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A Grand Synthesis of Indian Ancient Philosophy on Cosmos: Discerning Ancient Wisdom from Modern Science

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Abstract

In the most ancient Indian texts, in the Rigveda, one of the hymns famously known as ‘nasadiyasuktham’ says when there was neither existence nor nonexistence what existed? In profound depths what existed at the beginning from which everything else has emerged. Answers to these questions were found, in the most ancient times. In the Vedas and Upanishads, these answers are found. But the questions are asked again and again and answers are restated. It is the wisdom of the ancient philosophers but now stated in the language of modern scientists. As far as the macrocosm (the universe) concerns the ancients are contributed a lot, now our understanding is much deeper with modern physics and cosmology. As far as the microcosm (mind & consciousness) concerns Vedanta and other Indian systems of Philosophy have very valid and deep insights. This is much more than modern understanding given by consciousness studies. Modern science has an edge over ancient wisdom in describing the universe with the help of physics, chemistry and describes the body with the help of biology and physiology. But closer and closer it comes to ourselves; the ancient wisdom is better than modern science. A grand synthesis and profound understanding of Indian Ancient philosophy on macrocosm & microcosm, root cause of human suffering, ancient wisdom to remove suffering, “Law of Karma” and its implications are presented in detail in this article.
International Journal of Yoga and Allied Science (ISSN: 2278 – 5159)
Volume: 10, Issue: 1 ; Jan-June 2021 (72-80)
An international, refereed peer-reviewed, half-yearly, open access, multidisciplinary journal
72
Frontiers
A Grand Synthesis of Indian Ancient Philosophy on Cosmos: Discerning
Ancient Wisdom from Modern Science
Juturi Ravi Kumar Reddy,
Associate Professor, Shri Vishnu College of Pharmacy,Bhimavaram, AP–534 202
A B S T R A C T
In the most ancient Indian texts, in the Rigveda, one
of the hymns famously known as nasadiyasuktham’
says when there was neither existence nor non-
existence what existed? In profound depths what
existed at the beginning from which everything else
has emerged. Answers to these questions were found,
in the most ancient times. In the Vedas and
Upanishads, these answers are found. But the
questions are asked again and again and answers are
restated. It is the wisdom of the ancient philosophers
but now stated in the language of modern scientists.
As far as the macrocosm (the universe) concerns the
ancients are contributed a lot, now our understanding
is much deeper with modern physics and cosmology.
As far as the microcosm (mind & consciousness)
concerns Vedanta and other Indian systems of
Philosophy have very valid and deep insights. This is
much more than modern understanding given by
consciousness studies. Modern science has an edge
over ancient wisdom in describing the universe with
the help of physics, chemistry and describes the body
with the help of biology and physiology. But closer
and closer it comes to ourselves; the ancient wisdom
is better than modern science. A grand synthesis and
profound understanding of Indian Ancient philosophy
on macrocosm & microcosm, root cause of human
suffering, ancient wisdom to remove suffering, “Law
of Karma” and its implications are presented in detail
in this hypothesis.
© 2021 IJOYAS. All rights reserved
Introduction:
Our experience of the world is subject &
object, all our experiences throughout life
are ourselves and everything else out there,
so the investigation into everything else
International Journal of Yoga and Allied Sciences
Article history:
Received 17 Dec 2020
Revised 04 Jan 2021
Accepted 05 Feb 2021.
International Journal of Yoga and Allied Science (ISSN: 2278 – 5159)
Volume: 10, Issue: 1 ; Jan-June 2021 (72-80)
An international, refereed peer-reviewed, half-yearly, open access, multidisciplinary journal
73
nothing but ‘objective world’ is the subject
matter of ‘Macrocosm’. An investigation
into ‘human personality’ is the subject
matter of ‘Microcosm’. Subjects and
objects are the basic structure of our
experience. So, all of our investigations
will be in one or the other. So, this vast
universe and its beauty, magnificence its
stars, planets, nebulae, mountains, and
oceans. What is it and where did all this
come from? What is it destiny? [1]
In time, our place as a human being in the
universe is so little, humanity started a few
million years ago in the scale of billions of
years. So, we do not know, since ancient
times onwards almost this is the great
question from where did all this come
from? Origin of the universe? [2]
Now comes to the most fundamental
questions of humanity, what are we? What
are the purpose and ultimate destiny of
humanity? The purpose of life? How are
we to overcome suffering? All these
fundamental questions of human existence
take up for consideration from ancient
times.
We shall investigate this from ancient
Indian philosophy which expressed in
harmony with modern knowledge and its
latest findings. The essential principles
from ancient Indian texts are relevant even
today in terms of modern physics and
cosmology.
2. Investigation into Macrocosm
When we look at this universe, what do we
see? One thing is that we see patterns like
when we plant a seed then a tree develops
grows bigger and goes back again as a
seed and this becomes a plant. Here what
is first is a separate question but we can
notice the pattern like how water becomes
vapor, goes up and dances in the space but
when it reaches a higher altitude it gets
transformed into water then comes down
as rain falls into rivers and ponds and
again later on go up in the form as vapor.
This is called the water cycle. In another
case, high Himalayan towering Mountains
one time underwater after eons of the time
these transformed into sand goes into
oceans later after millions of years
becomes Mountains. After seeing this,
one can discern a pattern or cycle. Today
modern science has understood these facts.
[2]
2.1. Principle of Causality is originated
from Ancients
Thousands of years ago, an ancient
philosopher was known as Kapila saw this
pattern in nature and gave the principle of
causality. From cause comes effect and
effect becomes cause again for the next
effect in this way cause and effect go in a
cycle.
If it is to be true that nature is uniform
what we see in the little slice of the world
is what we experience, if this be the
pattern of the universe and there is nothing
to show otherwise because science
depends on the uniformity of nature. So,
by knowing a grain of sand we will know
the secret of the universe. If it is true that
nature is uniform what we see in one little
experience of nature we can extrapolate
that to the entire universe. This is the
proposition of Kapila's philosophy. The
entire universe was at one time in a seed
state or unmanifest state (potential state)
and then it has become this manifested
universe. So, the creation of the universe
means manifested or fully realized state
but the origin of this is from a potential
state. Hence, there must have been a state
where this diversity was not there, it was
in a seed state, all-stars, planets and
galaxies, plants and animals are probably
of a single point, Kapila gave it the name
Prakriti (Nature) the root nature from
which diversifies into this entire universe.
This is a great principle called causality
("Sat Karya Vada in Sanskrit). That
means the effect which we see now is pre-
existed in some cause. [3]
What is ‘creation’, cause becoming the
effect, from unmanifest becoming the
manifest, from manifest becoming
unmanifest is ‘destruction’. So, going from
cause to effect (unmanifest to manifest) is
International Journal of Yoga and Allied Science (ISSN: 2278 – 5159)
Volume: 10, Issue: 1 ; Jan-June 2021 (72-80)
An international, refereed peer-reviewed, half-yearly, open access, multidisciplinary journal
74
the creation, and going back to cause is the
destruction (manifest to unmanifest). The
death means transforming cause to effect
or vice versa like a tree dies but its
potentiality is now in the seed which again
germinates and grows into plant. [4]
This is logical because all diversity that we
see in the universe has come from nothing.
It means creation never comes out of
nothing. Something comes out of
something. At the most we can say from
the unmanifest manifest has come or from
the undiversified to diversity has come.
Like in the seed, we do not see roots,
leaves, stem, branches, flowers, fruits of
the tree. But they are there in the potential
form in the seed. Today we understand the
same in genetics and we confirmed all the
information is there in the DNA form of a
tree. A tiny embryo consists of entire
information of the human body to
transform in time. This is what understood
in principle at the time of Kapila at ancient
times in India.
2.2. Theory of Evolution
This is a major development in modern
thought from Darwin onwards. But we
find this idea firmly in place thousands of
years ago in Indian thought. But there is a
difference between Darwinian evolution
theory and the way Sankhyans understood
this phenomenon of evolution. In modern
evolution theory, we understand that the
genetic material undergoes constant
mutation, and at the macro-level means
environment keeps on changing, and some
of these mutations are favored for survival
because they match what the environment
requires. This is broadly known as
"survival of the fittest". The suitable
mutation will survive and they propagate
and progress further into evolution. But
Kapila says, these are not the source of
evolution, these are the ones which bring
out the potential but the source of the
evolution and why evolution happens is
that all of this is potential already exist in
the cause just as a particular human being
develops from an embryo, as the plant
develops from the seed. It's not just
because of the pressure of the
environment, in the case of each individual
it's the genetic material which uncoils.
This was the idea of the evolution of these
Indian ancients [4]. So, all potential is there
in nature and over time it evolves in the
universe. This is beautifully reflected in
the ancient Hindu philosophy in Dasavatar
(ten incarnations of God). Where
incarnations of god evolve from animal
forms like fish, tortoise to half-human &
half-animal to a human form, this is
showing the idea of evolution of forms at
ancient times.
2.3. Involution
The idea of involution from ancients is that
one day this universe which all with its
diversity will go back into the seed form
containing all this diversity but
inhomogeneous form means we cannot see
stars, planets, galaxies, mountains, oceans,
animals and human beings. But the
potentiality of all this isnow in the seed
form and which will be cause for the
creation of next universe. [2], [4]
2.4. Theory of the Evolution became
Enemy to Religious idea
One of the biggest blows to religious
thinking has been the idea of evolution.
After seeing, this variety of life, vast
diversity, an extremely sophisticated
design we find in a human body, the first
reaction of thinkers there must have been a
creator who designed this entire universe
with all its diversity. But then Darwin
came with the theory of evolution and
showed all this complexity and this design
can emerge out of evolution, it doesn't
require an external creator or designer to
create all these forms. Complex designs
can emerge out of natural processes just by
the process of struggle to survive and
constant random mutation of genetic
material it is possible to have ever most
sophisticated bodies. So, with this theory
of Darwin evolution, the argument for the
existence of the god is knocked out. This is
International Journal of Yoga and Allied Science (ISSN: 2278 – 5159)
Volume: 10, Issue: 1 ; Jan-June 2021 (72-80)
An international, refereed peer-reviewed, half-yearly, open access, multidisciplinary journal
75
a way for modern science now showing
that evolution can take the role of what
god in religion is supposed to do for
creating the universe.
2.5. The truth of the Religion
As per the idea of Indian ancients, adding
the idea of involution then the whole idea
of evolution and involution are taken
together actually proves the truth of
religion. How does it do so, the highest in
the evolution like Christ man in
Christianity or Buddha man in Buddhists
and freeman of the yogis called
Jivanmukta (free while living) of vedantins
all of this there must have been wherein
potential form in the first protoplasm of
life, even further into a singularity at the
beginning of the universe from there the
emergence of the matter, energy, space,
time to the emergence of stars and planets
to the emergence of life and to the
evolution of life to the emergence of
intelligence and the evolution of
civilization to the coming of spirituality
and the religion and the appearance of
these highly spiritually evolved human
beings in the sense of morals,
unselfishness, spiritual insights all of this
must have been there at the beginning of
the universe also in an unmanifest form. [5]
This is the idea of evolution and involution
of the universe by the ancient Indians. That
ultimate reality which exists at the
beginning emerges as a seed and which
evolves into this magnificent universe and
goes back into the seed, behind it all
giving it existence, making it all possible
is that ultimate reality is the supreme
power called ‘God’. This is the actuality in
saying god created this universe. This
ultimate reality is called “Brahman” in
Vedanta which is the nature of existence,
consciousness, and bliss (Sat Chit Ananda)
which appear as this universe. Hence, if we
combine the idea of evolution and
involution then evolution instead of them
being the enemy of religion will prove the
truth of the religion.
2.6. Final form of Vedanta on
Macrocosm
The final form of the Vedantic theory
going from Sankhyan theory is that there is
this existence, consciousness bliss called
Brahman or ultimate reality which appears
as this universe and this universe goes
through a cycle of manifestation of God
and transformation of nature (Brahma
Vivartha, Prakriti Parinama) which is the
combination of ‘evolution & involution’.
That means nature cycles between
unmanifest and manifest this is called
creation but God remaining at the
background gives it entire thing existence.
God is called as ‘Saguna Brahman’ in
Vedanta means Brahman with
attributes.Existence, consciousness, and
bliss associated with ‘nature’ (Prakriti or
Maya in Sanskrit) is the idea of God
(Saguna Brahman) in Vedanta. [7] Going
forward from Sankhya to Advaita Vedanta
Philosophy the final understanding is that,
there is a fundamental reality that appears
as this universe in this appearance it goes
through creation means the manifestation
of diversity and destruction means back to
unmanifest. But in the unmanifest entire
potentiality is always there nothing new
appears. Vedanta further says this universe
is the creation of the Brahman rather it is
the projection of the Brahman rather it is
Brahman itself.
3. Microcosm
After examining and having considered the
macrocosm and the universe, now the
question is turned inwards, attention is
drawn to the subject from the macrocosm
to microcosm like who am I? What is the
purpose of life? What am I to do in all this
vast creation? What is my destiny? These
are questions from the most ancient times
in Indian Philosophy. When everything
destroyed and the body is buried is there
something left over? If something survives
physical death then what is its destiny?
Whence as it comes? Where does it go? [2],
[5]
These questions about human beings not
International Journal of Yoga and Allied Science (ISSN: 2278 – 5159)
Volume: 10, Issue: 1 ; Jan-June 2021 (72-80)
An international, refereed peer-reviewed, half-yearly, open access, multidisciplinary journal
76
as the body but about the inner person,
mind, the self, and consciousness bring in
to the investigation of the microcosm. Like
the ancients, so the moderns, it is so
interesting that consciousness studies have
become so important and such a vibrant
field only in the last 20 to 30 years. Before
that, it is not even considered as serious
research in the science which is closest to
us, our minds, our awareness, our self.
These closest things to human experience
did not found as the subject of
investigation especially consciousness till
the last 2-3 decades.
Buddhist philosophy is far superior to
modern psychology in understanding the
mind. When it comes to consciousness
what modern science has to say is trivial
compare to Advaita Vedanta, Yoga,
Sankhya have to say. These ancient
knowledge systems seem to better when it
comes to closer to the core of human
beings.
3.1. Investigation into the body, senses,
and mind
When we look into ourselves, in a way of
an epistemology of knowledge what do we
find? When I see a flower there is an
object outside and there is a sense organ
that takes information from the object and
transmits into inwards, up here it is
physical including optic nerve role in
seeing and nerve center functions in the
brain. Then it becomes mental and subtle
means information is now presented to the
mind. So, from the object to the senses to
the mind. The moment it comes to senses
and the body investigation comes to
microcosm. There is another distinction
where at one point the senses stop at the
brain and play a role in the mind. It means
apart from the physical sense organs role
at the outer level, there seems to be sense
organs role inside at a subtle level.
It’s very interesting, the mind is essential
for the functioning of the sense organs,
even without the physical sense organs the
mind can still in its way use sensory
perception. What it means by, when a
person falls asleep then all physical senses
are shut down but, in the dream, the mind
sees, hear, smell, taste, and touch though it
is not happening externally, the whole
thing is in the mind. The point here is the
experience in the dream also a kind of
sensory perception. After awake he reports
that I saw something, I heard something,
experienced taste, smell, touch, etc. In
actuality, he did not see or hear anything
but all of that was going in the mind. So
the mind can simulate sensory experiences.
So therefore, senses have a subtle role in
the mind as well, which means data
collected externally and brought to the
mind at a subtle level. In the mind there is
seeing, hearing, touching going on based
on the data brought by the senses, and this
mind later controls the senses, which
coordinates the data and directs the senses.
In the Katopanishad the mind is compared
to the reins of the chariot, horses are the
senses and they are controlled by the reins
which are the mind. [12]
3.2. What is behind the mind is
Consciousness or the Self
“Sankalpa Vikalpa Atmaham Manaha” the
mind which considered the various options
based on the data brought by the senses.
Then it is presented to the intellect (Budhi
in Sanskrit). This is another part of the
subtle body. The intellect decides,
clarifies, and understands. In Sanskrit
“Nichayatmika Budhi” means intellect is
the deterministic faculty. [10] Even this is
not the end, the whole thing now presented
to the self (Atman in Sanskrit) which is
consciousness. At that level, a person
becomes aware of everything as an
experience of seeing, thinking about,
hearing, touching, understanding, etc. All
the function of the senses and the mind and
the intellect is lit up by the consciousness.
Then perception completes. Therefore, the
real self is not the body, is not the senses,
is not the mind, is not the intellect but
consciousness which lights up the intellect
and the mind and the senses, and the body
and the entire universe which is
International Journal of Yoga and Allied Science (ISSN: 2278 – 5159)
Volume: 10, Issue: 1 ; Jan-June 2021 (72-80)
An international, refereed peer-reviewed, half-yearly, open access, multidisciplinary journal
77
experienced. This 'consciousness ‘is
synonymous with the ‘Self’ (The Atman).
3.3. Three components of Microcosm
Having understood the functioning of
senses, mind, intellect & Consciousness,
now the entire human personality can be
considered into three components; gross or
physical component like the body
including physical senses up to the brain
(Sthula Sariram in Sanskrit). Then there is
the subtle body (Sukshma Sariram in
Sanskrit) which is the mind including the
sensory powers, intellect. Beyond this,
there is self (the Atman) which is
consciousness. So, the soul or self is made
of consciousness and that shines upon the
subtle body which is made of thoughts,
sensory powers, and intellect and that
pervades the physical body which is made
of matter. This is the microcosm described
by the ancient wisdom of Sankhyan and
Vedanta knowledge systems in India.
None of this is speculative or theoretical
when it analyses carefullyinto one’s own
experience. Everybody experiences
physical body, subtle body like thoughts,
feelings, emotions, memories, desires, and
ego-sense beyond that consciousness
which is an unchanging witness principle.
This consciousness or the real self is
beyond the physical body, beyond the
subtle body, and causal body (seed form of
the mind). The consciousness is innate,
intrinsic, unchanging from which mind
borrows light of consciousness this is like
a moon borrows its light from the sun.
When iron is heating in the fire it becomes
hot, becomes very hot later and it emits
heat but none of which belongs to iron
hence after some time it loses heat and
becomes cold. Similarly, even the mind is
not conscious, the physical body is not
conscious by nature, but when the physical
body and mind and senses feel conscious,
all of this consciousness is borrowed from
pure consciousness or self.
This can be understood by observing the
states of the mind;after wake up from sleep
mind feels very conscious and alert, late in
the night feels dull and sleepy, these are
not the states of consciousness but the
states of the mind. The same thing
explained in the Vedantic text by the
method called ‘seer and seen’ (Drig Drisya
Viveka) which clearly states that waking,
sleeping, dreaming and deep sleep are of
the states of mind not of the
consciousness. [13] Consciousness is ever
shining and unchanging light. But the
mind depending upon its state sometimes
channel this consciousness effectively and
feels very alert and conscious or when it
weakens may be due to aging even body
which is closely connected to mind also
get effected and slows down feels dull and
tired. 'I am not as sharp as I use to be' a
common statement demonstrating this
truth. But the consciousness is aware of
everything that when the mind was sharp
in the past and now it also aware of fading
memory and slowing down intellect. But
there is no time when the consciousness
itself becomes dull or slowing down.
Swami Vivekananda describes the nature
of consciousness (Atman) as "it is not that
consciousness exists but it is the existence
itself, it is not that consciousness knows, it
is knowledge itself, it is not that
consciousness is happy, it is happiness
itself”. [13]
3.4. Existence Consciousness Bliss
Whenever the existence is borrowed will
go away in time, which means it loses its
relative existence in the conventional sense
it is called death or destruction. A thing
can lose its existence only when it is
gained existence. Gaining and losing
existence possible only if it is borrowed, it
is not original or intrinsic to it. Atman
existence is it means it exists intrinsically
by its nature, everything else intellect,
mind, sensory system, and body all barrow
existence from consciousness. Similarly,
the joy or bliss in the mind, in the intellect,
the pleasure of the senses is gained and
lost because it is borrowed from the
consciousness (Atman) whose very nature
itself is bliss (Ananda in Sanskrit). The
International Journal of Yoga and Allied Science (ISSN: 2278 – 5159)
Volume: 10, Issue: 1 ; Jan-June 2021 (72-80)
An international, refereed peer-reviewed, half-yearly, open access, multidisciplinary journal
78
mental and emotional joy find in the mind
and pleasure found in the senses comes
and goes makes to feel sometimes happier
and sometimes not, so the joy in the mind
can increases and decreases but it neither
increases nor decreases in the ‘Self’
(Atman) which is bliss itself. [2], [5]
Having understood the nature of the
Atman that is Existence-Consciousness-
Bliss (Sat-Chit-Ananda), if you consider
the question why not Atman barrows the
consciousness and existence from
something higher than that, if so, the
problem will be where it does stop? It goes
further and further back; it becomes
infinite regress (Anavastha in Sanskrit)
means a logical fault of not having a
foundation. We have to stop where it is
logical to stop, the self or Atman is the
consciousness is the place to stop, if the
self or Atman is not conscious by its
nature then it leads to an infinite regress.
4. Law of Karma
The law of Karma states that whatever we
do has consequences, which means what
we consciously and deliberately think, say,
and do has its consequences. If we do
consciously what is good (Dharma) the
result is merit (Punya in Sanskrit) which
gives rise to pleasant things (Sukam in
Sanskrit) that happen in life. If we
deliberately do what is bad (Adharma) it
leads to demerit or sin (Papam in Sanskrit)
which gives rise to unpleasant things
(Dhukham in Sanskrit) that happen in life.
Therefore, according to the law of Karma
whatever we see in our life now is the
effect of past Karma. Whatever we do now
give rise to effects in the future. [15]
4.1. Philosophy of Reincarnation
The law of Karma is leading to the
principle of reincarnation. Why because,
when a child is born, we see the vast
differences across the world, one child is
born in a poor community suffers from
nutrition, good education, and other child
born in a highly secured and rich
community. If these are the effects then
where are the causes? Causes cannot be in
this life because they are just been born so
there must some past existence where the
causes lie. So, the diversity of effects at the
very beginning of our lives, if there are
any cause-and-effect relationship at all
then we must have existed in some form
earlier. There is a common saying “there
are so many evil people who did many bad
things but we don’t see that they seem
suffering". That means we must accept the
possibility that there is Karma remains to
be experienced in the future. After the
death of the body, one will have newer
bodies where the leftover karma is to be
experienced. But that is not the end, when
we get newer bodies, we do more karma
again and that leads to a new birth. So, the
cycle of birth and rebirth fuelled or
instigated by karma. [14]
The concept of karma and reincarnation
axiomatic in different and diversified
schools’ philosophy and religion in India
except for the materialist (Charuvakas).
This is a very profound philosophy. One
can notice that Buddhists do not accept the
existence of permanent self or soul and
God and Vedantists uphold the existence
of God, soul, or self, yet both with
tremendously diverse views still accept
that there is karma, birth, and rebirth. So,
this idea is common to Indian thought. But
the strange thing to notice is there is
resistance to this idea in the west yet there
is no logical argument in the history of
western thought. But in Christian thought
or Judaism, there is always the belief of
some existence after the death of the body
like the immortal soul which further goes
to heaven or hell. If this is already
accepted or even understand the claim that
we do exist after death then this is just an
extension of the law of karma and
reincarnation. It is not difficult to
understand if you believe in the existence
of self or soul after death then there is the
possibility of karma and rebirth is almost
International Journal of Yoga and Allied Science (ISSN: 2278 – 5159)
Volume: 10, Issue: 1 ; Jan-June 2021 (72-80)
An international, refereed peer-reviewed, half-yearly, open access, multidisciplinary journal
79
inevitable.
4.2. ‘Law of Karma’ when properly
understood is a way to human free will
The 'Law of Karma' is a philosophy of
human free will but quite often Indians are
charged with fatalistic kind of civilization,
but if we take a deeper look at karma it is
what we are today is what we have
generated in the past but it’s not fixed by
some unknown force. That means, what
we are experiencing today is what we
created,as ‘we reap what we sow’, this is
what mean by “what we will be in the
future is in our hands today”. So, there is
always the modicum of free will, but
karma can only generate and determines a
broad outline of our lives but how we react
to it depends more on the individual than
karma which does not generate every little
movement of our minds or thoughts or
direction that life takes. So, we have
freedom, wherever there are mind and
intellect lit up by consciousness there is
freedom. We have the power to make our
destiny. This gives the message that, take
the whole responsibility upon oneself and
work out to your destiny. In the words of
Swami Vivekananda on Karma “If what
we think, we say and what we do that
generates karma if our bad karma is there
like tigers waiting to pounce on us, never
fear because all the good that you have
thought, felt and done is waiting with the
power of a thousand angels to come to
your help. This is the actual understanding
of the law of karma”. [15]
5. Conclusion
As a whole, it is a grand synthesis by
Indian Ancient Philosophy on macrocosm
and microcosm. It is the ‘Consciousness’
which also ‘existence’ and ’bliss’ we find
in ourselves as ‘I’ in the microcosm is the
same reality of the macrocosmbecause
when we investigated into macrocosm, we
found the cycle of involution and
evolution (the manifest and unmanifest)
which means nature (Prakriti) is going
through the cycles and beyond it all, there
is the same ‘existence’, ‘consciousness’
and ‘bliss’. This is stated in Vedanta by a
great saying known as “Tat Tvam Asi”
(That Thou Art), here ‘That’ means reality
behind the macrocosm and ‘Thou’ means
reality behind the microcosm which
includes the physical body, sensory
system, mind and intellect beyond all, the
innermost is the ‘Consciousness’ (the
Atman) is the same existence
consciousness and bliss as a fundamental
principle in the ‘macrocosm’ which is
indicated by ‘Art’. Therefore it is
concluded by Indian ancients in wisdom,
that the ‘fundamental reality of the
macrocosm is the same reality in the
microcosm’ which is a grand synthesis at
which Vedanta arrives. This is to be
understood philosophically and to be
practiced spiritually for attaining
permanent happiness.
References:-
1. Swami Vivekananda, Two New York Lectures on the Cosmos. Cf., Complete Works,
Vol. II. The Cosmos: The Macrocosm and The Cosmos: The Microcosm. New York;
1896.
2. Swami Vivekananda, Second lecture entitled, The Cosmos, or the Veda Conception of
the Universe. California; 1900.
3. Swami Vivekananda, Lecture was entitled, The Claims of Vedanta on the Modern
World. Cf. Complete Works, Vol. 8, Oakland, 1900. pp. 224-27.
4. Newspaper report is an overview of eight lectures delivered at the Home of Truth in
December (1899) and January (1900), of which there is only one verbatim transcript,
Hints on Practical Spirituality, published in Complete Works, Vol. II, pp. 24-37.
International Journal of Yoga and Allied Science (ISSN: 2278 – 5159)
Volume: 10, Issue: 1 ; Jan-June 2021 (72-80)
An international, refereed peer-reviewed, half-yearly, open access, multidisciplinary journal
80
5. The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda, Calcutta: Advaita Ashram, Vol. 2,
Mayavati Edition, 1970. pp. 491-93.
6. The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda, Calcutta: Advaita Ashram, Vol. 2.
Mayavati Edition, 1970. pp. 367-87.
7. The Vedanta Philosophy, complete works, Calcutta: Advaita Ashram, Vol. 1,
Mayavati Edition, 1970. pp. 347-55.
8. Ray and Wanda Ellis, The Vedanta Kesari,. Swami Vivekananda in Washington D.C
1991, pp. 369-70.
9. Amit Goswami, The Self-Aware Universe, New York: G.P. Putnam Sons, 1993.
10. The Vedanta Sutras of Badarayana, with Commentary by Sankara 2 vol’s., George
Thibaut trans. New York, NY: Dover Press; 1962.
11. Max Müller, The Upanishads, Vols. 1 – 15. The Sacred Books of the East, Oxford:
Claredon Press; 1879.
12. His Eastern and Western Admirers. Reminiscences of Swami Vivekananda., Advaita
Ashram, Calcutta. 3rd edn. 1983.
13. Swami Krishnananda, Commentary on the Panchadasi. 1989.
14. Swami-krishnananda.org
15. Swamı Satchidanandendra Sarasvati. How to Recognize the Method of Vedanta,
Adhyatma Prakasha Karyalaya; 1995.
16. The untranscribed lecture advertised as Karma and Reincarnation Delivered at the
Peoples' Church, Sunday, October 28, 1894.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
The Cosmos: The Macrocosm and The Cosmos: The Microcosm
  • Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda, Two New York Lectures on the Cosmos. Cf., Complete Works, Vol. II. The Cosmos: The Macrocosm and The Cosmos: The Microcosm. New York; 1896.
Second lecture entitled, The Cosmos, or the Veda Conception of the Universe. California
  • Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda, Second lecture entitled, The Cosmos, or the Veda Conception of the Universe. California; 1900.
Lecture was entitled, The Claims of Vedanta on the Modern World
  • Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda, Lecture was entitled, The Claims of Vedanta on the Modern World. Cf. Complete Works, Vol. 8, Oakland, 1900. pp. 224-27.
The Vedanta Philosophy, complete works
The Vedanta Philosophy, complete works, Calcutta: Advaita Ashram, Vol. 1, Mayavati Edition, 1970. pp. 347-55.
The Upanishads, Vols. 1 - 15. The Sacred Books of the East
  • Max Müller
Max Müller, The Upanishads, Vols. 1 - 15. The Sacred Books of the East, Oxford: Claredon Press; 1879.
How to Recognize the Method of Vedanta, Adhyatma Prakasha Karyalaya
  • Sarasvati Swamı Satchidanandendra
Swamı Satchidanandendra Sarasvati. How to Recognize the Method of Vedanta, Adhyatma Prakasha Karyalaya; 1995.