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On the recent Northern European dispersion of Zelus renardii Kolenati (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae) via human activity

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Recently, single specimens of the Nearctic bug species Zelus renardii Kolenati, 1856 were found in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom. Very likely, these specimens were introduced via human activity, especially the transport of fruits from the Mediterranean Region.
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ISRAEL JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY, Vol. 51, pp. 43– 46 (30 April 2021)
DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.4730423; ISSN (online) 2224-6304
Received: 3 March 2021 / Revised: 25 April 2021 / Accepted: 27 April 2021
urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:D742ADB6-8E7C-4D78-ADC5-9178F1061319
On the recent Northern European dispersion of Zelus renardii
Kolenati (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae)
via human activity

Immenweide 83, Hamburg, 22523 Germany. E-mail: tmvdh@web.de
ABSTRACT
Recently, single specimens of the Nearctic bug species Zelus renardii Kolenati,
1856 were found in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom. Very likely,
these specimens were introduced via human activity, especially the transport of
fruits from the Mediterranean Region.
KEYWORDS: Reduviidae, assassin bugs, distribution, international commerce,
invasive, Europe.
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG
Kürzlich wurden einzelne Exemplare der nearktischen Wanzenart Zelus re nar-
dii Kolenati, 1856 in Dänemark, Deutschland und dem Vereinigten Kö nig reich
gefunden. Sehr wahrscheinlich wurden diese Exemplare durch mensch liche
Aktivität eingeführt, insbesondere den Transport von Obst aus dem Mittel meer-
raum.
   

INTRODUCTION
Zelus Fabricius, 1803 (Reduviidae: 
bug genera with over 70 species confined to the New World (Zhang et al. 2016).
The invasive Nearctic Zelus renardii Kolenati, 1856 (Fig. 1) is the only species of
the genus that has been introduced to Europe (Zhang et al
& Grosso-Silva 2020).
In Europe, Z. renardii was first detected in Greece (Davranoglou 2011; Petrakis
& Moulet 2011). Since then, the species was reported from Albania, France, ad-
di tional locations in mainland Greece and Crete, Italy (including Sardinia and
Sicily), Portugal, Spain and Turkey (Baena & Torres 2012; Vivas 2012; Dioli
et al. 2016; Simov
et al. 2017; Pinzari et al. 2018; Rodríguez Lozano et al. 2018; Garrouste 2019;
Goula et al. 2019; Bella 2020; Pérez-Gómez et al. 2020; Rattu & Dioli 2020; van
Z. renardii was found in northern

Very recently, a single specimen of Z. renardii was found in the city of Tenin-
gen, located in Baden-Württemberg in the south-western part of Germany (van der

44 ISRAEL JOURNAL OF ENTOMOLOGY, VOL. 51, 2021
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The material was examined from photographs uploaded to the online database
iNaturalist.org:

(https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/63327091).

(https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/63871842).

(https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/65713488).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The findings of single specimens of Z. renardii in Denmark, Germany and Eng-
land mentioned in this paper are the first ones for the respective countries. They
have to be considered isolated records, found more or less far away from other
Eu ropean records of the species: Jerup is located in northern Denmark, Teningen

part of England, near the Scottish border. All three specimens were found indoors.
Very likely, two of them were introduced via the transport of grapes from Italy and
Greece, respectively, as they were found on grapes imported from these countries
Fig. 1: Specimen of Zelus renardii
ZELUS RENARDII 45

specimen found in Low Lorton had accidentally been placed with the grapes in a
refrigerator for several days before it was discovered alive on the stalk (P. Williams,
pers. comm.)
As long as only single specimens of Z. renardii are introduced to regions located
in the northern part of Western Europe or in Northern Europe via human activity,
it is unlikely that the species will be able to establish itself in these regions. On the
other hand, the climate conditions, for example in Denmark, Germany and the Uni-
ted Kingdom, might be suitable for the species to spread from the Mediterranean
Region, its main European distribution area, northwards. The optimal temperature
et al. 2018), but it might be
possible that nymphs reach the adult stage at lower temperatures (Rattu & Dioli
2020). Further research on the distribution of Z. renardii in European regions north
of the Mediterranean Region might lead to more knowledge on the issue.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I like to thank the photographers of the above-mentioned photographs for making their findings
available to the public. Many thanks to Cornelia Bauser (Teningen, Germany) and Patricia Williams
(Low Lorton, United Kingdom) for additional information about their findings. Special thanks are due
to Leonidas-Romanos Davranoglou (University of Oxford, United Kingdom) for his comments on an
earlier draft of the manuscript.
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       Ecologica Montenegrina 13:
25–29.
https://doi.org/10.37828/em.2017.13.2
, T. 2015. Ein aktueller Nachweis von Zelus renardii (Kolenati, 1856) auf Kreta/Grie-
     BV news Publicaciones
Científicas 4 (52): 55– 59.
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–––––2017. First records of Zelus renardii    
Arquivos Entomolóxicos 18: 49 –50.
–––––2018. First record of Zelus renardii 
Revista Chilena de Entomología 44 (4): 463– 465.
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–––––2021. Erstfund von Zelus renardii 
Heteropteron 61: 31–32.
&, J.M. 2020. First record of Zelus renardii Kolenati, 1856 in Por-
Arquivos Entomolóxicos 22: 347–349.
, L. 2012. Primera cita en España de la especie Zelus renardii  
Reduviidae) que representa la segunda cita en Europa. BV news Publicaciones Científicas
1 (6): 34– 40.
  &, C. 2016. A taxonomic monograph of the assassin bug genus
Zelus Biodiver-
sity Data Journal 4: e8150.
https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e8150
... Yabancı Heteroptera türleri ile ilgili Avrupa ülkelerinde çok sayıda çalışma bulunmaktadır (Essl ve Rabitsch, 2004;Rabitsch, 2008Rabitsch, , 2010Rabitsch ve Heiss, 2005;Forster ve ark., 2005;Davranoglou, 2011;Protic ve Šeat, 2016;Hemala ve Kment, 2017;van der Heyden, , 2018van der Heyden, , 2021Cianferoni ve ark., 2018Cianferoni ve ark., , 2019Csóka ve ark, 2019;. Bu çalışmada yabancı Heteroptera türleri ile ilgili olarak daha önceki yıllarda Türkiye'de yapılan çalışmalar (Mutun, 2003(Mutun, , 2009Kıvan, 2004;Fent ve Aktaç, 2007;Mutun ve ark., 2009;Fent ve Kment, 2011;Çerçi ve Koçak, 2016Çerçi ve Koçak, , 2017Çerçi ve ark., 2019;Çerçi ve Oruz, 2021;Dursun ve Fent, 2018, yapılan yerlerden reçine sızıntıları olduğu ve buna bağlı olarak genç kozalakların olgunlaşmadan düştükleri belirlenmiştir (Oğuzoğlu ve Avcı, 2020). ...
Chapter
Fungal and bacterial diseases are the major constraint on cabbage production in Turkey and worldwide. The prevalence of disease problems was not surveyed on cabbage in Turkey. This lack of information about the potential threat of cabbage diseases in Niğde province, a major producer of Turkey, provided the impetus for this study. In this chapter, we describe major diseases or disorders of cabbage monitored in 300 fields at more than 30 sites across Niğde in 2017-2018. According to the results obtained, black rot disease caused by X. campestris pv. campestris was the most common and important bacterial disease in the cabbage production areas of Niğde province. Blackleg caused by Leptosphaeria maculans was the predominant fungal disease limiting production but, with the increased intensification of production, head rots and other sporadic or minor diseases monitored may cause quantitative and qualitative losses and reduce the shelf life of cabbage. Microscopic examination of fungal cultures obtained from collected samples and pathogenicity tests confirmed Alternaria brassicae (15 isolates), A. brassicicola (34 isolates), and A. japonica (8 isolates) as causal agents for Alternaria leaf spot, Leptosphaeria maculans (36 isolates) for blackleg, Hyaloperonospora parasitica for downy mildew (10 isolate), Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (20 isolates) for white or head rot, and Rhizoctonia solani (15 isolates) for Rhizoctonia head rot or foliar blight disease. Control strategies to minimize major diseases (black rot and black leg) are urgently required.
... During the same period, Zelus entered Spain [133,134], Italy [135,[154][155][156], Albania [127], France [157] and Portugal [158]. However, recently, LAB has entered Germany [159], Denmark and the UK via grape transport from Italy and Greece [160]. Today, LAB is considered well established in Europe [136] as well as in Italy [137] and the Iberian Peninsula [161][162][163]. ...
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