a gentle introduction to socio-technical grounded
theory, a variant of GT for software engineering research.
Index Terms—socio-technical grounded theory, grounded the-
ory, research method, software engineering
I. MOTI VATI ON
Grounded Theory (GT) is one of the only research methods
that enables rigorous and systematic theory development. At
its core, GT enables the identiﬁcation of patterns in data
collected from a variety of sources to explain how and why
Introduced in the mid 1960’s in Sociology, GT is a complete
research method including basic steps of literature review, data
collection, analysis, and advanced steps of theory development
. GT comes in three traditional versions: Classic or Glase-
rian GT , Strauss-Corbinian GT , and Constructivist
GT . All three have wide ranging applications.
GT has gained steady popularity in software engineering
(SE) . This growth can be attributed to GT enabling the
study of human and social aspects of software engineering,
an increasingly growing area of interest, and the need for
theory development in a young discipline such as software
engineering . Because GT enables the study of real world
phenomenon, it is well suited to investigating industrial prac-
tice of software engineering. Arguably, GT addresses what has
been dubbed as a “grand challenge” of research – combining
research rigour with industrial relevance.
And yet, GT is also one of the most misunderstood, mis-
used, and poorly presented and evaluated method in software
engineering. A critical review of GT in software engineering
identiﬁed around 1,763 papers under “grounded theory” and
“software engineering” . The same review highlighted how
GT practice in SE suffers from lack of application details,
weak applications, and even method misuse and abuse.
Given the growing interest in GT as well as widespread mis-
conceptions, this technical brieﬁng aims to help SE researchers
and practitioners better understand GT and the challenges
faced by SE researchers in applying and evaluating GT studies.
It provides a gentle introduction and an overview of Socio-
Technical Grounded Theory (STGT) – a GT method variant
developed for socio-technical research contexts.
II. BR IE FIN G DETAI LS
A. Intended Audience
This technical brieﬁng aims to cater to both researchers
and industry practitioners, especially those involved in user
experience, user centred design, end user development, and
engaging with particular user communities. As research and
development (R&D) becomes a staple and prominent part of
most global software companies such as Google, Microsoft,
and Facebook, in addition to traditional research and academic
organisations, the importance of robust methods for studying
human behaviour in software development and use has become
more important than ever.
B. Application Contexts
Applying GT to study the users of software systems will
enable deep and rich understanding of their human characteris-
tics, motivations, needs, preferences, strengths, and limitations
so that more ethical and human-centred software can be
produced. Similarly, GT studies of software developers, teams,
managers, customers, and stakeholders can fuel human bias
management and process improvement, leading to improved
outcomes. In the age of artiﬁcial intelligence competing
to mimic and improve human capabilities, GT studies are
particularly important to help explain the human-technology
relationship that pervades all aspects of life and instill core
human values (e.g. ethics, privacy, social justice) into the AI-
powered software systems we develop.
C. Learning Outcomes
The expected learning outcomes from this brieﬁng include:
•Understanding GT’s sociological traditions.
•Learning about the outcomes of GT studies in SE re-
•Understanding the challenges faced by SE researchers in
applying and evaluating GT studies.
•Understanding the misalignment between traditional GT
and the SE research contexts.
•Learning about socio-technical grounded theory (STGT)
for SE research.
•Understanding STGT’s potential and context of use.
D. Planned Structure
While it is difﬁcult to provide a complete overview of GT
with all its techniques and procedures in just over an hour, this
technical brieﬁng will aim to cover the following key areas:
•Origin and social traditions of GT.
•A brief summary of GT in software engineering, includ-
ing state of practice and key challenges.
•Examples of theories resulting from GT studies in SE
•A gentle introduction to socio-technical grounded theory,
including guidelines for practice and evaluation.
E. Relevant Study Materials
Participants will beneﬁt from reading the article “developing
a grounded theory to explain the practices of self-organizing
agile teams” . A video of “a talk and QA with Rashina
Hoda on Grounded Theory in Software Engineering”, hosted
by Prof Margaret-Anne Storey at the Empirical Software En-
gineering course, University of Victoria, Canada, also provides
an overview of GT in SE research along with discussions on
its key concepts and practices .
III. PRE SE NT ER BI O & NE XT ST EPS
Associate Professor Rashina Hoda is a leading interna-
tional expert in the use of Grounded Theory in Software
Engineering. With her research teams, over the years, she
has developed several grounded theories to explain important
software engineering phenomena such as agile transformations
, impact of inadequate customer involvement , self-
organising agile teams , variations in scrum practice ,
how self-assignment works , the role of the scrum master
, and the role of the project manager on agile projects.
Based on over 15 years of experience in actively conducting,
supervising, reviewing and editing numerous GT studies, Hoda
has developed the Socio-Technical Grounded Theory method,
a variant of GT for socio-technical research. Full details
of the method can be found in her upcoming book on the
subject, including clear and practical guidance on practicing
STGT in socio-technical ﬁelds such as software engineering,
computer science, information system, artiﬁcial intelligence,
user experience, and more.
 Charmaz, K. . Constructing grounded theory: A
practical guide through qualitative analysis, sage.
 Ebert, C. . 50 years of software engineering:
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 Glaser, B. G. and Strauss, A. L. . Discovery
of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research,
 Hoda, R. and Noble, J. . Becoming agile: a
grounded theory of agile transitions in practice, 2017
IEEE/ACM 39th International Conference on Software
Engineering (ICSE), IEEE, pp. 141–151.
 Hoda, R., Noble, J. and Marshall, S. . The
impact of inadequate customer collaboration on self-
organizing agile teams, Information and Software Tech-
nology 53(5): 521–534.
 Hoda, R., Noble, J. and Marshall, S. [2012a]. Develop-
ing a grounded theory to explain the practices of self-
organizing agile teams, Empirical Software Engineering
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organizing roles on agile software development teams,
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