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Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology, 2021, 7, 761-772

https://www.scirp.org/journal/jhepgc

ISSN Online: 2380-4335

ISSN Print: 2380-4327

DOI:

10.4236/jhepgc.2021.72044 Apr. 30, 2021 761 Journal of High Energy Physics, G

ravitation and Cosmology

The Nature and Origin of Inertia

Nader Butto

Petah-Tikva, Israel

Abstract

This paper aims to present a new theory that explains the mechanism of iner-

tia at providing a satisfying explanation for the yet unknown mechanism for

inertia. By considering the vacuum as a liquid with a measurable density, hy-

drodynamics laws are used to describe the behaviour

of the vacuum when it

is dragged by moving

body. The inertia is the result of the initial resistance

between the moving bodies

against the static vacuum. The moving body

drags the resisting vacuum during acceleration, till the point that the va-

cuum travels with the moving body and has the same velocity. When the

body decelerates, the vacuum continues to flow and to push the body at

the

same direction of

the original flow till its complete stop. Formulations based

on Planck theory derived to prove its equivalence to Newton

inertia law.

Formulation based on hydrodynamics is

derived to confirm the theory that

the force exerted by the vacuum on static body in gravity and on moving

body in inertia is equivalent to Newton law. The strong equiva

lence principle

is reaffirmed and, consequently, Einstein’s equations are preserved.

Keywords

Inertia Force, Vacuum Density, Drag Force, Newton Inertia Law, Gravitation

Force

1. Introduction

Inertia is one of the main manifestations of mass, which is a quantitative prop-

erty of physical systems. It is the resistance force of any physical object to any

change in its state of movement. This includes changes in the speed, direction,

or resting state of the object. Inertia is also defined as the tendency of objects to

keep moving in a straight line at a constant speed. There is no measurable dif-

ference between the gravitational mass and the inertial mass.

Several theories have been put forward in attempts to explain inertia. Howev-

er, most of the mainstream physics is based on Newtonian and Einstein’s physics

How to cite this paper:

Butto, N. (2021

)

The Nature and Origin of Inertia

.

Journal

of High Energy Physics

,

G

ravitation and

Cosmology

,

7

, 761-772.

https://doi.org/10.4236/jhepgc.2021.72044

Received:

March 2, 2021

Accepted:

April 27, 2021

Published:

April 30, 2021

Copyright © 20

21 by author(s) and

Scientific

Research Publishing Inc.

This work is licensed under the Creative

Commons Attribution International

License (CC BY

4.0).

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Open Access

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ravitation and Cosmology

which accepts that gravity and inertia are identical, however, the machinery of

gravitation and inertia are completely unknown.

In fact, inertia is considered to be a fundamental property that has not been

properly addressed by Newton’s first law and law of gravity, and till now the

fundamental problem about the equivalence of Gravity and Inertia still unre-

solved. The equivalence principle asserts that gravitational mass and inertial

mass are identical. The gravitational force we experience on Earth is identical to

the force we would experience in a spaceship accelerating at 1 g.

Newton’s Laws of Motion are still used to describe the motion of objects and

how they are affected by the applied forces on them. Isaac Newton defined iner-

tia as his first law in his

Philosophiæ

Naturalis

Principia

Mathematica

, which

states: [1]

“The innate force of matter, is a power of resisting by which everybody, as

much as in it lies, endeavours to preserve its present state, whether it be of rest

or of moving uniformly forward in a straight line”.

Einstein’s concept of inertia according to Special Relativity as proposed in his

1905 paper entitled “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies” remained un-

changed from Newton’s original meaning.

The principle of relativity could only apply to reference frames that were iner-

tial in nature (meaning when no acceleration was present). In order to overcome

this limitation, he proceeded with his general relativity (“The Foundation of the

General Theory of Relativity,” 1916), introducing the new concept of “curva-

ture” of space-time, instead of the more traditional system of forces understood

by Newton [2].

However, in general relativity, there is no mechanism that generates a force to

oppose deviations of test particles from geodesic motion.

Einstein redefined the concept of “inertia” in terms of geodesic deviation that

describes the tendency of objects to approach or recede from one another while

moving under the influence of a spatially varying gravitational field. Gravita-

tional radiation is generated in situations where the curvature of space-time is

oscillating, such as is the case with co-orbiting objects.

The result of this is that inertia is the gravitational coupling between matter

and space-time, the energy density of the zero-point field would generate an

enormous space-time curvature, akin to a huge cosmological constant. This is, of

course, true in the standard interpretation of mass-energy.

Inertia has not been properly addressed by quantum field theory or super-

string theory either.

Quantum physicists have so far been unable to use quantum theory as a lever

to tease apart the behaviour of inertial and gravitational mass. They point out

the important distinction between kinematics, which is concerned purely with

motion not how it arises, and dynamics which focuses on the origin of motion.

In the classical world, this has no bearing on the effects of inertial and gravita-

tional mass.

From the other hand According to Higgs theory any field that interacts with

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the Higgs field acquires a mass [3].

Therefore, Higgs field gives masses to the elementary particles. The acquisi-

tion of mass-energy via a Higgs field may still allow for a mechanism to generate

an inertial reaction force upon acceleration. However, there is no mechanism

that explains how the Higgs-induced mass gives the property of inertia.

According to Stochastic Electrodynamics (SED) theory, [4] inertia may origi-

nate from interactions between the electromagnetic zero-point field of the

quantum vacuum and the quarks and electrons constituting matter. In Stochas-

tic Electrodynamics (SED), which is an extension of the de Broglie-Bohm inter-

pretation of quantum mechanics, [5] [6] describes energy contained in the elec-

tromagnetic vacuum at absolute zero as a stochastic, fluctuating zero-point field.

Modern approaches to SED consider the quantum properties of waves and par-

ticles as well-coordinated emergent effects resulting from deeper (sub-quantum)

nonlinear matter-field interactions [7] [8] [9] [10].

However, SED-based calculations and SED-related claims related to inertia

and gravity are still controversial and some have been subject to published criti-

cism [4] [11].

Another theoretical breakthrough by Puthoff is the derivation of Newton’s

Law (

F

=

ma

) from ZPE electrodynamics. It appears to be related to the known

distortion of the zero-point spectrum in an accelerated reference frame. Thus,

the resistance to acceleration defines the inertia of matter and it appears to be an

electromagnetic resistance. Therefore, the inertia effect is a distortion at high

frequencies whereas, the gravity effect has been shown to be low frequency ef-

fect, according to the Puthoff theory.

Physicists and mathematicians appear to be less inclined to use the popular

concept of inertia as “a tendency to maintain momentum” and instead favour

the mathematically useful definition of inertia as the measure of a body’s resis-

tance to changes in velocity or simply a body’s inertial mass.

However, since classical free fall motions (for the quantum case), although

accelerating ones, do not depend on the test mass (

tf

= (2

h

/

g

)1/2, one may think

of relating them to fundamental predynamical (geometrical) properties of the

universe.

As no alternate mechanism has been readily accepted, and it is now generally

accepted that there may not be one which we can know, the term “inertia” has

come to mean simply the phenomenon itself, rather than any inherent mechan-

ism. Thus, ultimately, “inertia” in modern classical physics has come to be a

name for the same phenomenon described by Newton’s First Law of Motion,

and the two concepts are now considered to be equivalent.

This paper aims to provide a satisfying theory to explain the mechanism of

inertia based on the basic assumption that the universe is immersed in a vacuum

with a well-defined density that behaves as a fluid and that the accelerated object

moving through the fluid vacuum will experience a bath of radiation resulting

from the quantum vacuum and the zero-point field will yield a non-zero Poynt-

ing vector.

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Scattering of this radiation by the quarks and electrons constituting matter

would result in an acceleration-dependent reaction force that would appear to be

the origin of inertia of matter [12] [13].

Furthermore, the vacuum is dragged by the body, and travel with the moving

body, when the body is stopped the vacuum continue to move pushing the body

and slows its flow until its total stop.

The physical and mathematical basis for the origin of inertia is described. Ap-

plying both quantum mechanics and hydrodynamics laws the inertia of matter

can be successfully translated into the more simple and precise formulation.

2. The Nature of Quantum Vacuum

It seems that there is clear boundary between classical behavior of macroscopic

bulk matter objects governed by classical physics and the behavior of microscale

objects governed by quantum physics. Assembling a sufficiently large number of

quantum objects together seems invariably to produce a classically behaved ob-

ject, thus in order to understand the classical behaviour we must consider the

quantum interaction of elements with the vacuum.

By doing so, the borderline between the two different regimes from quantum

to classical becomes precisely identifiable.

Understanding the nature of the vacuum and its interaction with matter al-

lows us to achieve a clearer understanding of the nature of gravitation and iner-

tia.

A vacuum by definition has no mass, since there is nothing in it to produce

mass. The vacuum extends everywhere, has no size, shape, center, direction, time,

or extent, and is immovable.

According to Maxwell’s equations the speed of light is determined exclusively

by the permeability and permittivity of space, therefore, space is established to

be as the “light medium” and light is a disturbance in space.

The theory of relativity rejects the idea of “light medium” and, therefore, it

also rejects the fundamental sense of inertia.

During the early years of quantum mechanics, Paul Dirac theorized that the

vacuum was actually filled with particles in negative energy states [14], thus giv-

ing rise to the concept of the “physical vacuum” which is not empty at all.

Physical theories predict that on an infinitesimally small scale, far smaller than

the diameter of atomic nucleus, quantum fluctuations produce a foam of erupt-

ing and collapsing, virtual particles, visualized as a topographic distortion of the

fabric of space time.

Quantum theory requires empty space to be filled by pairs of created and an-

nihilated virtual particles. It is predicted that these invisible particles could ma-

terialize for a short time and exert a measurable force. Therefore, the physical va-

cuum is assumed to be a non-trivial medium, not empty but rather filled with

quantum mechanical zero-point energy and characterized as behaving like a fric-

tionless fluid with extremely low viscosity, in which one can associate a certain

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energy and density with extremely high thermal conductivity.

Therefore, the vacuum energy has real physically observable consequences,

and its properties can be observed as having real physical effects [15] [16].

Given the relative familiarity and accessibility of fluid systems, it is only natu-

ral to draw analogies with them as one attempts to come to grips with the oddi-

ties of quantum mechanics.

The flow of such vacuum energy has far greater penetrating power than the

gamma radiation, and can even pass through the earth and planets.

Therefore, the vacuum made off massless photons which are zero-rest mass

particles, with minimum electromagnetic wavelength limit =

λp

= 4.051 × 10−35

m.

The highest frequency possible, that is, the shortest wavelength limit is equal

to the dimension of the unit element making up space-time itself, equal to

Planck length, therefore, maximum universal cosmic radiation frequency limit

called Planck frequency =

c

/

λp

= 7.4 × 1042 Hz. This is the frequency at which

unification of all other forces occurs, which its value in electron volts is would be

E

/

e

= 4.44665 × 1017 Gev equivalent to 5.18 × 1030 Kelvin.

The relationship between wavelength and energy of,

E

, is described by the eq-

uation,

E

=

hc

/

λ

, where

h

is Planck’s constant (

h

= 6.625 × 10−34 Joule-seconds or

J s) and

c

is the speed of light. By replacing the constants

h

and

c

with their re-

spective values, we see that

E

= 1.986 × 10−25 Joule-meters or J m/λ.

This is the upper energy levels and frequency limits in the universe that can

interact with matter. Shorter wavelengths than Planck length have no effect on

matter, nor can they be generated by any interaction with matter, in other words,

they cannot manifest in our physical reality.

Such radiation made of photons, is found everywhere in space and its maxi-

mum frequency exceeds by far the maximum frequency which we are able to

detect with our present detectors. The energy of each individual photon is a cru-

cial component of the momentum necessary to create pressure for gravity and

inertia to be possible.

Such photons have the properties of energy and momentum, thus exhibit the

property of mass as they travel against moving mass, upon colliding with a mass,

deliver a portion of their momentum to that mass and push it backward with a

force proportional to the extension or the volume and density (the mass) of the

considered molecule.

The fact that electromagnetic radiation exerts a pressure upon any surface

exposed to it was deduced theoretically by the father of electromagnetic theory

James Clerk Maxwell in 1871, and later on, proven experimentally by Lebedev in

1900 and by Nichols and Hull in 1901.

3. The Essence of Inertia

When the velocity of an object changes it is said to be accelerating. Acceleration

is the rate of change of velocity with time. When the changes an increasing speed

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is called acceleration, while decreasing speed called deceleration, changing direc-

tion called centripetal acceleration.

Newton originally viewed the phenomenon of inertia he described in his First

Law of Motion as being caused by “innate forces” inherent in matter, which re-

sisted any acceleration.

There are unusual effects that occur in accelerated frames, uniformly accele-

rating detector in the vacuum will experience inertia and temperature known as

Unruh effect.

The Unruh effect is the prediction that an accelerating observer will observe a

thermal bath, like blackbody radiation, whereas an inertial observer would ob-

serve none [17].

In other words, the background appears to be warm from an accelerating ref-

erence frame. This would seem to be more of an intrinsic origin of inertia related

to the mass itself.

The inertia can be better explained relying on the effect of the quantum va-

cuum energy on matter through the effect of ultra-high frequency radiation on

matter.

The radiation pressure exerted by such ultra-high frequency radiation, would

cause gravity and inertia effect, since such radiation would penetrate any matter

and act all over its constituent particles, not just its surface.

The interaction between the flowing virtual photons against inertial mass

creates the gravitation force, while the interaction of a moving mass against the

quantum vacuum which is made of virtual photons creates inertia or accelera-

tion. They have the same magnitude with one difference, the flow that creates

the gravity force is always at speed of light, while the inertia related to speed of

body in space. In both cases radiation pressure is present due to longitudinal

waves with Pointing vector which oscillations in the direction of flow in the case

of gravity and in the opposite direction of the body movement in the case of in-

ertia. The Poynting vector describes the flow of energy through a surface in

terms of electric and magnetic properties and has the dimensions of power per

unit area. Poynting vector can travel through vacuum, and its magnitude is al-

ways positive creating radiation pressure. Radiation pressure in Pascals (N/m2) is

equal to the time averaged Poynting vector magnitude divided by the speed of

light when gravitation is considered, and average velocity of moving body in case

of inertia.

4. Newton Law of Inertia Derived from Quantum Mechanics

According to Newton, an object will maintain its velocity unless acted on by a

net external force, whether it results from gravity, friction, contact, or some oth-

er force.

The newton force of gravitation takes place on the quantum level. In order to

prove this, we should derive newton law from quantum mechanics.

It is well accepted that all matter, boils down to different structures made up

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of the same constituent particle (whatever it might be). Such building block of

matter, must have the same energy and size for all existing matter.

The interaction between waves and accelerating body, which is made of par-

ticles, takes place in a particular frequency or close harmonics, that their wave-

length equal to the particles’ diameter, so that the waves would be absorbed by

such building block particles which happen to be in the way of the travelling body.

Applying Planck units for a single travelling electromagnetic wave, travelling at the

speed of light c, we have:

( )

1

3 33

2

4.05096 10 cm

p

Gh c

λ

−

≡= ×

(1)

Minimum electromagnetic wavelength limit =

λp

= 4.051−35 m.

The minimum building block particle diameter = 4.051−35 m, which is in the

range of Planck wavelength.

Since the number of such particles is directly proportional to the number of

atoms constituting the whole body, and hence proportional to its total atomic

mass, the net effect of radiation pressure over the body would be exactly equal to

inertia.

The interaction between the moving object and the vacuum takes place in

units of Planck’s constant times the frequency. Therefore, the energy transferred

to the matter is

E hf=

(2)

and it should give the same value of inertia according to Newton law

F

=

ma

. If

2

E mc hf F

λ

= = =

(3)

where

c

= velocity of light,

f

= 1/

t

= frequency,

F

= force,

λ

= wavelength (dis-

tance) thus, the force would be:

2

F E mc

λλ

= =

(4)

If

c

=

λ

/

t

then Replace the value of

c

2 in formula

22 2

Fm t mt

λλ λ

= =

(5)

If

λ

=

ct

then

22

F m t mct t mc t

λ

= = =

(6)

Since

c

/

t

=

a

, acceleration. Therefore

F ma=

(7)

5. Newton Law Derivation from Hydrodynamics Laws

Any motion relative to quantum vacuum requires force and it is accompanied by

acceleration.

Considering the quantum vacuum as a fluid the moving body will interact

with the relative static quantum vacuum, exerts a real effect of a positive force

due to the momentum given up during the interaction with matter.

When momentum is exchanged with matter the electromagnetic wave be-

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haves as a particle, that takes place on the range of frequency wavelength equal

to the fundamental building block size of matter. Therefore, the ultra-high fre-

quency of the quantum vacuum energy will penetrate the body until the level of

elementary particles which are made as spheres and exert an opposing force.

Considering the vacuum as a fluid, hydrodynamic laws are applied to explain

gravity and inertia.

In hydrodynamics, if a sphere moving in liquid medium with density

ρ

and

area

A

and the velocity of the sphere relative to the stationary medium is

v

, the

sphere will be opposed by a force calculated to be:

d

F PA=

(8)

If the area of the sphere is 4π

r

2, the area that faces the liquid medium would be

2π

r

2.

In hydrodynamics, the moving body opposed by dynamic pressure directly

correlated with the medium density and with the square of the relative velocity,

according to Action-Reaction of Newton Law which states if a force is applied to

an object, there is an equal and opposite reaction. The opposite reaction meas-

ured to be:

2

1

2

d

Pv

ρ

=

(9)

where

ρ

denotes the density of the medium and

v

is the relative velocity of the

moving object. Substituting the dynamic pressure value in Equation (9) and area

values of 2π

r

2, the opposing force on the sphere is obtained as follows:

2 2 22

12

2

d

F PA v r v r

ρρ

= = =ππ

. (10)

We then multiply and divide the above equation by

t

(time) to obtain

2

F r vt v t

ρ

π=

. (11)

Since the speed

v

multiplied by time

t

is equal to space

L

(length) and the veloci-

ty divided by

t

is equivalent to acceleration

a

. Therefore, the area π

r

2 times space

L

is equal to volume

Q

. then opposing force on the sphere is obtained as follows:

2

F r La Qa

ρρ

π= =

.

(12)

Note that density multiplied volume is equal to mass, and therefore, we obtain

F ma=

6. The Nature of Deceleration Force

Newton’s first law states that every object in a state of uniform motion tends to

remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it (Law of

Inertia).

Therefore, even moving object has acceleration.

If an external force is applied on a freely moving object in order to decelerate,

or change its direction, an equal inertial force acts on the object in an opposite

direction of the applied force. What is the nature of the accelerating force that

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continuo to push the deceleration body?

Considering the vacuum as a fluid, due to interference drag the object drags a

part of the medium and moves with it. When the velocity of the object is con-

stant, the relative velocity of the dragged medium with the body will be zero.

However, the moving vacuum continues to exercise accelerating force and keep

the body moving. The moving body in space is surrounded by an ultra-high va-

cuum that navigate with it. At a short distance, the body’s adjacent vacuum

moving at the same speed of the body has no friction with the surrounding static

vacuum therefore continues to move.

If external force stops the moving body, the adjacent moving vacuum continues

to move, colliding with body particles and gives to it its momentum, creating radi-

ation pressure, continue to push until the adjacent vacuum stop to move. When

the body decelerates, a positive force acts on it and continue to push it in the

same direction of the moving body.

The decelerating force will subtract a part of the moving body in a way that

the sum of forces in a particular direction is equal to the mass of the object times

acceleration; Σ

F

=

ma

.

The force exercised on the moving object will be

F

=

ρv

2

A

=

ma

.

Where v is the relative velocity between the flowing vacuum and the object.

When the decelerating force will be the same as the acceleration force the

body will stop completely.

7. Reduced Acceleration on Long Distances

Considering the vacuum as a fluid, any motion in inertial frame is resisted by

inertia due to resistance of the fluid medium.

The movement of a fluid in a fluid medium imply a drag force known as in-

terference drag which is proportional to the density of the fluid times the square

of the relative velocity between static fluid and the moving fluid and the drag

coefficient as it is expressed in the drag force equation;

2

1

2

dD

F v AC

ρ

=

, (13)

where

Fd

is the drag force, which by definition is the force component in the di-

rection of the flow velocity,

ρ

is the mass density of the fluid,

v

is the relative ve-

locity relative to the vacuum,

A

is the contact area, and

CD

is the drag coefficient

related to the specific fluid. The drag coefficient depends on the Reynolds num-

ber that is related to the viscosity between the moving fluid and the static fluid.

As the Reynolds number increases, inertial forces become stronger than viscous

forces and a laminar boundary layer is generated.

In fluid dynamics, the same drag equation is used to calculate the force of drag

experienced by a flow of fluid through a fully enclosing static fluid. Therefor in

the case of flowing photons in the vacuum, there is some resistance due to vis-

cosity and elasticity of the medium, equivalent to magnetic permeability times

electric permittivity.

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Therefore, the dragged medium will interact with the surrounding static me-

dium creating a shear viscosity that expresses its resistance against shearing

flows, where the adjacent layers move parallel to each other at different speeds.

The drag force equation is transformed to the pressure equation by dividing

both sides by area to obtain:

2

1

2

dD

F A P vC

ρ

= =

(14)

where

ρ

is the density of the vacuum.

Where:

P

is the pressure gradient generated by drag.

In the case of gravity force, where the vacuum density is 9.89−27 kg/m3,

v

=

c

=

3 × 108 m/s and the drag coefficient is between 0.1 and 0.2.

Substituting for

ρ

,

v

2 and

CD

(0.13349) in Equation (14) gives:

11 2 2

6.67383255 10 kg m s or N mP−

= ×⋅

which is the same value of constant

G

which is an expression of the magnitude

of gravitation force reduction due to the drag interaction effect.

Therefore, a moving body in the outer space drags a part of the vacuum which

travel at the same speed of the spacecraft, the dragged vacuum interacts with the

static vacuum, and reduces its momentum. Although the momentum reduction

is negligible, in a very long distances navigation, this effect could be significant.

Such effect could be one of the explanation as both Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11

space craft’s navigation that escape the solar system. Upon very close examina-

tion of navigational data, the spacecraft was found to be slowing slightly more

than expected. The effect is an extremely small acceleration towards the Sun, of

(8.74 ± 1.33) × 10−10 m/s2, which is equivalent to a reduction of the outbound

velocity by 1 km/h over a period of ten years [18] [19] [20].

The spacecraft acceleration in the outer space depends on the density of the

medium in which it travels. Therefore, the change of acceleration of the aircraft

could be used to predict the vacuum density in different zones of the trajectory.

8. Conclusions

The nature and essence of the inertia are explained by considering the particle of

the matter immersed in a continuous vacuum which behaves as a fluid.

The interaction between the moving object and the vacuum takes place in the

quantum realm which can be described with classical hydrodynamic laws. Con-

sidering the vacuum density and applying classical hydrodynamics, analytical

formulations are applied to calculate the force acting on the matter leaded to

Newton law of inertia.

In the quantum realm, the inertia is caused by the effect of quantum vacuum

energy on matter through the effect of ultra-high frequency radiation on matter.

Since such radiation would penetrate any matter and act all over its constituent

particles, not just its surface.

The gravitation mechanism was discussed in a previous article where it was

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explained by the effect of the interaction between the flowing virtual photons

against inertial mass while the interaction of a moving mass against the static

quantum vacuum creates inertia or acceleration. The common point between

gravitation force and inertia is the interaction between matter and the vacuum.

Analytical formulations derived from Planck energy equation and Einstein

energy equation were applied to calculate the radiation pressure which leaded

the same formula of Newton second law. The radiation pressure is described as

longitudinal waves with Pointing vector created by the moving body against

static vacuum which creates the acceleration. The interaction between the mov-

ing body drags a part of the vacuum till it moves with it in this case the inertia

will disappear. When the body stops, the moving vacuum continues to flow act-

ing on the matter causing the deceleration till the point where there is no

movement relative to the body, in this point the deceleration will vanish. Con-

firmation of this theory by experimental data will open a new direction to de-

velop antigravity and anti-inertia machines and allows to drive Inertia to prevent

many catastrophes such as accidents on highways, catastrophes on the railway,

air crashes. Moreover, it would be possible to prevent collision of an asteroid

with Earth.

Conflicts of Interest

The author declares no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this

paper.

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