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# The Nature and Origin of Inertia

Authors:
Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology, 2021, 7, 761-772
https://www.scirp.org/journal/jhepgc
ISSN Online: 2380-4335
ISSN Print: 2380-4327
DOI:
10.4236/jhepgc.2021.72044 Apr. 30, 2021 761 Journal of High Energy Physics, G
ravitation and Cosmology
The Nature and Origin of Inertia
Petah-Tikva, Israel
Abstract
This paper aims to present a new theory that explains the mechanism of iner-
tia at providing a satisfying explanation for the yet unknown mechanism for
inertia. By considering the vacuum as a liquid with a measurable density, hy-
drodynamics laws are used to describe the behaviour
of the vacuum when it
is dragged by moving
body. The inertia is the result of the initial resistance
between the moving bodies
against the static vacuum. The moving body
drags the resisting vacuum during acceleration, till the point that the va-
cuum travels with the moving body and has the same velocity. When the
body decelerates, the vacuum continues to flow and to push the body at
the
same direction of
the original flow till its complete stop. Formulations based
on Planck theory derived to prove its equivalence to Newton
inertia law.
Formulation based on hydrodynamics is
derived to confirm the theory that
the force exerted by the vacuum on static body in gravity and on moving
body in inertia is equivalent to Newton law. The strong equiva
lence principle
is reaffirmed and, consequently, Einstein’s equations are preserved.
Keywords
Inertia Force, Vacuum Density, Drag Force, Newton Inertia Law, Gravitation
Force
1. Introduction
Inertia is one of the main manifestations of mass, which is a quantitative prop-
erty of physical systems. It is the resistance force of any physical object to any
change in its state of movement. This includes changes in the speed, direction,
or resting state of the object. Inertia is also defined as the tendency of objects to
keep moving in a straight line at a constant speed. There is no measurable dif-
ference between the gravitational mass and the inertial mass.
Several theories have been put forward in attempts to explain inertia. Howev-
er, most of the mainstream physics is based on Newtonian and Einstein’s physics
How to cite this paper:
Butto, N. (2021
)
The Nature and Origin of Inertia
.
Journal
of High Energy Physics
,
G
ravitation and
Cosmology
,
7
, 761-772.
https://doi.org/10.4236/jhepgc.2021.72044
March 2, 2021
Accepted:
April 27, 2021
Published:
April 30, 2021
21 by author(s) and
Scientific
Research Publishing Inc.
4.0).
Open Access
N. Butto
DOI:
10.4236/jhepgc.2021.72044 762 Journal of High Energy Physics, G
ravitation and Cosmology
which accepts that gravity and inertia are identical, however, the machinery of
gravitation and inertia are completely unknown.
In fact, inertia is considered to be a fundamental property that has not been
properly addressed by Newton’s first law and law of gravity, and till now the
fundamental problem about the equivalence of Gravity and Inertia still unre-
solved. The equivalence principle asserts that gravitational mass and inertial
mass are identical. The gravitational force we experience on Earth is identical to
the force we would experience in a spaceship accelerating at 1 g.
Newton’s Laws of Motion are still used to describe the motion of objects and
how they are affected by the applied forces on them. Isaac Newton defined iner-
tia as his first law in his
Philosophiæ
Naturalis
Principia
Mathematica
, which
states: [1]
“The innate force of matter, is a power of resisting by which everybody, as
much as in it lies, endeavours to preserve its present state, whether it be of rest
or of moving uniformly forward in a straight line”.
Einstein’s concept of inertia according to Special Relativity as proposed in his
1905 paper entitled “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies” remained un-
changed from Newton’s original meaning.
The principle of relativity could only apply to reference frames that were iner-
tial in nature (meaning when no acceleration was present). In order to overcome
this limitation, he proceeded with his general relativity (“The Foundation of the
General Theory of Relativity,” 1916), introducing the new concept of “curva-
ture” of space-time, instead of the more traditional system of forces understood
by Newton [2].
However, in general relativity, there is no mechanism that generates a force to
oppose deviations of test particles from geodesic motion.
Einstein redefined the concept of “inertia” in terms of geodesic deviation that
describes the tendency of objects to approach or recede from one another while
moving under the influence of a spatially varying gravitational field. Gravita-
tional radiation is generated in situations where the curvature of space-time is
oscillating, such as is the case with co-orbiting objects.
The result of this is that inertia is the gravitational coupling between matter
and space-time, the energy density of the zero-point field would generate an
enormous space-time curvature, akin to a huge cosmological constant. This is, of
course, true in the standard interpretation of mass-energy.
Inertia has not been properly addressed by quantum field theory or super-
string theory either.
Quantum physicists have so far been unable to use quantum theory as a lever
to tease apart the behaviour of inertial and gravitational mass. They point out
the important distinction between kinematics, which is concerned purely with
motion not how it arises, and dynamics which focuses on the origin of motion.
In the classical world, this has no bearing on the effects of inertial and gravita-
tional mass.
From the other hand According to Higgs theory any field that interacts with
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the Higgs field acquires a mass [3].
Therefore, Higgs field gives masses to the elementary particles. The acquisi-
tion of mass-energy via a Higgs field may still allow for a mechanism to generate
an inertial reaction force upon acceleration. However, there is no mechanism
that explains how the Higgs-induced mass gives the property of inertia.
According to Stochastic Electrodynamics (SED) theory, [4] inertia may origi-
nate from interactions between the electromagnetic zero-point field of the
quantum vacuum and the quarks and electrons constituting matter. In Stochas-
tic Electrodynamics (SED), which is an extension of the de Broglie-Bohm inter-
pretation of quantum mechanics, [5] [6] describes energy contained in the elec-
tromagnetic vacuum at absolute zero as a stochastic, fluctuating zero-point field.
Modern approaches to SED consider the quantum properties of waves and par-
ticles as well-coordinated emergent effects resulting from deeper (sub-quantum)
nonlinear matter-field interactions [7] [8] [9] [10].
However, SED-based calculations and SED-related claims related to inertia
and gravity are still controversial and some have been subject to published criti-
cism [4] [11].
Another theoretical breakthrough by Puthoff is the derivation of Newton’s
Law (
F
=
ma
) from ZPE electrodynamics. It appears to be related to the known
distortion of the zero-point spectrum in an accelerated reference frame. Thus,
the resistance to acceleration defines the inertia of matter and it appears to be an
electromagnetic resistance. Therefore, the inertia effect is a distortion at high
frequencies whereas, the gravity effect has been shown to be low frequency ef-
fect, according to the Puthoff theory.
Physicists and mathematicians appear to be less inclined to use the popular
concept of inertia as “a tendency to maintain momentum” and instead favour
the mathematically useful definition of inertia as the measure of a body’s resis-
tance to changes in velocity or simply a body’s inertial mass.
However, since classical free fall motions (for the quantum case), although
accelerating ones, do not depend on the test mass (
tf
= (2
h
/
g
)1/2, one may think
of relating them to fundamental predynamical (geometrical) properties of the
universe.
As no alternate mechanism has been readily accepted, and it is now generally
accepted that there may not be one which we can know, the term “inertia” has
come to mean simply the phenomenon itself, rather than any inherent mechan-
ism. Thus, ultimately, “inertia” in modern classical physics has come to be a
name for the same phenomenon described by Newton’s First Law of Motion,
and the two concepts are now considered to be equivalent.
This paper aims to provide a satisfying theory to explain the mechanism of
inertia based on the basic assumption that the universe is immersed in a vacuum
with a well-defined density that behaves as a fluid and that the accelerated object
moving through the fluid vacuum will experience a bath of radiation resulting
from the quantum vacuum and the zero-point field will yield a non-zero Poynt-
ing vector.
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Scattering of this radiation by the quarks and electrons constituting matter
would result in an acceleration-dependent reaction force that would appear to be
the origin of inertia of matter [12] [13].
Furthermore, the vacuum is dragged by the body, and travel with the moving
body, when the body is stopped the vacuum continue to move pushing the body
and slows its flow until its total stop.
The physical and mathematical basis for the origin of inertia is described. Ap-
plying both quantum mechanics and hydrodynamics laws the inertia of matter
can be successfully translated into the more simple and precise formulation.
2. The Nature of Quantum Vacuum
It seems that there is clear boundary between classical behavior of macroscopic
bulk matter objects governed by classical physics and the behavior of microscale
objects governed by quantum physics. Assembling a sufficiently large number of
quantum objects together seems invariably to produce a classically behaved ob-
ject, thus in order to understand the classical behaviour we must consider the
quantum interaction of elements with the vacuum.
By doing so, the borderline between the two different regimes from quantum
to classical becomes precisely identifiable.
Understanding the nature of the vacuum and its interaction with matter al-
lows us to achieve a clearer understanding of the nature of gravitation and iner-
tia.
A vacuum by definition has no mass, since there is nothing in it to produce
mass. The vacuum extends everywhere, has no size, shape, center, direction, time,
or extent, and is immovable.
According to Maxwell’s equations the speed of light is determined exclusively
by the permeability and permittivity of space, therefore, space is established to
be as the “light medium” and light is a disturbance in space.
The theory of relativity rejects the idea of “light medium” and, therefore, it
also rejects the fundamental sense of inertia.
During the early years of quantum mechanics, Paul Dirac theorized that the
vacuum was actually filled with particles in negative energy states [14], thus giv-
ing rise to the concept of the “physical vacuum” which is not empty at all.
Physical theories predict that on an infinitesimally small scale, far smaller than
the diameter of atomic nucleus, quantum fluctuations produce a foam of erupt-
ing and collapsing, virtual particles, visualized as a topographic distortion of the
fabric of space time.
Quantum theory requires empty space to be filled by pairs of created and an-
nihilated virtual particles. It is predicted that these invisible particles could ma-
terialize for a short time and exert a measurable force. Therefore, the physical va-
cuum is assumed to be a non-trivial medium, not empty but rather filled with
quantum mechanical zero-point energy and characterized as behaving like a fric-
tionless fluid with extremely low viscosity, in which one can associate a certain
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energy and density with extremely high thermal conductivity.
Therefore, the vacuum energy has real physically observable consequences,
and its properties can be observed as having real physical effects [15] [16].
Given the relative familiarity and accessibility of fluid systems, it is only natu-
ral to draw analogies with them as one attempts to come to grips with the oddi-
ties of quantum mechanics.
The flow of such vacuum energy has far greater penetrating power than the
gamma radiation, and can even pass through the earth and planets.
Therefore, the vacuum made off massless photons which are zero-rest mass
particles, with minimum electromagnetic wavelength limit =
λp
= 4.051 × 1035
m.
The highest frequency possible, that is, the shortest wavelength limit is equal
to the dimension of the unit element making up space-time itself, equal to
Planck length, therefore, maximum universal cosmic radiation frequency limit
called Planck frequency =
c
/
λp
= 7.4 × 1042 Hz. This is the frequency at which
unification of all other forces occurs, which its value in electron volts is would be
E
/
e
= 4.44665 × 1017 Gev equivalent to 5.18 × 1030 Kelvin.
The relationship between wavelength and energy of,
E
, is described by the eq-
uation,
E
=
hc
/
λ
, where
h
is Planck’s constant (
h
= 6.625 × 1034 Joule-seconds or
J s) and
c
is the speed of light. By replacing the constants
h
and
c
with their re-
spective values, we see that
E
= 1.986 × 1025 Joule-meters or J m/λ.
This is the upper energy levels and frequency limits in the universe that can
interact with matter. Shorter wavelengths than Planck length have no effect on
matter, nor can they be generated by any interaction with matter, in other words,
they cannot manifest in our physical reality.
Such radiation made of photons, is found everywhere in space and its maxi-
mum frequency exceeds by far the maximum frequency which we are able to
detect with our present detectors. The energy of each individual photon is a cru-
cial component of the momentum necessary to create pressure for gravity and
inertia to be possible.
Such photons have the properties of energy and momentum, thus exhibit the
property of mass as they travel against moving mass, upon colliding with a mass,
deliver a portion of their momentum to that mass and push it backward with a
force proportional to the extension or the volume and density (the mass) of the
considered molecule.
The fact that electromagnetic radiation exerts a pressure upon any surface
exposed to it was deduced theoretically by the father of electromagnetic theory
James Clerk Maxwell in 1871, and later on, proven experimentally by Lebedev in
1900 and by Nichols and Hull in 1901.
3. The Essence of Inertia
When the velocity of an object changes it is said to be accelerating. Acceleration
is the rate of change of velocity with time. When the changes an increasing speed
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is called acceleration, while decreasing speed called deceleration, changing direc-
tion called centripetal acceleration.
Newton originally viewed the phenomenon of inertia he described in his First
Law of Motion as being caused by “innate forces” inherent in matter, which re-
sisted any acceleration.
There are unusual effects that occur in accelerated frames, uniformly accele-
rating detector in the vacuum will experience inertia and temperature known as
Unruh effect.
The Unruh effect is the prediction that an accelerating observer will observe a
thermal bath, like blackbody radiation, whereas an inertial observer would ob-
serve none [17].
In other words, the background appears to be warm from an accelerating ref-
erence frame. This would seem to be more of an intrinsic origin of inertia related
to the mass itself.
The inertia can be better explained relying on the effect of the quantum va-
cuum energy on matter through the effect of ultra-high frequency radiation on
matter.
cause gravity and inertia effect, since such radiation would penetrate any matter
and act all over its constituent particles, not just its surface.
The interaction between the flowing virtual photons against inertial mass
creates the gravitation force, while the interaction of a moving mass against the
quantum vacuum which is made of virtual photons creates inertia or accelera-
tion. They have the same magnitude with one difference, the flow that creates
the gravity force is always at speed of light, while the inertia related to speed of
body in space. In both cases radiation pressure is present due to longitudinal
waves with Pointing vector which oscillations in the direction of flow in the case
of gravity and in the opposite direction of the body movement in the case of in-
ertia. The Poynting vector describes the flow of energy through a surface in
terms of electric and magnetic properties and has the dimensions of power per
unit area. Poynting vector can travel through vacuum, and its magnitude is al-
equal to the time averaged Poynting vector magnitude divided by the speed of
light when gravitation is considered, and average velocity of moving body in case
of inertia.
4. Newton Law of Inertia Derived from Quantum Mechanics
According to Newton, an object will maintain its velocity unless acted on by a
net external force, whether it results from gravity, friction, contact, or some oth-
er force.
The newton force of gravitation takes place on the quantum level. In order to
prove this, we should derive newton law from quantum mechanics.
It is well accepted that all matter, boils down to different structures made up
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of the same constituent particle (whatever it might be). Such building block of
matter, must have the same energy and size for all existing matter.
The interaction between waves and accelerating body, which is made of par-
ticles, takes place in a particular frequency or close harmonics, that their wave-
length equal to the particles’ diameter, so that the waves would be absorbed by
such building block particles which happen to be in the way of the travelling body.
Applying Planck units for a single travelling electromagnetic wave, travelling at the
speed of light c, we have:
( )
1
3 33
2
4.05096 10 cm
p
Gh c
λ
= ×
(1)
Minimum electromagnetic wavelength limit =
λp
= 4.05135 m.
The minimum building block particle diameter = 4.05135 m, which is in the
range of Planck wavelength.
Since the number of such particles is directly proportional to the number of
atoms constituting the whole body, and hence proportional to its total atomic
mass, the net effect of radiation pressure over the body would be exactly equal to
inertia.
The interaction between the moving object and the vacuum takes place in
units of Planck’s constant times the frequency. Therefore, the energy transferred
to the matter is
E hf=
(2)
and it should give the same value of inertia according to Newton law
F
=
ma
. If
(3)
where
c
= velocity of light,
f
= 1/
t
= frequency,
F
= force,
λ
= wavelength (dis-
tance) thus, the force would be:
2
F E mc
λλ
= =
(4)
If
c
=
λ
/
t
then Replace the value of
c
2 in formula
22 2
Fm t mt
λλ λ
= =
(5)
If
λ
=
ct
then
22
F m t mct t mc t
λ
= = =
(6)
Since
c
/
t
=
a
, acceleration. Therefore
F ma=
(7)
5. Newton Law Derivation from Hydrodynamics Laws
Any motion relative to quantum vacuum requires force and it is accompanied by
acceleration.
Considering the quantum vacuum as a fluid the moving body will interact
with the relative static quantum vacuum, exerts a real effect of a positive force
due to the momentum given up during the interaction with matter.
When momentum is exchanged with matter the electromagnetic wave be-
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haves as a particle, that takes place on the range of frequency wavelength equal
to the fundamental building block size of matter. Therefore, the ultra-high fre-
quency of the quantum vacuum energy will penetrate the body until the level of
elementary particles which are made as spheres and exert an opposing force.
Considering the vacuum as a fluid, hydrodynamic laws are applied to explain
gravity and inertia.
In hydrodynamics, if a sphere moving in liquid medium with density
ρ
and
area
A
and the velocity of the sphere relative to the stationary medium is
v
, the
sphere will be opposed by a force calculated to be:
d
F PA=
(8)
If the area of the sphere is 4π
r
2, the area that faces the liquid medium would be
r
2.
In hydrodynamics, the moving body opposed by dynamic pressure directly
correlated with the medium density and with the square of the relative velocity,
according to Action-Reaction of Newton Law which states if a force is applied to
an object, there is an equal and opposite reaction. The opposite reaction meas-
ured to be:
2
1
2
d
Pv
ρ
=
(9)
where
ρ
denotes the density of the medium and
v
is the relative velocity of the
moving object. Substituting the dynamic pressure value in Equation (9) and area
values of 2π
r
2, the opposing force on the sphere is obtained as follows:
2 2 22
12
2
d
F PA v r v r
ρρ
= = =ππ
. (10)
We then multiply and divide the above equation by
t
(time) to obtain
2
F r vt v t
ρ
π=
. (11)
Since the speed
v
multiplied by time
t
is equal to space
L
(length) and the veloci-
ty divided by
t
is equivalent to acceleration
a
. Therefore, the area π
r
2 times space
L
is equal to volume
Q
. then opposing force on the sphere is obtained as follows:
.
(12)
Note that density multiplied volume is equal to mass, and therefore, we obtain
F ma=
6. The Nature of Deceleration Force
Newton’s first law states that every object in a state of uniform motion tends to
remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it (Law of
Inertia).
Therefore, even moving object has acceleration.
If an external force is applied on a freely moving object in order to decelerate,
or change its direction, an equal inertial force acts on the object in an opposite
direction of the applied force. What is the nature of the accelerating force that
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continuo to push the deceleration body?
Considering the vacuum as a fluid, due to interference drag the object drags a
part of the medium and moves with it. When the velocity of the object is con-
stant, the relative velocity of the dragged medium with the body will be zero.
However, the moving vacuum continues to exercise accelerating force and keep
the body moving. The moving body in space is surrounded by an ultra-high va-
cuum that navigate with it. At a short distance, the body’s adjacent vacuum
moving at the same speed of the body has no friction with the surrounding static
vacuum therefore continues to move.
If external force stops the moving body, the adjacent moving vacuum continues
to move, colliding with body particles and gives to it its momentum, creating radi-
ation pressure, continue to push until the adjacent vacuum stop to move. When
the body decelerates, a positive force acts on it and continue to push it in the
same direction of the moving body.
The decelerating force will subtract a part of the moving body in a way that
the sum of forces in a particular direction is equal to the mass of the object times
acceleration; Σ
F
=
ma
.
The force exercised on the moving object will be
F
=
ρv
2
A
=
ma
.
Where v is the relative velocity between the flowing vacuum and the object.
When the decelerating force will be the same as the acceleration force the
body will stop completely.
7. Reduced Acceleration on Long Distances
Considering the vacuum as a fluid, any motion in inertial frame is resisted by
inertia due to resistance of the fluid medium.
The movement of a fluid in a fluid medium imply a drag force known as in-
terference drag which is proportional to the density of the fluid times the square
of the relative velocity between static fluid and the moving fluid and the drag
coefficient as it is expressed in the drag force equation;
2
1
2
dD
F v AC
ρ
=
, (13)
where
Fd
is the drag force, which by definition is the force component in the di-
rection of the flow velocity,
ρ
is the mass density of the fluid,
v
is the relative ve-
locity relative to the vacuum,
A
is the contact area, and
CD
is the drag coefficient
related to the specific fluid. The drag coefficient depends on the Reynolds num-
ber that is related to the viscosity between the moving fluid and the static fluid.
As the Reynolds number increases, inertial forces become stronger than viscous
forces and a laminar boundary layer is generated.
In fluid dynamics, the same drag equation is used to calculate the force of drag
experienced by a flow of fluid through a fully enclosing static fluid. Therefor in
the case of flowing photons in the vacuum, there is some resistance due to vis-
cosity and elasticity of the medium, equivalent to magnetic permeability times
electric permittivity.
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Therefore, the dragged medium will interact with the surrounding static me-
dium creating a shear viscosity that expresses its resistance against shearing
flows, where the adjacent layers move parallel to each other at different speeds.
The drag force equation is transformed to the pressure equation by dividing
both sides by area to obtain:
2
1
2
dD
F A P vC
ρ
= =
(14)
where
ρ
is the density of the vacuum.
Where:
P
is the pressure gradient generated by drag.
In the case of gravity force, where the vacuum density is 9.8927 kg/m3,
v
=
c
=
3 × 108 m/s and the drag coefficient is between 0.1 and 0.2.
Substituting for
ρ
,
v
2 and
CD
(0.13349) in Equation (14) gives:
11 2 2
6.67383255 10 kg m s or N mP
= ×⋅
which is the same value of constant
G
which is an expression of the magnitude
of gravitation force reduction due to the drag interaction effect.
Therefore, a moving body in the outer space drags a part of the vacuum which
travel at the same speed of the spacecraft, the dragged vacuum interacts with the
static vacuum, and reduces its momentum. Although the momentum reduction
is negligible, in a very long distances navigation, this effect could be significant.
Such effect could be one of the explanation as both Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11
space craft’s navigation that escape the solar system. Upon very close examina-
tion of navigational data, the spacecraft was found to be slowing slightly more
than expected. The effect is an extremely small acceleration towards the Sun, of
(8.74 ± 1.33) × 1010 m/s2, which is equivalent to a reduction of the outbound
velocity by 1 km/h over a period of ten years [18] [19] [20].
The spacecraft acceleration in the outer space depends on the density of the
medium in which it travels. Therefore, the change of acceleration of the aircraft
could be used to predict the vacuum density in different zones of the trajectory.
8. Conclusions
The nature and essence of the inertia are explained by considering the particle of
the matter immersed in a continuous vacuum which behaves as a fluid.
The interaction between the moving object and the vacuum takes place in the
quantum realm which can be described with classical hydrodynamic laws. Con-
sidering the vacuum density and applying classical hydrodynamics, analytical
formulations are applied to calculate the force acting on the matter leaded to
Newton law of inertia.
In the quantum realm, the inertia is caused by the effect of quantum vacuum
energy on matter through the effect of ultra-high frequency radiation on matter.
Since such radiation would penetrate any matter and act all over its constituent
particles, not just its surface.
The gravitation mechanism was discussed in a previous article where it was
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explained by the effect of the interaction between the flowing virtual photons
against inertial mass while the interaction of a moving mass against the static
quantum vacuum creates inertia or acceleration. The common point between
gravitation force and inertia is the interaction between matter and the vacuum.
Analytical formulations derived from Planck energy equation and Einstein
the same formula of Newton second law. The radiation pressure is described as
longitudinal waves with Pointing vector created by the moving body against
static vacuum which creates the acceleration. The interaction between the mov-
ing body drags a part of the vacuum till it moves with it in this case the inertia
will disappear. When the body stops, the moving vacuum continues to flow act-
ing on the matter causing the deceleration till the point where there is no
movement relative to the body, in this point the deceleration will vanish. Con-
firmation of this theory by experimental data will open a new direction to de-
velop antigravity and anti-inertia machines and allows to drive Inertia to prevent
many catastrophes such as accidents on highways, catastrophes on the railway,
air crashes. Moreover, it would be possible to prevent collision of an asteroid
with Earth.
Conflicts of Interest
The author declares no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this
paper.
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... Likewise, some prior repulsive forces may well turn into attractive forces; thus, we can observe the fluctuations of 1 around 0. Therefore, it is incorrect to think the unadjusted active forces as the kind of interaction that always pull the moon back from deviations (i.e., unadjusted active forces can also magnify the deviations). In comparison, inertia force is defined as the force that keeps an object's original state of movement (Butto, 2021). Therefore, the active forces (even those unadjusted ones) have much more complicated impact than the inertia forces in classical mechanics and have more potential to explain the various phenomena of the motion of celestial bodies. ...
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