A Crtical analysis of Arthur Jerey's work on the Qur'an
Dr Molina Muhammad Sajad1
In this article, the analysis of Arthur Jeffrey's work on the Qur'an in the context of Qitabul Msahif of ibne Abi
Dawood has been discussed briefly. According to Arthur Jeffrey, the Qur'an did not exist in written form in the time
of the Messenger of God, and he based his position on a false narration which contradicts the authentic narrations.
He also says that according to the research of the Orientalists, the Messenger of God knew how to read and write
and this is also proved by the Qur'an. Arthur Jeffrey writes that in the light of Western research, it is clear that he
was compiling a book (ie the Qur'an) for Muslims in the latter part of his life. By this he wants to prove that the
Qur'an is in fact the personal work of the Messenger of God. These are all judged logically that these views are just
the bias of the Orientialist about the Quran and Islam instead to access the reality.
Key Words: Arthur Jeffrey, Orientialists, Quran, islam, Qitabul Msahif
MA Eng, M.ED, PhD Studies, Fazil Jamia Umar bin Khattab Multan, Lecturer, The Best College Bahawalpur,email@example.com,
Introduction of Arthur Jeffrey
Arthur Jeffery was born on October 18, 1892 in Melbourne, Australia. He died on August 2, 1959 in Canada. He was
a bigoted Protestant Christian. Initially, he worked as a teacher of Semitic languages at the School of Oriental
Studies in Cairo. He later joined Columbia University in 1938. Arthur Jeffrey published Ibn Abi Dawood's book, Al-
Mus'haf, with his research and wrote several articles and booklets on the Qur'an, including discussions on the text
and compilation of the Qur'an. Scholars have raised several objections to Arthur's research. Dr. Mohib-ud-Din Wa'iz
in his research has pointed out how Arthur Jeffrey names the chapters in the original book and in some places even
added words. Arthur Jeffrey, in his research of the Book of the Mushafs, based his "Manuscript of the Apparent" and
compared it with the "Manuscript of the Egyptian Books". Arthur Jeffrey claims that the manuscript of Dar al-Kitab
al-Masriyyah is a second version, although it is a copy of the Zahiriya version, as evidenced by the fact that the first
page does not appear in either version.3
According to Arthur Jeffrey, the Qur'an did not exist in written form in the time of Muhammad (peace be upon him).
He also says that according to the research of the Orientalists, Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon
him) knew how to read and write. Arthur Jeffrey writes that in the light of Western research, it is clear that
Muhammad (peace be upon him) was compiling a book (ie the Qur'an) for Muslims in the latter part of his life.
Regarding the work of the Qur'an in the time of Abu Bakr Siddiq, he thinks that it was a personal collection and not
an official one. According to him, the work of compiling the Qur'an at the official level began in the time of 'Uthman
ibn Affan. Arthur Jeffrey also expressed the view that according to the research of some scholars, Zayd ibn Thabit
did the work of compiling the Qur'an only for 'Uthman ibn Affan, but since' Uthman's personality was controversial,
some of his companions compared the work of compiling the Qur'an. In order to refer to Abu Bakr, formulate some
traditions according to which Zayd ibn Thabit was commissioned to compile the Qur'an in the time of Abu Bakr.
The Textual History of the Qur'an
The Mystic Letters of the Koran
A Variant Text of the Fatiha
The Orthography of the Samarqand Codex
Materials for the History of the Text of the Qur'an
The Foreign Vocabulary of the Qur'an
A Reader on Islam
Arthur Jeffrey's Methodology
Before we begin with Jeffrey's method of reasoning, it is important to introduce Arthur Jeffrey. He was an
Australian-American Orientalist who researched various aspects of the Qur'an. The most famous of his scholarly and
research works is his book.
Materials for The History Of The Text Of The Qur'an: The Old Codices
In addition to his major work on Bible studies, he did research on the Holy Qur'an while serving as Professor of
Semitic Languages at Columbia University in the United States. In addition, he wrote on topics such as strangers
and obscure words in the Qur'an. His other major work is The Foreign Vocabulary Of The Qur'an.
He also translated selected surahs of the Qur'an and devised a new system to establish 'progress in Muhammad's
thought'. His research work is published in The Koran - Selected Suras.
" Arthur Jeffery, Materials For The History Of The Text Of The Qur'ân: The Old Codices, 1937, Leiden, E J Brill, p. 12
It belongs to a class of Orientalists who, after the colonial period, deviated from the textual and philosophical
sciences and, unlike their predecessors, missed out on any opportunity to serve as advisers to the colonial masters of
Muslim Asia and Africa. Did not give
Arthur Jeffrey also has the distinction of calling Muhammad " the head of a bandit, in that he is second only to
Professor David Margolith.4
Jeffrey expresses his hostile attitude towards Him as follows:
At Medina, he was what might justly call a robber chief, just as David, King of Israel, was in his early days.
In Medina, he was probably the leader of the bandits, just as Jesus, the King of Israel, was in his early days.
All this was to compare Muhammad with "the life of our Lord" and vice versa. If he hates the Prophet of Islam so
much, then who can expect him to do justice?
In this chapter, Professor Arthur Jeffrey's work on the Qur'an and its method of reasoning will be discussed and
discussed in detail.
In 1937, Jeffrey published the book "Materials for the History of the Quranic Book: The Old Codix", which contains
an impressive portion of the material related to the recitation of the Qur'an in the Code of the Manner Companions.
The most moving feature of this book is the harrassment with which the reader finds out Jafri's doubts about the
different readings. He says:
"... has not survived to enable us to get a real picture of the text of any of the pre-Uthmânic codices".5
We have no material left to retrieve the original text from before the Ottoman Mushaf.
Arthur Jeffery selected Ibn Abi Dawood's Kitab al-Mus'haf to criticize the recitations (which he calls Mushafs) from
some of the Companions before the Ottoman Mushafs. The purpose of this work is to present the Qur'anic text in a
disturbing and dubious manner, as well as to prove its evolution in various texts. To what extent have Orientalists
been successful in adopting an honest approach?
Jeffrey's style of reasoning about the first collection of the Qur'an by Hazrat Abu Bakr
Jeffrey is an expert at awakening the magic of words. In this regard, it has the status of a certificate. In his view, the
evidence for Abu Bakr's first collection of the Qur'an is insufficient for the authenticity of Islamic history. Jeffrey is
so upset that he has completely ignored his book, Mum. In fact, he has tried to show that evolution in the Qur'anic
text resembles the text of Inglis in many ways. It begins with the official character of the first collection of the
Qur'an by Abu Bakr.6
“That Abû Bakr was one of those who collected the revelation material was doubtless true. He may possibly have
inherited material that the Prophet had stored away in preparation of the Kitâb. That he ever made an official
recension as the orthodox theory demands is exceedingly doubtful. His collection would have been a purely private
affair, just as quite a few number of Companions of the Prophet had made personal collections as private affairs ”.7
That Abu Bakr was one of the people who collected the material of revelation is undoubtedly true. He may have
inherited the material that the Prophet had stored at the time of the writing of the Qur'an. That, according to the
# Arthur Jeffery, The Quest Of The Historical Mohammad, The Moslem World, 1926, Volume XVI, No. 4, p. 338
$ The Quest Of The Historical Mohammad, The Moslem World., pp. 328-329
% Materials For The History Of The Text Of The Qur'ân: The Old Codices, p. 8
& Materials For The History Of The Text Of The Qur'ân: The Old Codices, p. 6-7
Orthodox view, there is a lot of skepticism. His collection would have been a purely personal affair, just as a large
number of the Companions had collected personal matters.
A simple reminder here is that Hazrat Abu Bakr was the caliph when he ordered the compilation of the Qur'an for
the first time after the loss of the Qura'ah on the day of the battle of Yamama. Such was the case with his
predecessor, Richard Balt, who also uttered such insults. During this compilation, Jafri completely failed to get rid
of his prejudice against the Qur'an. Like Richard Blair, he has made it clear that Abu Bakr's desire to collect the
Qur'an was a private matter.8
Interestingly, they correctly accept all the categories mentioned in the Kitab al-Mus'haf, but they do not seem willing
to accept the same sources' claim about Abu Bakr's official collection of the Holy Qur'an.
The other side is even more ridiculous. Jafardi repeatedly said:
"... it is quite clear that the text which cUthmân canonized was only one out of many rival texts, and we need to
investigate what went before the canonical text".9
It is quite clear that the Qur'anic text which was printed by Hazrat Uthman (RA) was one of the popular Qur'anic
manuscripts at that time. And we need to investigate what it was like before this printed version.
Then he says:
“There can be no doubt that the text canonized by cUthmân was only one among several types of texts in existence
at the time”.10
There is no need to doubt that the version printed by Hazrat Uthman (RA) was one of the many versions in
circulation at that time.
Arthur Jerey's position on the non-writing of the Qur'an in the time of the
This is the tradition on which Arthur Jeffrey based his position.
"Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) died while the Qur'an was not included in anything."
In this narration, the issue of gathering the Qur'an in one place is mentioned and not the issue of non-writing. So
Arthur Jeffrey's argument is not correct. In the time of the Holy Prophet, the Qur'an was not compiled in the form of
a book, Between Covers. Rather, it was written in the form of miscellaneous papers. It is proved from the authentic
narrations that the Companions used to write the Holy Qur'an in his lifetime.
Materials For The History Of The Text Of The Qur'ân: The Old Codices, p. 11
V The Quest Of The Historical Mohammad, The Moslem World., p. 327
W Arthur Jeffery, Materials For The History Of The Text Of The Qur'ân: The Old Codices, 1937, Leiden, E J Brill, p. 10
Imam Jlal ul Deen syuoti, Al-itteqan fi Uloom ul Quran, p, 202/1
Muhammad bin Ismail Bukhari, Al-Jamei Al-Sahih, Kitab Fadhail ul Quran, Bab Al-Qura
Anas ibn Malik (may Allah be pleased with him) replied: There were four people and they were four Ansaris. Abi
ibn Ka'b, Mu'adh ibn Jabal, Zayd ibn Thabit and Abu Zayd (may Allah be pleased with them).
Arthur Jeffrey also says that according to the research of the Orientalists, the Prophet of Islam knew how to read and
write. As Richard Bell and Torrey have both said. Arthur Jeffrey claims that in the light of the research of Western
scholars, it is proved that the Prophet of Islam was compiling a book for Muslims towards the end of his life. His
“Muslim orthodoxy holds that the prophet himself neither read nor write. But in generation both of Professor Torrey
of Yale and Dr Richard Bell of Edinburgh, working independently of each other have concluded that the internal
evidence in the Quran himself points to the fact that he could read and write and that for some time before his death
he himself busy preparing material for a Kitab, which he leave for his people as their scripture ”.13
Like Jeffrey, Montgomery Watt claims that the Prophet of Islam knew how to read and write, and the reason for this
is that he was a businessman. And in view of trade, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) needed
to be able to read and write.14
It is not true of the Orientalists that the Messenger of God knew how to read and write. The guidance is from the
If the Prophet of Allah had known how to read and write, the polytheists of Makkah would have made a fuss as soon
as they heard this verse. The presence of this verse in the Qur'an is proof that he did not know how to read and write.
Arthur Jeffrey also states that the Qur'an did not exist in written form in the time of the Prophet of Islam because
there was every possibility of its reduction, but when he died, all these possibilities disappeared. And Muslims
brought their holy book in written form. The words are:
“Certainly there was nevertheless no Quran existing as a collected, arranged and edited book when the Prophet died.
Here, however, we have first stage in the history of the text of Quran. There would not be a definitive text, while the
Prophet was still alive, and abrogation of earlier material or accessions of fresh material were always possible ”.16
The answer to this objection has already been quoted that the claim that the Qur'an did not exist in written form in
the time of the Messenger of God is not true. It is proved by authentic and authentic traditions that the Holy Quran
was in regular written form in the time of the Holy Prophet (sws) in the form of various components. Although not
in the form of a book.
Arthur Jeffrey thinks that the Qur'an collected in the time of Hazrat Abu Bakr was a personal collection and not an
official one. According to him, the work of compiling the Qur'an at the official level began in the time of Hazrat
Uthman. Arthur Jeffrey has also expressed the view that according to some scholars, Hazrat Zayd (RA) did the work
of compiling the Qur'an only in the time of Hazrat Uthman (RA) as the personality of Hazrat Uthman (RA) was
controversial. He fabricated narrations from Hazrat Abu Bakr regarding the compilation of the Qur'an, according to
which Zayd ibn Thabit was assigned to compile the Qur'an in the time of Hazrat Abu Bakr. Jeffrey's words are:
“Modern criticism willing to accept the fact that Abu Bakar has the collection of revealed material made for him and
maybe committed to making of him for Zaid b. Thabit. It is not willing to accept, however tha claim was that it was
" Materials For The History Of The Text Of The Qur'ân: The Old Codices, p. 15
# Umar bin Ibrahim, Ara ul Mustashrqeen, p, 105/1
$ Umar bin Ibrahim, Ara ul Mustashrqeen, p, 106/1
% Materials For The History Of The Text Of The Qur'ân: The Old Codices, p. 6
an official recension of the text. All we can admit is that it was a private collection made for the first caliph Abu
Bakar. Some scholars deny and maintain that Zaid worked for the third caliph, Uthman, but as Uthman was persona
to non grata to the traditions. They invented a recension for the first caliph Abu Baker, so Uthman has not the honor
of having made the first recension ".17
It is completely wrong to call the collection of Hazrat Abu Bakr as a personal collection. Because authentic
traditions prove that this collection was official. At the request and insistence of Hazrat Umar (RA), Hazrat Abu
Bakr (RA) appointed Hazrat Zaid bin Thabit (RA) to compile the Qur'an.18
Arthur Jeffrey in his book Material has based this part of the book Al-Mus'haf which mentions the Mushafs of the
Companions and their followers. Jeffrey says that the Companions and their followers did not agree on a single
Qur'an. Rather, each of them had its own personal Mushaf and all these Mushafs were completely different from
each other. He says that from the relics and traditions we find fifteen of the Companions and thirteen of the
followers of the scriptures which were all contradictory to each other.19
What Jeffrey calls the Mushafs of the Companions and the Companions are in fact traditions related to recitations.
And the differences or diversity of readings are not hidden from the scholars.
Jeffrey's biggest objection is that the entire Qur'an was not written during the Prophet's time, but parts of it were
written. In this regard, he is not ready to accept the traditions in which there is evidence of the writing of the Qur'an
in his time and the accumulation of random forms in the pages of the Holy Qur'an during his lifetime. His words are:
"Orientalists do not accept this opinion, because other hadiths oppose the claim that he died and that the Qur'an
could not contain anything."
Jeffrey has also argued from the narration of Sahih Bukhari that after the battle of Yamama, Hazrat Umar (may Allah
be pleased with him) suggested the compilation of the Qur'an Many parts are feared to be lost, he says, based on this
It is clear from this that the cause of fear was the martyrdom of the memorizers and readers of the Companions. If
the Holy Qur'an had been compiled in the time of the Prophet, then these people would not have been afraid of
losing the Qur'an.
Surprisingly, Jeffrey refuted Bukhari's hadith by saying that "Orientalists do not accept this opinion", although
acceptance and non-acceptance are based on the evidence or lack of evidence in the authenticity of the narration or
text and not on opinion or personal desire. On. This is the method of research of the Orientalist on the basis of which
these ideas could not find a significant place in the Islamic world.
& Materials For The History Of The Text Of The Qur'ân: The Old Codices, p. 7
Materials For The History Of The Text Of The Qur'ân: The Old Codices, p. 8
V Materials For The History Of The Text Of The Qur'ân: The Old Codices, p. 8
W Ibne Abi Dawood, Muqadmah Kitab ul Masahif, p, 5
Ibne Abi Dawood Kitab ul Masahif, p, 5
Surprisingly and sadly, Jeffrey, like some other Orientalists, refuses to accept the authenticity of Sahih Bukhari's
narration, which shows that Hazrat Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) wrote a version at the official level.
"His collection would have been a purely private affair, just as quite a number of other companions of the Prophet
had made personal collections as private affairs".22
However, if the compiled Qur'an of the time of Abu Bakr was a private collection, then there was no need for the
advice of Hazrat Umar (RA) at that time for its compilation. Obviously, this advice can only be given when it is not
personal but at the official level. According to Jeffrey himself, other Companions also had personal Mushafs and
they were not influenced by anyone's advice or similar circumstances. Therefore, in the time of Abu Bakr, the Qur'an
was collected at the official level.
It is also clear that in this narration of Hazrat Zayd ibn Thabit, all the statements in the eyes of Jeffrey are false,
which shows that in the time of Hazrat Abu Bakr, the protection of the Qur'an at the official level is false. But that
part of the same narration is absolutely correct in his view in which the sentence of Hazrat Umar (may Allah be
pleased with him) has been quoted that “If the Companions continue to be martyred in this way, there is a danger
that somewhere the Qur'an On the one hand, he narrates the whole narration and calls it a fabrication and a subject,
and on the other hand, he argues that the Holy Qur'an is not written from the same narration. Nevertheless, he claims
that the Orientalists' justice, goodwill and impartiality are very clear.
Such paradoxical views appear to be the answer in Orientalist research.
Tash Kabrazada (may Allah have mercy on him) with reference to Allama Khattabi (may Allah have mercy on him)
has mentioned the wisdom of not compiling the Qur'an in the Mushaf-e-Wahid in the Prophet's time in these words:
The Qur'an has not been compiled in one Mushaf in order to await the arrival of the abrogator in the commandments
and recitations. Therefore, when the possibility of this was eliminated after his death, Allah Almighty granted the
Rightly Guided Caliphs the protection of this Book for the Ummah and the ability to fulfill His promise.
Arthur Jeffrey also discusses the composition of the Qur'an, and is well versed in:
That is to say, the scholars of the West do not agree on accepting the present order of the Qur'anic text as the work of
the Prophet. Are It is necessary to clarify here that the Orientalists made the arrangement of the verses and verses of
the Qur'an their special subject in order to prove that the Holy Qur'an was incoherent and flawed. According to him,
the Qur'an is not in accordance with the order in which it was revealed. Therefore, Rodwell wrote in the foreword to
the translation of the Qur'an that: At the time of the compilation of the Qur'an, the order in which the Qur'an was
received from different places was added in the same order, without any historical connection or order.25
Materials For The History Of The Text Of The Qur'ân: The Old Codices, p. 6,7
" Tash Kubra Zadah, Miftah ul Saadah, p, 392/2
# Ibne Abi Dawood, Kitabul Masahif, P, 5
$ Rodwell J.M., The Koran (Translated), London,1953, p.2
There are two views on the existence or non-existence of the personal Mushafs of the Companions: One is that some
of the Companions kept some papers, Qur'anic verses and their recitations and commentaries especially for
themselves. As is known from some traditions. For example, it is narrated from Ibn Sirin (may Allah have mercy on
him) that Hazrat Ali said:
"When he died, I swore that I would not take the chador on myself except for the Friday prayers until I collected the
Qur'an, so I collected it."
Or it is also known from the narration of Bukhari in general in which Hazrat Uthman (RA) after writing the Mushafs
ordered to burn every Sahifa or Mushaf except these Mushafs.
Dr. Mehr Ali's "The Quran and the Orenyialists" and Dr. Muhammad Khalifa's "The Sublime Quran and
Orentialism" give detailed answers to Arthur Jeffrey's objections to the Qur'an.
The position of Islamic scholars on the writing of the Qur'an
Although in the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) the protection of the Holy Qur'aan
depended on memorization, it was considered necessary to write it down so that there would be no shortcomings in
the preservation of every single word of it. It was considered a sacred object for him, so he arranged for it to be
recorded as a memorial as an individual, as is usually the case with the preservation of rare and rare items.
Hazrat Zayd (may Allah be pleased with him) described the method of writing the Qur'an as follows:
Translation: I used to write a revelation for the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).
When the revelation came to you, you would feel a heavy burden and drops of sweat would fall on your pure body
like pearls. If this condition had disappeared from you, I would have taken a piece of the beard or something else
and attended the sacred service. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) would have kept on
writing until I finished writing. Feels like my leg is about to break and I'll never be able to walk However, when I
was free, you would say, "Read." If there was any omission in it, you would have corrected it and then brought it
before the people. ”27
The task of writing the revelation was not entrusted to Zayd ibn Thabit alone. On the contrary, he had appointed
many of the Companions of Rizwan-ul-Ajmeen for this purpose, who performed the duties of the book of revelation
as required. The number of writers of revelation has been counted up to forty.
Whenever revelation was revealed to the Holy Prophet (sws), he would call some of his scribes and write down to
them the newly revealed verses and at the same time he would determine its place at the behest of Gabriel (sws).
Hazrat Uthman (may Allah be pleased with him) says: In which surah should it be placed after which verse?
It was the custom of the Prophet (peace be upon him) that whenever a part of the Holy Qur'an was revealed, he
would instruct the scribe of revelation to write it after a certain verse in a certain surah.
According to a narration of Musnad Ahmad, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: That is,
Gabriel (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came and ordered me (to place such and such a verse in such
and such a place).
% Imam Jlal ul Deen syuoti, Al-itteqan fi Uloom ul Quran, p, 75/1
& Al-Maujam Al-kabeer li-Tabrani, p, 142/5
The Companions who knew how to read and write used to write verses after reaching the service of the Prophet
(peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). When a verse was added to a Surah, they would find out and compile
it. Thus, many of the Companions had a government There was a certified version of the Qur'an, some had the
whole Qur'an and some had a few surahs and a few verses, the process of writing was frequent from the very
beginning, as evidenced by the following narrations:
In the narration of Hazrat Umar ibn Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) who converted to Islam: His sister
Fatima and brother-in-law Saeed ibn Zayd (may Allah be pleased with him) had already become Muslims before
him. When Hazrat Umar reached him in a very angry state, he had in front of him a scripture which he had hidden,
in which the verses of Surah Ta Ha were written.28
• Imam Bukhari (may God have mercy on him) has narrated a narration in “Kitab al-Jihad” in which it is said: The
Prophet (peace be upon him) forbade the enemies to enter the land with the Mushafs (written Quran).
On the advice of Hazrat Abu Bakr and Umar, when the time came to write the consensus version of the Holy Quran,
Hazrat Zayd ibn Thabit was obliged to say: Whoever brings a written verse, let him have two witnesses. Take the
testimony that this verse was written in the presence of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him);
From the above three narrations and many other narrations, it is clear that one of the copies of the Holy Qur'an in the
time of the Prophet was that which was written by the Holy Prophet under his supervision, although it is not in the
form of a compiled book. It was, in fact, in the form of miscellaneous pieces, with which many of the Companions
had verses written down. Some even had the entire Qur'an in written form.29
There was certainly a dearth of inventions and products in the time of the revelation of the Qur'an, just as there are
so many types of paper, pen and medicine being discovered today, there were no such things at that time. But it is
not that paper and books were not discovered at that time, there were libraries in Yemen, Rome and Persia, Jews and
Christians had a stock of books, at that time there were also industries of "paper" etc. But because it was not
widespread, paper, etc., were not discovered everywhere. Therefore, whatever was considered capable and
sustainable for writing was written on.
Durable materials of that time were also used for writing the Qur'an, which had a relatively high ability to withstand
accidents and disasters. So that it can be kept safe for a long time. According to the research of Hafiz Ibn Hajar, the
following things were used in the writing of the Qur'an:
• Most of the stone was used for wide and thin slabs, we can call it slate.30
The camel's beard was also written on the round bones (katif), the bones of the beard were very well rounded.
The Qur'an was also written on very thin pieces of leather (rak'ah), these pieces were very thin, and were prepared
for writing, it was very expensive in the carnivorous country.
Verses were also written on pieces of bamboo.
The broad and clear leaves of the tree were also used for writing.
The broad roots of the palm branches (asib) and the connected leaves of the palm were opened and the verses were
written on their inner side as well.31
Mufti Taqi Usmani, Uloom ul Quran, p, 179
V Mufti Taqi Usmani, Uloom ul Quran, p, 179
"W Molina Ali Muttaqi, Kanzul Ummal, Hadith
" Imam Abu Dawood, Sunan abu dawood, Kitab ul Slat Bab Mun Jahra biha, Hadith no, 876
The narrators have also mentioned the writing of the Qur'an on paper.
Why isn't the Qur'an compiled in one Mushaf in the Prophet's time?
There could be the following possible reasons for this;
1. The Holy Qur'an was not revealed all at once, but was revealed little by little over a period of twenty-three years.
Rather, it continued till the last moments of the blessed life of the Holy Prophet. Therefore, it was difficult, if not
impossible, for him to come up with a plan in book form like today. Whenever there was a difference of opinion
among the Companions in a verse, they would refer to the Holy Prophet instead of the written Qur'an.
2. He did not compile it in a single Mushaf because abrogation was taking place in the Qur'an. If he had compiled it
and then the recitation of a part of it was canceled, it would have caused discord and confusion in the religion. He
also waited for some commandments or recitations of the Holy Qur'an so that some of them might be canceled. That
is why he did not submit them. When its revelation was completed and the Qur'an remained safe in his heart till the
end of the time of abrogation. When he died, Allah Almighty inspired the Righteous Caliphs to collect it.
3. The revelation of the Qur'an was done little by little according to need and need. Sometimes a verse was revealed,
sometimes a few verses were revealed. The order of revelation was completely different from the present order. If
the Qur'an was compiled in one Mushaf then this order would be different. Facing change at the same time.
In the words of Allama Al-Khattabi:
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did not compile the Qur'aan in the form of a Mushaf
because he had to wait for the abrogation of a verse or command. But when he died and the revelation was cut off,
"and finally the abrogation." Allah put this idea in the heart of the Righteous Caliphs in order to fulfill His true
promise regarding the protection of this Qur'an. Then this great duty was performed by Hazrat Abu Bakr on the
advice of Hazrat Umar.
In summary, after reading Materials for the History of the Text of the Qur'an, we can say that the following problems
may have arisen as a result of the lack of verification of credentials. Arthur Jefferny seems convinced of this.
• Some of the hadiths in Ibn Abi Dawood's Kitab al-Mus'haf are considered weak. Jeffrey himself admits it.
Therefore, it is not appropriate to take any material for reference unless it is verified.
• It is not clear what is meant by different forms of Jafrai. Does this mean that the seven recitations in which the
Qur'an can be recited or the letters in which the Qur'an has been revealed or the different types that have been
narrated from the Prophet (SAW) or his Companions?
* The problem of invalidating the recitation of the Holy Quran can be solved unless the hadiths are confirmed in full
" 74/9 Imam ibne Hajar Asqalani, Fathul Bari, p, 74/9
The question of the transference of readings in the old codex is very important. This is because of the impossibility
of linguistic variations. This leaves us with the problem of being invincible once again.
• Although doubts are being raised about class perseverance and despite the acceptance that migration in different
circumstances is based on weak credentials, writing still acknowledges the realities of the consensus of the Muslim
days. Mana is hesitant.
Jafri Ibn Mas'ud (or Abi Ibn Ka'b) has failed miserably to indicate that any of the scholarly perseverance was not of
the Prophet (sws). After Ibn Mas'ud, Abi Ibn Ka'b was another Companion who had a large number of readers.
From the manuscript evidence presented by his fellow Brigadier General, it is sufficient to acknowledge the lack of
textual differences between the texts attributed to Ibn Mas'ud and Abi Ibn Ka'b in comparison to the controversial