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The growth, viability, and blood indices of broiler fed on papaya, black cumin, and mustard seed powder supplemented diets

Authors:
  • Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko, Nigeria
  • The Federal Polytechnic, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria

Abstract and Figures

The effects of black cumin seed powder, papaya seed powder, and mustard seed powder on broiler chickens' growth and blood indices were investigated. The basal diets (starter and grower) were formulated and divided into five portions. The first portion (T1) had no supplementation; portion two (T2) had 1.1 g/100g oxytetracycline (OT) supplementation. 15g/kg papaya seed powder, mustard seed powder, and black cumin seed powder were added to portions three (T3), four (T4), and five (T5), respectively. The haematological indices were not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. The birds' relative growth rate was improved by oxytetracycline, papaya, mustard, and black cumin dietary supplementation. The serum alanine aminotransferase concentration of the broiler chickens in T1 was not statistically significantly different compared to T2, T3, and T4. Birds in treatments T1 and T2 had serum albumin concentrations that were comparable to those fed T3 and T4 supplemented diets but statistically lower (P<0.05) than T5. Weekly growth rate and relative growth rate were significantly improved under T3 and T4.
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E-NAMTILA Publishing DYSONA - Applied Science
DAS 2 (2021) 28-35 DOI: 10.30493/DAS.2021.278052
28
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journal are distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0
International License.
DYSONA Applied Science ISSN: 2708-6283
The growth, viability, and blood indices of
broiler fed on papaya, black cumin, and
mustard seed powder supplemented diets
Moyosore J. Adegbeye 1; Olugbenga D. Oloruntola 2*; Johnson O. Oyeniran 3; Simeon O. Ayodele 4;
Gbemisola Agboola 1; Abiodun A. Oladipo 5
1, Department of Animal Science, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji, Nigeria
2, Department of Animal Science, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko, Nigeria
3, Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, Federal polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria
4, Department of Agricultural Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
5, Federal College of Animal Health and Production Technology, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria
Abstract
E-mail:
olugbenga.oloruntola@aaua.edu.ng
Received: 20/03/2021
Acceptance: 20/04/2021
Available Online: 22/04/2021
Published: 01/07/2021
The effects of black cumin seed powder, papaya seed powder, and mustard
seed powder on broiler chickens' growth and blood indices were investigated.
The basal diets (starter and grower) were formulated and divided into five
portions. The first portion (T1) had no supplementation; portion two (T2) had
1.1 g/100g oxytetracycline (OT) supplementation. 15g/kg papaya seed powder,
mustard seed powder, and black cumin seed powder were added to portions
three (T3), four (T4), and five (T5), respectively. The haematological indices
were not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. The birds' relative
growth rate was improved by oxytetracycline, papaya, mustard, and black
cumin dietary supplementation. The serum alanine aminotransferase
concentration of the broiler chickens in T1 was not statistically significantly
different compared to T2, T3, and T4. Birds in treatments T1 and T2 had serum
albumin concentrations that were comparable to those fed T3 and T4
supplemented diets but statistically lower (P<0.05) than T5. Weekly growth
rate and relative growth rate were significantly improved under T3 and T4.
Keywords: Broiler chickens,
Carica papaya, Brassica
juncea, Nigella sativa, Phyto-
supplements, phytogenics
1. Introduction
The poultry industry's importance in terms of a country's socio-economic growth cannot be overstated, as it plays a
critical role in providing animal proteins for the growing population in a timely and cost-effective manner. [1]. The use
of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal production has been a source of concern due to their harmful effects on
human health and their ever-increasing cost. [2]. Additionally, the possible role of antibiotic growth promoters in
developing antimicrobial resistance in humans has prompted the ban of its use in many developed countries; and such
activity is also recommended for other low-income and middle-income countries [2]. Furthermore, there is an
increased awareness of the consumers regarding the dangers of consuming meat from animals produced with
synthetic chemicals and major limits on antibiotic growth promoters in meat production in several countries [3].
Therefore, the search for alternative and safe growth-promoting compounds became widely required [4][5].
Recently, the medicinal or pharmacological properties of papaya seed, black cumin seed, and papaya seed were
reported [6]. Furthermore, the effects of supplementing broiler chickens with papaya leaf and seed powders
composite mix on enhancing growth efficiency characteristics and decreasing serum alanine aminotransferase and
cholesterol levels were studied [7]. It was previously shown that phytogenics might affect blood parameters [8][9].
Blood haematological variables represent an effective means of assessing the health and nutritional status of animals
in feeding trials [5][10]. There is currently inadequate data on the effects of supplementing broiler chickens with
DYSONA Applied Science 2 (2021) 28-35 Adegbeye et al.
29
papaya, mustard, and black cumin seed powders on growth, haematological indices, and serum biochemical
parameters. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the effects of these phytogenics on the aforementioned indices
and parameters.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Collection and analysis of seeds
The papaya (Carica papaya) seeds were obtained from
ripe fruits. The seeds were washed, drained, and shade
dried. The brown mustard (Brassica juncea) and black
cumin (Nigella sativa) were procured from northern
Nigeria. The black cumin (BSM), papaya (PSM), and
mustard (MSM) seed were milled (100µm particular
size), and seed powders were obtained. The proximate
compositions and phytoconstituents of prepared seed
powders have been mentioned previously [11] and are
shown in (Table 1).
2.2. Experimental diets
The composition of the broiler chicken basal diets
formulated according to NRC specifications [12] for the
starter and grower phases was stated in [11] and shown
in (Table 2). After that, these basal diets were divided
into five equal portions. Portion one (T1) was not
supplemented; portion two (T2) was supplemented
with 1.1g/100g oxytetracycline (OT). The third (T3),
fourth (T4), and fifth (T5) portions were supplemented
with 15g/1000g of PSM, MSM, and BSM, respectively.
2.3. Experimental procedure
All applicable National Regulations and Institutional
Policies for animal care and use were followed during
animal research. The Research and Ethics Committee of
the Department of Animal Science, Joseph Ayo Babalola
University (JABU), Ikeji Arakeji, Nigeria, granted
permission to use animals and the animal protocol.
A feeding trial was performed at the JABU Teaching and
Research Farm. A total of 300 Arbor Acres broiler the
chicks were distributed in five treatments (10
chicks/replicate; 60 chicks/treatment) using a fully
randomized experimental design. For the first seven
days of brooding, the house temperature was kept at
31±2°C, but for each subsequent seven days, the
temperature was lowered by 2°C until the house
temperature was 26±2°C. The brooding temperature
was set in this way to reduce the energy needed for
temperature regulation by the chicks. During the
experiment, the house was lit for 22 hours a day, and
the feed and water were given ad libitum.
Table 1. The proximate composition and phytochemicals of
mustard, papaya, and black cumin seed powders.
Black
cumin seed
powder
Papaya
seed
powder
Mustard
seed
powder
Proximate composition
166.81
157.84
186.82
63.63
118.62
56.93
28.72
36.81
138.84
50.94
52.93
42.52
609.60
519.92
496.13
Phytochemicals
4.95
4.08
5.26
0.06
0.08
0.07
1.76
2.06
1.87
1.27
3.11
1.16
0.37
0.28
0.43
Table 2. Composition and nutrient contents of basic diets.
Ingredients (g/kg)
Starter diet
(1-21 days)
Grower diet
(22-42 days)
Maize
426.60
485.60
Soybean meal
386.90
347.90
Wheat offal
121.00
101.00
Vegetable oil
22.00
23.00
Limestone
14.00
14.00
Di-calcium phosphate
18.00
17.00
Methionine
3.00
3.00
*Premix
3.00
3.00
Lysine
2.50
2.50
Salt
3.00
3.00
Chemical analysis (g/kg)
Crude protein
221.30
207.80
Crude fiber
45.50
438.90
Calculated analysis (g/kg)
Energy (kcal/kg)
2955.88
3000.24
Available Phosphorus
6.00
5.50
Calcium
10.20
9.30
Methionine
6.30
3.80
Lysine
11.50
10.30
Adegbeye et al. 2020 [11].
DYSONA Applied Science 2 (2021) 28-35 Adegbeye et al.
30
2.4. The rate of growth
A responsive weighing scale was used to assess the broiler chickens' weights at the start of the experiment (day 1) and
the end of the experiment (day 42). The relative growth rate (RGR) was estimated using the following formula [13]:
    
  .
Where w2 is the weight of the broiler chickens at the onset of the experiment and w2 is the weight of the broiler
chickens on the last day of the experiment.
The viability percentage (V% ) of the birds was registered daily and determined as follows [13]:
  
   .
2.5. Collection and examination of blood samples
Three birds per replication were randomly picked, and 4ml blood samples were obtained from the brachial vein using
a syringe and needle. The blood was dispensed into EDTA venojects for haematological indices determination on day
21 (3 weeks mark) of the experiment. Elarabany's method [14] was used to assess the red blood cells (RBC), packed
cell volume (PVC), haemoglobin concentration (Hbc), white blood cells (WBC), granulocytes (GRA), lymphocytes
(LYM), and monocytes (MON). The second round of bleeding was carried out on day 42 of the experiment (6 weeks
mark). About 8 ml of blood was dispensed equally into EDTA venojects and plain venojects for haematological and
serum biochemical indices determination, respectively. The haematological indices were determined in the same way
as it was done on day 21. The serum proteins (total protein, albumin, and globulin), as well as serum enzymes
(aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine transaminase [ALT]), were determined according to [5].
2.6. Analysis of the data
The following model was used in a fully randomized system: Yij = µ + ai + eij, where Yij= any of the response variables; µ
= the overall mean; ai= effect of the ith treatment (i = diets 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) and eij= random error due to
experimentation. Using SPSS version 20, all data obtained at weeks 3 and 6 were subjected to analysis of variance
(ANOVA). Duncan multiple range test of the same statistical kit was used to look at the variations between treatment
means.
3. Result
3.1. Phytogenics effect on the weight, growth, and viability of the broiler chickens
The average weekly body weight gain of the birds fed with diets T3 and T5 was significantly (P<0.05) higher compared
to T1 and T5 (Fig. 1 A). The relative growth rate of broilers fed with T3 and T4 was not substantially different from
that of broilers fed with T2 and T5 diets but was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of T1 (Fig. 1 B). Although
broiler chickens fed with T3 and T4 were numerically higher than other treatments, broiler chicken viability was not
significantly affected by seed powder supplementation (Fig. 1 C),
3.2. Phytogecnics effect on the haematological indices of the broiler chickens
At 3 and 6 weeks of age, no statistically significant differences between individual treatments were observed in the
PCV, RBC, HBc, mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin
(MCH), WBC, GRA, LYM, and MON (Table 3).
DYSONA Applied Science 2 (2021) 28-35 Adegbeye et al.
31
Table 3. Effect of different seed powder supplements on hematological indices of broiler chickens at 3 and 6 weeks of age.
Treatments
PCV
(%)
RBC
(x106/l)
HBc
(g/dl)
MCHC
(g/dl)
MCV
(fl)
MCH
(pg/cell)
WBC
(x109/l)
GRA
(x109/l)
LYM
(x109/l)
MON
(x109/l)
Age 3 week
T1
37.00±1.62
11.50±1.24
12.33±1.54
33.31±0.05
35.06±7.72
11.68±2.73
4.72±0.88
0.88±0.16
3.75±0.52
0.08±0.02
T2
36.50±2.25
8.10±0.68
12.16±1.42
33.24±0.06
54.84±6.76
18.28±2.86
2.77±0.43
0.52±0.13
2.19±0.63
0.04±0.01
T3
34.75±3.17
9.77±0.59
11.58±1.29
33.32±0.04
37.41±8.12
12.47±2.09
2.90±0.35
0.56±0.21
2.23±0.68
0.10±0.03
T4
37.25±3.24
11.07±1.30
12.41±1.62
33.27±0.08
33.94±5.34
11.31±1.98
1.95±0.37
0.46±0.18
1.44±0.41
0.04±0.01
T5
36.25±2.98
11.35±1.31
12.08±1.77
33.25±0.05
32.65±5.77
10.88±2.54
2.62±0.09
0.70±0.11
1.85±0.39
0.06±0.02
SEM
0.90
0.57
0.30
0.02
4.06
1.35
0.28
0.07
0.22
0.01
P value
1.94
1.37
1.94
0.33
1.02
1.01
4.99
1.08
6.97
2.54
Age 6 week
T1
33.25±2.42
9.90±0.76
11.08±1.72
33.32±0.07
42.86±9.23
14.28±3.49
4.07±0.54
2.19±0.34
1.77±0.31
0.10±0.03
T2
29.75±2.35
12.40±1.44
9.91±8.64
33.24±0.05
31.98±8.42
10.66±3.86
2.22±0.46
0.85±0.37
1.29±0.23
0.07±0.02
T3
32.75±1.89
6.20±0.52
10.91±1.62
33.32±0.04
54.14±8.99
18.05±3.72
2.82±0.39
1.13±0.30
1.59±0.25
0.09±0.03
T4
32.75±2.63
15.87±1.67
10.91±2.04
33.27±0.06
22.62±7.83
7.54±3.95
2.05±0.62
0.95±0.29
0.96±0.28
0.13±0.03
T5
33.75±2.87
13.22±1.72
11.25±1.38
33.26±0.04
33.67±8.41
11.22±3.69
2.75±0.74
0.91±0.22
1.75±0.31
0.07±0.02
SEM
0.71
1.27
0.23
0.02
4.51
1.50
0.21
0.13
0.12
0.01
P value
0.93
1.97
0.93
0.33
1.57
1.57
6.92
10.98
1.76
0.74
SEM: Standard error of the mean; PCV: Packed cell volume; RBC: Red blood cell; HBc: Haemoglobin concentration; MCV: Mean cell volume; MCH: Mean cell haemoglobin; WBC:
White blood cells; GRA: Granulocytes; LYM: Lymphocytes; MON: Monocytes; SEM: Standard Error of the Mean. T1: Control; T2: Oxytetracycline (0.11g/kg); T3: Papaya seed
powder (15g/kg) ; T4: Mustard seed powder (15g/kg); T5: Black cumin seed powder (15g/kg).
DYSONA Applied Science 2 (2021) 28-35 Adegbeye et al.
32
3.3. Phytogenics effect on the serum biochemical indices of
the broiler chickens
Dietary supplements had no significant effect on AST, creatinine, total
protein, or globulin. The ALT serum concentration in birds fed with
the diet supplemented with black cumin seed powder (T5) was
statistically similar to those fed with T2, T3, and T4, but was
significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of control (T1). The
concentration of serum albumin recorded in the birds fed with T5 diet
was similar to T3 and T4 but statistically higher (P<0.05) than T1 and
T2 (Table 4).
4. Discussion
The chemical composition profiles of the phytogenics used in this
study suggest the health-supportive properties of these supplements
when being used in chick's dietary programs. Secondary metabolites
such as phenol and flavonoids present in the supplements have
improved animal antioxidant status and antimicrobial activity [15].
Saponins have also been shown to reduce cholesterol absorption
through a physiochemical interaction within the lumen [16][17]. The
stability of broilers viability percentage of the birds across the various
dietary treatments indicates, to some extent, the suitability of the
dietary supplements and the supplementation levels used in the study
for typical growth performance of the experimental birds [7][17]. The
increased average weekly weight gain and relative growth rate
observed in treatments T3 and T4 were consistent with previous
findings [5][6]. The improved relative growth rates observed in
treatments T2, T3, T4, and T5 indicate that certain phytochemicals
present in the used phytogenics have antibiotic properties
comparable to oxytetracycline, resulting in reduced enteric disorder,
improved health status, and improved nutrient utilization [3][7][11].
The haematological indices are reported as an indicator of normal
physiological functions in animals and a reliable tool in the diagnosis
of many diseases [10][18]. Considering the use of feed supplements,
the obtained stability of haematological indices, including RBC, WBC,
PCV, HBc, LYM, MCHC, MCV, MCH, GRA, and MON means that feed
supplements did not have a detrimental impact on the usual
hemopoiesis in the birds or on their normal health status at 3 and 6
weeks marks. According to [10], the WBC and their differentials
(lymphocytes, granulocytes, and monocytes) are involved in fighting
off infection, defending the body against foreign organisms' invasion,
and in the production and transportation/distribution of antibodies.
The occurrence of leukocytosis is indicative of problems such as
infection, stress, trauma, allergy, or specific diseases [19].
Furthermore, it is suggested that the bacterium found in the liver,
spleen, kidneys, thymus, and heart could induce the development and
release of leukocytes into the bloodstream [20]. However, the steady
counts of WBC recorded in broiler chickens in T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5
implies the absence of chronic infections that could have caused
deviation or alteration in the normal count of the white blood cells
[19].
Figure 1. Average weekly weight gain (A),
relative growth rate (B), and viability of broiler
chickens fed with seed supplemented diets. T1:
Control; T2: Oxytetracycline (0.11g/kg); T3:
Pawpaw seed meal (15g/kg); T4: Mustard seed
meal (15g/kg); T5: Black cumin seed meal
(15g/kg).
DYSONA Applied Science 2 (2021) 28-35 Adegbeye et al.
33
Table 4. Effects of different seed powder supplements on the serum biochemical parameters at six weeks.
Treatments
AST (IU/L)
ALT (IU/L)
Creatinine
(µmol/L)
Total Protein
(g/L)
Albumin
(g/L)
Globulin
(g/L)
T1
130.75±12.23
43.05±5.67b
32.45±7.39
43.63±9.85
18.60±4.82b
25.03±7.54
T2
109.75±14.25
48.63±5.98ab
40.85±6.78
39.60±8.47
20.00±5.07b
19.60±6.21
T3
125.50±13.84
56.53±6.34ab
39.25±6.33
42.78±9.08
23.40±4.33ab
19.38±6.44
T4
144.25±16.36
57.13±6.59ab
30.75±6.05
45.85±9.66
23.93±4.92ab
21.93±7.22
T5
129.25±13.04
65.38±8.27a
26.48±5.63
59.95±8.64
30.03±6.88a
29.93±8.11
SEM
8.32
2.55
3.08
3.55
1.42
2.62
P value
0.81
0.03
0.59
0.44
0.04
0.73
Means within a column with different letters are significantly different (P<0.05); AST: Aspartate Aminotransferase;
ALT: Alanine Aminotransferase; T1: Control; T2: Oxytetracycline (0.11g/kg); T3: Papaya seed powder (15g/kg); T4:
Mustard seed powder (15g/kg); T5: Black cumin seed powder (15g/kg).
An earlier report [21] indicated oxidative stress as the possible cause of leukocytosis, which has been observed in this
study. Phytogenic supplements had been reported as a possible viable solution to the negative effect of oxidative
stress in broiler chickens [7]. The potentials of phytogenic supplements in the removal or reduction of oxidative stress
may explain the similar and normal WBC counts recorded in broiler chickens in this study.
The effect of age on haematological indices was reported by different authors [22][23][24]. However, the stability of
the haematological indices in the current study after six weeks compared to 3 weeks mark indicated that the normal
hematopoietic process in the birds was not affected by age differences.
The concentrations of ALT and AST (enzymes associated with cellular metabolism) varied between treatments. Thus,
the elevated concentration of ALT in the plasma implies hepatic cell loss of integrity, indicating cellular damage [25].
The relatively higher ALT concentration recorded in treatment T5 compared to T1 (control) implies that continuous
use of this dietary supplement for broiler chicken may lead to health impairment in the form of liver cells integrity
compromise. The elevated ALT concentration recorded in the experimental birds fed with T5 compared to T1 may be
due to the variation in the chemical composition. For instance, the flavonoids and phenol contents are relatively lower
in BSM compared to PSM and MSM. The roles of flavonoids and phenol on hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects
were reported in [26] and [27]. The flavonoids are highly effective polyphenolic compounds in scavenging for free
radicals due to their molecule formation harboring a mobile hydrogen-containing aromatic ring with hydroxyl groups
[28]. On the other hand, AST values in this study fall within the normal range (175.75-182.56 U/L) [29]. The higher
serum albumin concentration recorded in birds fed with T5 suggests that BSM supplementation triggers haemo-
concentration (due to dehydration or shock) and lipaemia [19]. Nonetheless, the serum albumin concentrations for
broiler chickens fed with seed powder supplemented diets in this study are within the usual range (21.0034.50 g/l)
[30]. However, additional studies are required to point out the possible bioactive compounds responsible for these
observations.
5. Conclusion
The various seed (papaya, mustard, and black cumin) meals have phytochemicals of pharmacological importance. The
inclusion of BSM at the level 15 g/kg in the broiler chicken diet may negatively affect the liver of the birds after a
relatively long period. On the other hand, weekly growth rate and relative growth rate were improved by
supplementing starter and finisher phase diets with papaya and mustard seed powder at 15 g/kg in both phases.
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... Mustard seeds contain the highest levels of glucosinolates, and it is believed that myrosinase enzyme present in mustard seeds can contribute to its antimicrobial effect against Escherichia coli O157:H7 through the hydrolysis of glucosinolates (37). This result is inconsistent with that obtained by Adegbeye, Oloruntola (17), (38,39) who reported that the administration of MSE at the level of15g/kg did not affect the total bacterial count in the cecum. ...
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... Mustard seeds contain the highest levels of glucosinolates, and it is believed that myrosinase enzyme present in mustard seeds can contribute to its antimicrobial effect against Escherichia coli O157:H7 through the hydrolysis of glucosinolates (37). This result is inconsistent with that obtained by Adegbeye, Oloruntola (17), (38,39) who reported that the administration of MSE at the level of15g/kg did not affect the total bacterial count in the cecum. ...
... Mustard seeds contain the highest levels of glucosinolates, and it is believed that myrosinase enzyme present in mustard seeds can contribute to its antimicrobial effect against Escherichia coli O157:H7 through the hydrolysis of glucosinolates (37). This result is inconsistent with that obtained by Adegbeye, Oloruntola (17), (38,39) who reported that the administration of MSE at the level of15g/kg did not affect the total bacterial count in the cecum. ...
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... Mustard seeds contain the highest levels of glucosinolates, and it is believed that myrosinase enzyme present in mustard seeds can contribute to its antimicrobial effect against Escherichia coli O157:H7 through the hydrolysis of glucosinolates (37). This result is inconsistent with that obtained by Adegbeye, Oloruntola (17), (38,39) who reported that the administration of MSE at the level of15g/kg did not affect the total bacterial count in the cecum. ...
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