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KSÜ Tarım ve Doğa Derg 25 (1): 83-87, 2022
KSU J. Agric Nat 25 (1): 83-87, 2022
Biological Activities of Wild Poisonous Mushroom
Entoloma sinuatum
(Bull.) P. Kumm
Celal BAL1 , Hayri BABA2, Ilgaz AKATA3, Mustafa SEVINDIK4, Zeliha SELAMOGLU5, Hasan AKGÜL6
1Gaziantep University, Oguzeli Vocational School, Gaziantep, Turkey, 2Hatay Mustafa Kemal University, Faculty of Science and Literature,
Department of Biology, Hatay, Turkey, 3Ankara University, Science Faculty Department, Biology, Ankara, Turkey, 4Department of Food
Processing, Bahçe Vocational School, Osmaniye Korkut Ata University, Osmaniye, Turkey, 5Nigde Ömer Halisdemir University, Faculty of
Medicine, Department of Medical Biology, Nigde, Turkey, 6Akdeniz University, Science Faculty, Biology Department, Antalya, Turkey.
1, 2, 3
4, 5, 6
In many studies conducted in recent years, it has been found that the
beneficial natural ingredients found in mushrooms are very important
in curing various diseases and eliminating disease factors. It has been
reported that fungi that spread in different countries have biological
activities. In this study, antioxidant level (TAS), oxidant level (TOS),
and antibacterial and antifungalactivity of
Entoloma sinuatum
P. Kumm were determined. Ethanol extract of the mushroom was
extracted in a Soxhlet apparatus. Antioxidant and oxidant levels were
determined using Rel Assay TAS and TOS kits. Also, antimicrobial
activity was tested against bacterial and fungal strains using the agar
dilution method. As a result of the studies, the TAS value of the
mushroom was determined 2.64±0.15, the TOS value was 6.58±0.23,
and the OSI (Oxidative stress index) value was 0.25±0.02. In addition,
it was determined that the ethanol extract of the mushroom was
effective against bacteria at 200 and 400 μg/mL, and against fungi at
50 μg/mL concentrations. As a result, it was determined that
is a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent.
Research Article
Yabani Zehirli Mantar
Entoloma sinuatum
(Bull.) P. Kumm 'un (Boletales) Biyolojik Aktiviteleri
Son yıllarda yapılan birçok çalışmada mantarlarda bulunan faydalı
doğal bileşenlerin çeşitli hastalıkları iyileştirmede ve hastalık
etkenini ortadan kaldırmada çok önemli olduğu bulunmuştur. Farklı
ülkelerde yayılış gösteren mantarların biyolojik aktivitelerinin olduğu
bildirilmiştir. Bu çalışmada Türkiye’de Entoloma sinuatum (Bull.) P.
Kumm’un antioksidan seviyesi, oksidan seviyesi ve antimikrobiyal
aktivitesi belirlendi. Mantarın etanol özütü soxhlet cihazında
çıkarıldı. Antioksidan ve oksidan seviyeleri Rel Assay TAS ve TOS
kitleri kullanılarak belirlendi. Ayrıca antibakteriyel ve antifungal
aktivite agar dilüsyon metodu kullanılarak bakteri ve fungus
suşlarına karşı test edildi. Yapılan çalışmalar sonucunda mantarın
TAS değeri 2.64±0.15, TOS değeri 6.58±0.23 ve OSI (Oksidatif stres
indeksi) değeri 0.25±0.02 olarak belirlendi. Ayrıca mantarın etanol
özütünün bakterilere karşı 200 ve 400 μg/mL, funguslara karşı 50
μg/mL konsantrasyonlarda etkili olduğu belirlendi. Sonuç olarak E.
sinuatum'un doğal antioksidan ve antimikrobiyal ajan olduğu
Araştırma Makalesi
To Cite :
Bal C, Baba H, Akata I, Sevindik M, Selamoğlu Z, Akgül H 2022. Biological Activities of Wild Poisonous
Entoloma sinuatum
(Boletales). KSU J. Agric Nat 25 (1): 83-87.
In terms of nutritional values of mushrooms, it has
been utilized in the treatment of cancer, cholesterol-
lowering, stress, insomnia, asthma, allergies, and
diabetes, and it has been included in studies that it is
effective. Besides, mushrooms contain various
KSÜ Tarım ve Doğa Derg 25 (1): 83-87, 2022
KSU J. Agric Nat 25 (1): 83-87, 2022
Araştırma Makalesi
Research Article
secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds,
polyketides, terpenes, and steroids that act as
antioxidants (Ahmed et al., 2015; İnci and Kırbağ,
2018; Krupodorova and Sevindik, 2020). In studies on
natural mushrooms in different parts of the world, it
has been reported that mushrooms have different
biological activities such as antioxidant, antimicrobial,
anticancer, antitumor, antiproliferative, anti-
inflamatuvar, DNA protective, anti-aging, and
antiallergic (Bae et al., 2007; Bal et al., 2017; Garcia-
Lafuentea, et al., 2010; Osman and Toliba, 2019;
Sevindik et al., 2017; Zhang et al., 2019; Umaña et al.,
2020). In this context, the discovery of new natural
products has been inevitable, especially in recent
years, due to the interest of people in natural products
and the possible side effects of synthetic drugs. In this
study, wild poisonous mushroom
Entoloma sinuatum
(Bull.) P. Kumm was used as a material.
E. sinuatum
(livid entoloma, livid agaric, livid pinkgill,
leaden entoloma, and lead poisoner) is a poisonous
fungus that has been detected in many regions of the
world. Fruiting bodies of the mushroom appear in late
summer and autumn (Zeitlmayr, 1976). It is seen in
deciduous woodlands covered with clay and calcareous
soils, usually Oak and Beech, rarely in birch or in
nearby park areas. Sometimes it meets in the form of
a fairy ring. It can be seen alone or in groups and most
members of the genus are saprotrophic. In young form,
it can be mixed with the edible
Calocybe gambosa
Clitopilus prunulus
. Also, an ordinary observer might
E. sinuatum
with the meadow mushroom
Agaricus campestris
(Lamaison and Polese, 2005). For
this reason, it has played a leading role in many
mushroom poisoning cases in Europe.
E. sinuatum
poisoning is generally not fatal. Following
consumption of mushrooms, the gastrointestinal
syndrome is observed. Depression and delirium are
rare sequelae (Bastida et al., 1987). In this study, the
antioxidant, oxidant, and antimicrobial activities of
wild poisonous mushroom
E. sinuatum
Sample extraction
Mushroom samples were collected from the Belgrad
forest (41°10'56.63"N- 28°59'5.91"E, 145m)
(Istanbul/Turkey). After the samples were collected,
they were dried in a dryer (Profilo, PFD2350W) for
about 12 hours at 45 °C and 10 g of each mushroom
sample was taken and ground into powder
(WANXINGBO, Grinder). Powder samples were
extracted with 200 mL of ethanol for 6 h in the Soxhlet
apparatus then obtained by filtration through filter
paper (ISOLAB, 125mm) and the solvent was removed
on a rotary evaporator (Heidolph Laborota 4000
Rotary Evaporator) at 40 °C. Crude extracts were
stored at + 4 ° C until further conducting experiments.
Antibacterial activities
The antimicrobial activity tests of ethanol extract of
the mushroom sample were determined by the agar
dilution method. The lowest concentration of the
extract preventing the growth of microorganisms was
determined as the MIC (Minimum Inhibitor
Concentration) value. Extract concentrations were set
at 6.25 to800 µg/mL in distilled water (CLSI, 2002;
CLSI, 2003).
Staphylococcus aureus
(ATCC 29213),
Enterococcus faecalis
(ATCC 29212),
Escherichia coli
(ATCC 25922) and
27853) were used as test bacteria. Bacteria were pre-
cultured in Muller Hinton Broth medium. Amikacin,
Ampicillin, and Ciprofloxacin were used as positive
controls (Hindler et al., 1992).
Antifungal activities
(ATCC 10231) and
C. tropicalis
(ATCC 13803) were used as test fungi. Fungi were pre-
cultured in RPMI 1640 Broth medium. Fluconazole
and Amphotericin B were used as positive controls
(Hindler et al., 1992).
Antioxidant activities
The total antioxidant status, total oxidant status, and
oxidative stress index of ethanol extracts of
mushrooms were evaluated using Rel Assay TAS and
TOS kits. Trolox was utilized as a calibrator in
antioxidant studies. Hydrogen peroxide was used as a
calibrator in oxidant studies (Erel, 2004; Erel, 2005).
The OSI (Oxidative stress index) value is determined
by proportioning the TAS value to the TOS value. The
following formula was used for the OSI value
(Sevindik, 2018).
Antibacterial and Antifungal activities
Antibacterial and antifungal drugs used today are
inadequate due to the antibiotic resistance that
microorganisms have gained in recent years.
Moreover, people turned to natural products due to the
possible side effects of antibacterial and antifungal
drugs (Liu et al., 2017; Abdalla et al., 2020). This trend
has made the discovery of new antibacterial and
antifungal natural products. In this study, the
antibacterial and antifungal activities of the ethanol
extract of
E. sinuatum
was determined. The findings
obtained were shown in Table1.
In previous studies on
species, the methanol
extract of
Entoloma speculum
was reported to be
effective against
Xanthomonas campestris,
Pseudomonas syringae, Agrobacterium tumefaciens,
Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherihia coli, Salmonella
typhi, P. aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus,
Streptomyces pneumoneae, Candida albicans,
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KSU J. Agric Nat 25 (1): 83-87, 2022
Araştırma Makalesi
Research Article
Chrysosporium merdarium, Trichophyton rubrum,
Chrysosporium keratinophilum, Fusarium solani,
Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus flavus
in different concentrations (Kodiyalmath and
Krishnappa, 2018). In another study, ethanol extract
was reported to be effective
Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia faecalis,
Staphylococcus aureus, Penicillium notatum,
Ceratocistys pilifera
(Reinoso et al., 2013). In our
study, the antibacterial and antifungal activities of
ethanol extract of
E. sinuatum
was determined. As a
result of this, it has been determined to be effective
S. aureus
P. aeruginosa
in 400 µg/mL
E. faecalis
E. coli
at 200 µg/mL
C. albicans
at 50
µg/mL concentration. In other words, the antifungal
activity of the mushroom extract appears to be higher.
It was also determined that the fungus can be used as
a natural antibacterial and antifungal source.
Table 1. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of ethanol extract of
E. sinuatum
Çizelge 1. E. sinuatum'un etanol ekstresinin antibakteriyel ve antifungal aktiviteleri
Antibacterial (µg/mL)
Antifungal (µg/mL)
S. aureus
E. faecalis
E. coli
P. aeruginosa
C. albicans
C. tropicalis
Entoloma sinuatum
Antioxidant activities
Antioxidant compounds are found in many natural
products including mushrooms that spread in many
different ecosystems. Mushrooms are very vital
sources of antioxidants with their numerous
antioxidant-effective enzymes and phenolic
compounds (Lu et al., 2018; İnci et al., 2019).
Table 2. TAS, TOS and OSI Values of ethanol extract of
Çizelge 2. E. sinuatum'un etanol ekstresinin TAS, TOS ve
OSI Değerleri
TAS (mmol/L)
TOS (µmol/L)
E. sinuatum
Values are presented as mean±S.D
Many studies have shown that mushrooms have high
antioxidant activities. The total antioxidant and total
oxidant status of used in our study were determined
for the first time. In previous TAS and TOS studies on
wild mushrooms, TAS value of
was reported as 3.754, TOS value was 8.362 and OSI
value was 0.223 (Selamoğlu et al., 2020). The TAS
value of
Cerioporus varius
was reported as 2.312, TOS
value was 14.358 and OSI value was 0.627 (Sevindik,
2019). TAS value of
Suillus granulatus
was reported as
3.143, TOS value was 18.933 and OSI value was 0.603
(Mushtaq et al., 2020). The TAS value of
was reported as 3.237, the TOS value was
8.178 and the OSI value was 0.254 (Sevindik, 2020).
The TAS value of
Infundibulicybe geotropa
reported as 1.854, TOS value was 30.385 and OSI
value was 1.639 (Sevindik et al., 2020). The TAS value
Lepista nuda
was reported as 3.102, the TOS value
was 36.920, and the OSI value was 1.190 (Bal et al.,
2019). Compared to these studies, the TAS value of
was found to be higher than
I. geotropa
C. varius
, lower than
L. rugatus, L. nuda, S.
T. virgatum
. TAS value shows the
whole of the antioxidant compounds produced within
the mushroom (Krupodorova and Sevindik, 2020). The
difference in TAS values determined in studies on
different mushrooms draws attention. The difference
in TAS value between species is due to the difference
in the potential of fungi to produce compounds with
antioxidant properties.
When TOS values were examined,
E. sinuatum
determined to be lower than
C. varius, L. rugatus, I.
geotropa, L. nuda
T. virgatum
. The TOS value
indicates the whole of the oxidant compounds produced
by the fungus as a result of environmental effects
metabolic activities (Krupodorova and Sevindik, 2020).
TOS value of
E. sinuatum
used in our study was
generally found to be low. In addition, the OSI value
shows how much the oxidant compounds produced in
the mushroom's body are suppressed by the
endogenous antioxidants (Krupodorova and Sevindik,
E. sinuatum
suppressed better than
I. geotropa,
L. rugatus, S. granulatus, L. nuda,
C. varius
, less
T. virgatum
. Determining the oxidative stress
index is important in determining the antioxidant
potential of the mushroom. The OSI value shows the
success of suppressing the oxidant compounds
produced by the fungus by the antioxidant defence
system. In this context, it is seen that the antioxidant
defence system of
E. sinuatum
is successful in
suppressing oxidant compounds. As a result, it was
determined that
E. sinuatum
has antioxidant
In this study, the antioxidant, oxidant, and
antimicrobial potential of wild poisonous mushroom
was determined. As a result, it was found
that the antioxidant potential of the mushroom was at
KSÜ Tarım ve Doğa Derg 25 (1): 83-87, 2022
KSU J. Agric Nat 25 (1): 83-87, 2022
Araştırma Makalesi
Research Article
normal levels. It was also found that the oxidant level
was low, yet, fungi were more effective against fungi.
Besides, it was determined that
E. sinuatum
could be
a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial source.
We thanks to Osmaniye Korkut Ata University,
Central Research Laboratory for their support.
Researchers Contribution Rate Declaration Summary
The authors declare that they have contributed equally
to the article.
Conflicts of Interest Statement
The article authors declare that they do not have any
conflict of interest.
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In the present study, the antioxidant, antimicrobial potential and antiproliferative activity of Lactifluus rugatus mushroom were determined. Thus, extracts of the mushroom were obtained using a Soxhlet device. Antioxidant and oxidant potentials were determined using Rel Assay kits. Antimicrobial potential was tested on 9 microorganisms using the modified agar dilution method. MTT test was conducted on A549 cells to determine the anti-proliferative activity. As a result, high level of antioxidant activity was determined in L. rugatus. Furthermore, it was determined that the mushroom had antimicrobial properties on tested bacteria and fungi and strong anti-proliferative activity on A549 cells. In conclusion, it was considered that L. rugatus had pharmacological potential and it can be utilized as a natural pharmacological agent.
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People have used mushrooms for many different diseases for thousands of years. Although mushrooms are considered as nutrients for the first time, it has been determined by researches that they have medicinal properties. In this study, antioxidant status, oxidant status and some mineral contents of wild edible mushroom Ramaria stricta (Pers.) Quél were determined. The antioxidant and oxidant states of the mushroom were measured using Rel Assay kits. Element contents were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. In this study, the antioxidant potential of R. stricta mushroom used in our study has been evaluated to be high in term of total antioxidant status (TAS) values (4.223 ± 0.054 mmol/l), total oxidant status (TOS) values (8.201 ± 0.095 µmol/l), and oxidative stress index (OSI) value (0.194 ± 0.001). Fruitbodies of R. stricta contains essential mineral elements which are of immense health benefit. The highest Fe content (451.21 ± 5.56 was found in mushroom samples. It was established high Cu content (95.54 ± 2.06, and Zn content (39.19 ± 1.07 Ni content was 7.17 ± 0.32 A lower content (2.18 ± 0.10 was recorded for Pb. In addition, element contents were found to be at normal levels. As a result, R. stricta mushroom is thought to be a natural antioxidant source.
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Tricholoma is one of the famous genera of Basidiomycota division. Although some species of this genus have been used as culinary mushrooms, very negligible investigations have been conducted on Tricholoma genus phenolic contents and their biological activities. In the present study, the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and DNA protection properties of total phenolic contents of Tricholoma virgatum (Fr.) P. Kumm. (54% methanolic extract) were assessed. T. virgatum phenolic content was determined by an analytic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method based on compression with standard phenolic compounds including gallic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, and coumaric acid. Total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) values were determined using Rel Assay kits. For DNA protective potential assay, pBR322 supercoiled DNA method was used. The antimicrobial activity assay was done based on the agar dilution method on six different microorganisms include Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Candida tropicalis. The total phenolic contents of this mushroom lied within range of 2.02-56.85 ppm based on coumaric acid and chlorogenic acid as standards. TAS, TOS, and OSI values were determined as 3.754±0.088 mmol/L, 8.362 ±0.085 μmol/L, and 0.223 ±0.007, respectively. T. virgatum methanol extract could exhibit a protective effect on DNA against the hydroxyl radical at 100 μg/mL concentration. Although T. virgatum is not recommended as an edible mushroom, according to our results, this mushroom could be considered as valuable source for phenolic compounds with significant antioxidant/antimicrobial effects.
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Mushrooms are important natural resources in natural ecosystems. They have been used for centuries as a means of food, medicine and religious rituals for humans. In this study, total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cd, Pb and Zn contents of edible mushroom Suillus granulatus (L.) Roussel were determined. Mushroom samples were collected from Hatay-Antakya (Turkey). Ethanol extracts of mushroom samples were obtained. TAS, TOS and OSI values were measured using Rel Assay kits. Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cd, Pb and Zn contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. As a result of the study, TAS value of S. granulatus was 3.143 ± 0.068 mmol/L, TOS value was 18.933 ± 0.195 µmol/L and OSI value was 0.603 ± 0.007. Cr content of S. granulatus was found to be high. As a result, wild edible mushroom S. granulatus had antioxidant potential.
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Infundibulicybe geotropa (Bull.) Harmaja is an edible mushroom found in Bolu province in northwestern Turkey. The chemical composition and bioactivity of these mushrooms has not been previously investigated. We examined the phenolic composition, elemental content, and antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of methanol extracts of fruiting bodies. The phenolic compounds in the fungal samples were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and element content was determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were determined using the commercially available Rel assay kit. The antigenotoxic effects of the extract were determined using the MTT assay to assess cell viability and the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (Comet assay). The total phenolic content (ppm) of I. geotropa was found to be catechin (), clorogenic acid (), and coumaric acid (). The TAS, TOS, and OSI of the extract were mmol/L, μmol/L, and , respectively. The elemental levels were within “normal” range. In HT22 mouse hippocampal neuronal cells, the extract (100 and 200 μg/ml) showed no genotoxic potential and ameliorated hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced oxidative DNA damage. I. geotropa may be considered a good nutrient due to its phenolic constituents and antioxidant potential.
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Hybrid nanoparticles designed to exert multiple mechanisms of antibacterial action offer a new approach to the fight against pathogenic resistant bacteria. In this study, nanomaterials with the dual actions of antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities were developed using silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) functionalized with either lactoferrin (LTF) or graphene oxide (GO). AgNPs were synthesized using mushroom waste as a reducing agent and chitosan (CS) as a stabilizing agent, prior to their surface functionalization with either GO (AgGO) or LTF (Ag-LTF). The AgNPs exhibited a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 430 nm, as determined by UV-vis spectroscopy, whereas the absorption of AgGO and Ag-LTF occurred at 402 and 441 nm, respectively. Particle size analysis of AgNPs, AgGO, and Ag-LTF revealed sizes of 121.5 ± 10.5, 354.0 ± 1.6, and 130.8 ± 1.2 nm, respectively. All AgNPs, Ag-LTF, and AgGO inhibited selected Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria with comparable antibacterial performance, as determined by the agar diffusion method. Despite the absence of antibacterial activity by GO and LTF, a synergistic effect of AgGO and Ag-LTF was observed as they had a greater activity against P. aeruginosa. Moreover, Ag-LTF did not affect cell viability and migration rate of cells, suggesting the non-toxicity of Ag-LTF. In conclusion, AgNPs, Ag-LTF, and AgGO possess antibacterial activity, which may offer an alternative for future antibacterial agents.
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The present study aimed to determine the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and antimicro-bial activity of Cerioporus varius (Pers.) Zmitr. & Kovalenko mushrooms collected in Gaziantep province , Turkey. The TAS, TOS and OSI of the mushroom were analyzed with Rel Assay Diagnostics kits. Antimicrobial activity of the mushroom was tested on 6 bacteria and 3 fungus strains with the modified agar dilution method. It was determined that the TAS of C. varius was 2.312±0.137, the TOS was 14.358±0.174 and the OSI was 0.627±0.047. Furthermore, it was determined that EtOH, MeOH and DCM mushroom extracts exhibited antimicrobial activities against the tested bacterial and fungal strains. In conclusion, it was determined that C. varius can be used as a natural anti-oxidant and antimicrobial source.
Revalorization of mushroom by-product (stalks of A. bisporus) by extracting its components is proposed. The extraction kinetics at 25 °C of ergosterol, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity by mechanical agitation (at 130 rpm) and ultrasound assistance (at 182 and 321 W/L) in 70 and 96% v/v ethanol/water solutions during 30 min were evaluated and satisfactorily modelled, using the Weibull model (mean relative error ≤7.8%). The effect of the ethanol concentration was high in the ergosterol extraction yield (2 times higher yields in 96% than in 70%) but slight in those of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Ultrasound assistance promoted considerable yield increases (up to 2 times higher in ergosterol, 46% in phenolic compounds and 25% in antioxidant activity) depending on the ethanol concentration and ultrasound power density. The residues after extraction were characterized and constituted a potential source of high value polysaccharides as β-glucans (average 12.2 ± 1.7g/100 g dm).