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Blockchain Based Authentication and Trust Management in Decentralized Networks

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Abstract

In the Internet of Things (IoT), sensor networks form the basis for interactions with the environment and are seeing accelerated development. This chapter introduces the IoT challenges that we are going to examine here. These are challenges that are related to functioning, confidentiality and security. The chapter describes the concepts of authentication and integrity as well as the concepts of reputation and trust. It introduces the authors' contribution, the Blockchain Authentication and Trust Module (BATM) architecture. The chapter presents the notations used the general architecture of the BATM, and describes how BATM aims to respond to authentication needs by specifying the mechanisms that we have implemented. It explores the evaluation of BATM architecture through simulations. The chapter concludes the relevance of BATM with respect to the results obtained and also explains the possible future prospects of this work.

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... A person, or a group of people, under the name of Satoshi Nakamoto, published a landmark paper [14] on Bitcoin in 2008, which deals with a new decentralized peerto-peer (P2P) electronic cash system [13]. This paper introduced the concept of blockchain as a new data structure for storing financial transactions, as well as the associated protocol for ensuring the blockchain's validity in the network [1], [11], [15]. People often confuse blockchain with Bitcoin. ...
... A blockchain is defined as an immutable, permanent, auditable, timestamp, and tamper-resistant ledger of blocks that are used to store and share data in a P2P manner. The data stored in the blockchain can be a payment history, contract, or even personal information [1], [11], [15]. Blockchain technology was initially introduced to solve the problem of double spending in cryptocurrencies [16]. ...
... Any newly added transactions are verified and confirmed by other network nodes, eliminating the need for a central authority to prevent a single point of failure. All copies are simultaneously updated and validated [1], [11], [15]. The integrity of the blockchain is based on strong cryptography, which validates and chains together blocks of transactions, making it nearly impossible to tamper with any individual transaction without being detected [19]. ...
Article
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Blockchain has recently attracted significant academic attention in research fields beyond the financial industry. In the Internet of Things (IoT), blockchain can be used to create a decentralized, reliable, and secure environment. The use of blockchain in IoT applications is still in its early stages, particularly at the low end of the computing spectrum. As a result, the future roadmap is hazy, and several challenges and questions must be addressed. Several articles combining blockchain technology with IoT have recently been released, but they are limited to shallow technological potential discussions, with very few providing an in-depth examination of the complexities of implementing blockchain technology for IoT. Therefore, this paper aims to coherently and comprehensively provide current cutting-edge efforts in this direction. It provides a literature review of IoT and blockchain integration by examining current research issues and trends in the applications of blockchain-related approaches and technologies within the IoT security context. We have surveyed published articles from 2017 to 2021 on blockchain-based solutions for IoT security, taking into consideration different security areas and then, we have organized the available articles according to these areas. The surveyed articles have been chronologically organized in tables for better clarity. In this paper, we try to investigate the vital issues and challenges to the integration of IoT and blockchain, and then investigate the research efforts that have been conducted so far to overcome these challenges.
... The blockchain provides a tamper-proof ledger in which a new record is added after being validated by the miners. The miner nodes validate the transactions by different consensus mechanisms: proof of work (PoW), proof of authority (PoA), proof of stack(PoS) etc., [6], [7]. In the PoW, all the interested nodes participate and solve a mathematical puzzle. ...
... The nodes in the IoT environment cooperate to provide the services. However, in [6] and [14], nodes' identity authentication is compromised, any node can enters in network and behaves maliciously which affects the network performance. The node identity authentication relies on the central authentication server. ...
... Moreover, the misuse of important records is another issue. Also, in [6], the data security and privacy of sensor nodes are compromised in the WSNs. ...
Conference Paper
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In this paper, a secure blockchain based identity authentication for end-nodes is proposed in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Moreover, to resolve the issue of limited energy in WSNs, a mechanism of cluster head (CH) selection is also proposed. The nodes in a network are authenticated on the basis of credentials to prevent from malicious activities. The malicious nodes harm the network by providing false data to nodes. Therefore, a blockchain is integrated with the WSN to make the network more secure as it allows only authenticated nodes to become a part of the network. Moreover in a WSN, sensor nodes collect the information and send it towards CH for further processing. The CH aggregates and processes the information; however, its energy depletes rapidly due to extra workload. Therefore, the CH is replaced with the node that has the highest residual energy among all nodes. The simulation result shows the network lifetime increases after CH replacement. Moreover, it shows that he transaction cost is very low during authentication phase.
... Typically the credential information includes asymmetric key cryptography or digital signatures. Any fog node running blockchain instance known as miners can authenticate a request to access the desired service [26]. ...
... The blockchain-based authentication mechanisms have been evaluated for various kinds of security threats, and they are found robust for denial of service attacks. Also, these protocols have been scalable as compared to centralized ones [14,3,26]. ...
... The second computational challenge arise from the fact that trust changes over the period of time. To address this challenge a blockchain-based solution is developed in Reference [26]. The approach calculates the trustworthiness of a node, in the context of wireless sensor networks. ...
Preprint
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Fog computing is a paradigm for distributed computing that enables sharing of resources such as computing, storage and network services. Unlike cloud computing, fog computing platforms primarily support {\em non-functional properties} such as location awareness, mobility and reduced latency. This emerging paradigm has many potential applications in domains such as smart grids, smart cities, and transport management. Most of these domains collect and monitor personal information through edge devices to offer personalized services. A {\em centralized} server either at the level of cloud or fog, has been found ineffective to provide a high degree of security and privacy-preserving services. Blockchain technology supports the development of {\em decentralized} applications designed around the principles of immutability, cryptography, consistency preserving consensus protocols and smart contracts. Hence blockchain technology has emerged as a preferred technology in recent times to build trustworthy distributed applications. The chapter describes the potential of blockchain technology to realize security services such as authentication, secured communication, availability, privacy and trust management to support the development of dependable fog services.
... Additionally, the authors in [14] propose a secure routing protocol for mobile IoT to prevent intrusion. Moreover, in [15] a blockchain based scheme for authentication of nodes, trust management and security and privacy of data being exchanged in WSN is propose. A blockchain based authentication mechanism for peer-to-peer IoT sensor nodes is proposed in [16]. ...
... The authors in [19] propose a data sharing and access control mechanism for IoT devices. The privacy of sensors, security of exchanged data, identity authentication and trust management are issues that need to be addressed [15,20]. The devices of IoT environment are vulnerable to various security threats, i.e., confidentiality, integrity, availability, etc. ...
... The sensor nodes in WSNs are resource constrained devices and can be controlled by attacker easily. The use of master key in [15] as an identifier for node or services leads to the security issues of the node. In the proposed model of [16], every node in the network needs to store identification data of all the nodes. ...
Thesis
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In this thesis, the blockchain and smart contracts are used to provide registration, mutual authentication, data sharing and fair nonrepudiation in wireless sensor network. The proposed model consists of three types of nodes: coordinators, cluster heads and sensor nodes. A consortium blockchain is deployed on coordinator nodes. The smart contracts execute on coordinators to record the identities of legitimate nodes. Moreover, they authenticate nodes and facilitate in data sharing and arbitration in case of repudiation. When a sensor node communicates and access data of any other sensor node, both nodes mutually authenticate each other. The smart contract of data sharing and nonrepudiation is used to provide a secure communication and data exchange between sensor nodes. Moreover, it records the evidences during the data exchange. When the exchanged data is found illegitimate or the requesting sensor node denies the legitimacy of data, then an arbitration smart contract resolves the dispute on the basis of evidences and punishes the sensor node accordingly. Additionally, the data of all the nodes is stored on the decentralized storage called interplanetary file system. Moreover, the staller consensus protocol is used in the proposed model to increase the efficiency and transaction throughput. The transaction latency of the proposed system model is approximately 81.82% lower than the proof of work based model. Moreover, the gas consumption of the data request and data provisioning is economical.
... Blockchain's first implementation was bitcoin. Later various domains adopted it, such as the Internet of Vehicles, IoTs, the energy sector, etc., [4]. ...
... Besides this, authentication of every node and managing trust are necessary. However, previous work either handles security, privacy, or authentication and trust management, but none of them handles the trust management and authentication in WSN and IoT [4]. The traditional IoT identity authentication protocols uses centralized authentication methods and mostly rely on the trusted third parties. ...
Conference Paper
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In this paper, blockchain and InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) based service model is proposed for Internet of Things (IoT). In the IoT, nodes' credentials and generated data are stored on the IPFS in a hashed format. In order to ensure the security of data, encrypted hash is stored on the blockchain. However, blockchain is very expensive for storing the large amount of data. While, in the case of centralized database, there is a possibility of data tampering and information leakage. Moreover, a service model is proposed for sharing the services from the service providers to the consumers. In addition, a product consensus mechanism is performed between admin and user which is replaced with a blockchain service model. Due to this, consumers send the request to the service provider through blockchain for the required services. Though, peer and minor nodes' involvement in consensus mechanisms, hinder in finding the service provider. Moreover, existing scheme is computationaly expensive and delay occurs due to the lengthy procedure of verification and consensus. Here, blockchain is used to record the evidence of the services. Also, a service verification scheme is designed using the Secure Hash Algorithm-256 (SHA-256). Furthermore, the smart contract is utilized to settle disputes between consumers and service providers. The simulation results show that Proof of Authority consumes less gas and has low latency as compared to Proof of Work, which represents the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed solution.
... These patterns are used to share various economy services, depending on the need. In [18] author mentioned decentralized authentication and trust management for sensor-based IoT networks and designed a human like knowledge based trust model. This model determines the reputation of nodes and used pretty good privacy (OpenPGP) model for the authentication process. ...
... The service controller provides necessary information for completing registration. This includes service controller valid identity ( _ ), category (i.e., fire brigade as PES), and predetermined threshold values ( ℎ , ℎ ) is given in Eq. (18). ...
Preprint
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The Internet of Things (IoT) recently gained attention from the last few years due to various smart city applications deployment. The existing literature discusses different public emergency service (PES) aspects from smart-healthcare to smart-home automation. However, less work explores for the smart-fire-brigade system. The PESs require high computation, timely service fulfillment, service transparency, and trust, which are difficult to achieve through a centralized system. In recent years, blockchain technology has gained enormous popularity for immutable data management that ensures transparency, reliability, and data integrity using distributed storage. This paper presents a blockchain based model for secure and trusted public emergency service in IoT-enabled smart cities (BMSTP) to handle the PES requests in real-time fairly. An edge compute server (ECS) is introduced to enhance data processing speed and local data storage. Simultaneously, a queuing theory model is used to process PES requests quickly. The ECS manages an access control list (ACL) for smart-home IoT devices to protect against the illegal placement of any new IoT devices near smart-home to misguiding public emergency service departments (PESDs). Further, a reputation model is designed for PESDs to scale their service quality. We explored the BMSTP for smart-homes placed under different sub-areas of a smart-city. The experiment results show the proposed system model is efficient in scheduling the smart-home PES requests to an appropriate PESD and minimizing the delay to reaching the smart-home location.
... The proposed model could be implemented in any typical application such as smart healthcare, home, building or factory. Another security model and protocol was proposed by [51] to provide decentralized cryptographic keys and trust information storage for Wireless Sensor Networks using blockchain technology. The aim of the blockchain authentication and trust module (BATM) in [51] was to allow each network component to authenticate information about every node within their networks. ...
... Another security model and protocol was proposed by [51] to provide decentralized cryptographic keys and trust information storage for Wireless Sensor Networks using blockchain technology. The aim of the blockchain authentication and trust module (BATM) in [51] was to allow each network component to authenticate information about every node within their networks. ...
Article
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Internet of things IoT is playing a remarkable role in the advancement of many fields such as healthcare, smart grids, supply chain management, etc. It also eases people’s daily lives and enhances their interaction with each other as well as with their surroundings and the environment in a broader scope. IoT performs this role utilizing devices and sensors of different shapes and sizes ranging from small embedded sensors and wearable devices all the way to automated systems. However, IoT networks are growing in size, complexity, and number of connected devices. As a result, many challenges and problems arise such as security, authenticity, reliability, and scalability. Based on that and taking into account the anticipated evolution of the IoT, it is extremely vital not only to maintain but to increase confidence in and reliance on IoT systems by tackling the aforementioned issues. The emergence of blockchain opened the door to solve some challenges related to IoT networks. Blockchain characteristics such as security, transparency, reliability, and traceability make it the perfect candidate to improve IoT systems, solve their problems, and support their future expansion. This paper demonstrates the major challenges facing IoT systems and blockchain’s proposed role in solving them. It also evaluates the position of current researches in the field of merging blockchain with IoT networks and the latest implementation stages. Additionally, it discusses the issues related to the IoT-blockchain integration itself. Finally, this research proposes an architectural design to integrate IoT with blockchain in two layers using dew and cloudlet computing. Our aim is to benefit from blockchain features and services to guarantee a decentralized data storage and processing and address security and anonymity challenges and achieve transparency and efficient authentication service.
... This reduces threats aimed at bugs in embedded applications. In (Moinet et al., 2017) Latest blockchain application in the field of autonomous wireless networks as a safe decentral storage for cryptographic keys and trust details. The Blockchain Authentication and Trust Module and their knowledge based trust paradigm demonstrate how to use a blockchain immutability to provide high-problem solutions in the area of ad-hoc decentralized networks. ...
... Optimization of governed blockchains cryptocurrencies or created rewards for cryptographic puzzle solvers (Lee and Lee, 2017) Stable firmware upgrade focused on blockchain for embedded systems in an internet setting A new software upgrade scheme utilizing blockchain technology was introduced to safely verify a firmware version, to confirm firmware consistency, and to download the most current firmware for the built-in computers (Moinet et al., 2017) Wireless sensor network focused on Blockchain for autonomous sensor networks blockchain application in the field of autonomous wireless networks as a safe decentral storage for cryptographic keys and trust details (Abdullah et al., 2017) Hadoop is Kerberos-based Blockchain applications to improve the authentication of Big Data in the distributed environment (Xu et al., 2018) Denial-of-Service attacks decentralize content trust for docker images dependent on Blockchain a single device ID and record ...
Article
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Internet of Things (IoT) has grown quickly and receives considerable interest in academia and the market. However, the absence of basic technologies in protection leads to risks and security flaws in IoT privacy. IoT technologies vary from a mission-critical predicament to business-oriented applications (for example, smart grid networks, smart mobility systems, video monitoring, and eHealth) (e.g., Banking, transportation and contract law insurance) (Askar et al., 2011; Al Majeed et al, 2014). Comprehensive security support is required for IoT, particularly for task-critical applications and for business applications downstream. There have been proposals and/or utilizations of some safety methods or approaches. The platform blockchain has been suggested as an outsourced and distributed solution to guarantee protection standards and to motivate the growth of the IoT due to its decentralization and disclosure. A Blockchain is a database that store sequential manner, in multiple machine memories faulty to its opponents, any processed transactions-or records. Both participating customers share these purchases. The details shall not be stored as a public directory; each node user or device is equipped with the same directory as any other node user. In this article, present the basic blockchain structure and outline the safety criteria for developing IoT and then discuss how the IoT using's protection tools and technologies can be used via BC. Also identify the most pertinent IoT technology frameworks based on blockchain. In addition, reviewing numbers of researches provides securing IoT based on BC finally, discuss several challenges will face of IoT and BC. IJSB Literature review
... In the context of blockchain based reputation systems, authors in [55] have proposed a new reputation system that is practically applicable to multiple networks and with the objective is to store single dimension reputation value from the completed transactions. Another work was presented in [117] where a new security model based on the blockchain technlology was proposed to ensure validity and integrity of cryptographic authentication data and associate peer trust level from the beginning to the end of the sensor network lifetime. ...
... As seen the blockchain technology has been used for several purposes and within various fields and application domains. However just few studies [55,117] have focused on integrating this last within trust and reputation systems. On the other side, a secure and distributed based trust system is essential to ensure the network security and to guarantee trust information confidentiality, integrity and privacy during sharing and storage. ...
Thesis
The evolution of the Internet of Things (IoT) started decades ago as part of the first face of the digital transformation, its vision has further evolved due to a convergence of multiple technologies, ranging from wireless communication to the Internet and from embedded systems to micro-electromechanical systems. As a consequence thereof, IoT platforms are being heavily developed, smart factories are being planned to revolutionize the industry organization and both security and trust requirements are becoming more and more critical. The integration of such technologies within the manufacturing environment and processes in combination with other technologies has introduced the fourth industrial revolution referred to also as Industry 4.0. In this future world machines will talk to machines (M2M) to organize the production and coordinate their actions. However opening connectivity to the external world raises several questions about data and IT infrastructure security that were not an issue when devices and machines were controlled locally and just few of them were connected to some other remote systems. That’s why ensuring a secure communication between heterogeneous and reliable devices is essential to protect exchanged information from being stolen or tampered by malicious cyber attackers that may harm the production processes and put the different devices out of order. Without appropriate security solutions, these systems will never be deployed globally due to all kinds of security concerns. That’s why ensuring a secure and trusted communication between heterogeneous devices and within dynamic and decentralized environments is essential to achieve users acceptance and to protect exchanged information from being stolen or tampered by malicious cyber attackers that may harm the production processes and put the different devices out of order. However, building a secure system does not only mean protecting the data exchange but it requires also building a system where the source of data and the data itself is being trusted by all participating devices and stakeholders. In this thesis our research focused on four complementary issues, mainly (I) the dynamic and trust based management of access over shared resources within an Industry 4.0 based distributed and collaborative system, (ii) the establishment of a privacy preserving solution for related data in a decentralized architecture while eliminating the need to rely on additional third parties, (iii) the verification of the safety, the correctness and the functional accuracy of the designed framework and (iv) the evaluation of the trustworthiness degree of interacting parties in addition to the secure storage and sharing of computed trust scores among them in order to guarantee their confidentiality, integrity and privacy. By focusing on such issues and taking into account the conventional characteristics of both IoT and IoT enabled industries environments, we proposed in this thesis a secure and distributed framework for resource management in Industry 4.0 environments. The proposed framework, enabled by the blockchain technology and driven by peer to peer networks, allows not only the dynamic access management over shared resources but also the distribute governance of the system without the need for third parties that could be their-selves vulnerable to attacks. Besides and in order to ensure strong privacy guarantees over the access control related procedures, a privacy preserving scheme is proposed and integrated within the distributed management framework. Furthermore and in order to guarantee the safety and the functional accuracy of our framework software components, we focused on their formal modeling in order to validate their safety and compliance with their specification. Finally, we designed and implemented the proposal in order to prove its feasibility and analyze its performances.
... The sensor nodes in WSNs are resource constrained devices and can be easily controlled by an attacker. The use of a master key in [21] as an identifier for node or services leads to the security issues of the node. Furthermore, in the proposed model of [22], every node in the network needs to store identification data of all the nodes. ...
... The privacy and security of the exchanged data between nodes, identity authentication and trust management in WSNs nodes [21]. ...
Article
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A blockchain based scheme is proposed in the underlying work for performing registration, mutual authentication, data sharing and nonrepudiation in internet of wireless sensor things. The nodes are divided into three types in the proposed scheme: sensor nodes, cluster heads and coordinators. Moreover, a consortium blockchain, deployed on the coordinators, is employed for storing the legitimate nodes' identities. Furthermore, coordinators also help in the execution of smart contracts, which facilitate the sensor nodes in authentication, data sharing and nonrepudia-tion processes. Additionally, for storing the nodes' ambient data, artificial intelligence based interplanetary file system (IPFS) is used. Furthermore, to increase the transaction throughput and efficiency of the network, a stellar consensus protocol is used. From the simulation results, the transaction latency of the proposed model is approximately 81.82% lower than the proof of work based model. Moreover, the gas consumption of data request and provisioning is 0.10 US Dollars.
... if it is changed then the root of Merkle tree must be changed. During construction of Merkle tree, the tree can be forked from each node, but it considers longest chain in the network as safer [24]. ...
... Linked chained authentication technique used by Moinet et al. [24] provides trustbased security in WSN. Here the combination of load and header is used as a block. ...
... First, TrustChain fully delegates the administrative control and management of the blockchain network to the business network administrator, essentially a Trusted Third Party (TTP), which undermines the fundamental motivation of using a blockchain. Second, the framework's TRM model is directly adopted from a generic model [15], which may not accurately resemble real-world supply chain scenarios. Lastly, TrustChain relies on a strong assumption that the commodities are static and will not be reproduced or repackaged as they progress through the supply chain life cycle. ...
... prop tc x timestamp Sig p ] (15) where Sig p corresponds to the signature of both p n and p n+1 . C trm validates whether both parties have fulfilled the terms and conditions tc x , after which C trm updates both T n and R n scores accordingly for both parties, cf. ...
Preprint
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Blockchain has the potential to enhance supply chain management systems by providing stronger assurance in transparency and traceability of traded commodities. However, blockchain does not overcome the inherent issues of data trust in IoT enabled supply chains. Recent proposals attempt to tackle these issues by incorporating generic trust and reputation management, which does not entirely address the complex challenges of supply chain operations and suffers from significant drawbacks. In this paper, we propose DeTRM, a decentralised trust and reputation management solution for supply chains, which considers complex supply chain operations, such as splitting or merging of product lots, to provide a coherent trust management solution. We resolve data trust by correlating empirical data from adjacent sensor nodes, using which the authenticity of data can be assessed. We design a consortium blockchain, where smart contracts play a significant role in quantifying trustworthiness as a numerical score from different perspectives. A proof-of-concept implementation in Hyperledger Fabric shows that DeTRM is feasible and only incurs relatively small overheads compared to the baseline.
... While the block body comprises of the transactions. If any data tampering is performed, it can be easily identified by comparing the hash of the data with the root hash [12]. In WSNs, the security threats are becoming more serious day by day [13], [14]. ...
... The traditional WSNs are mostly homogeneous that involve complex design protocols and additional overhead [23]. Existing models do not allow content access, reliable authentication and trust management [12]. Lack of traceability of each node in IoT network leads to inefficiency and significant loss in industrial growth. ...
Conference Paper
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In this paper, a blockchain based authentication model is proposed where the identity of each node is stored on the blockchain. The public and private blockchains are used for authentication. The authentication of Sensor Nodes (SNs) is performed at the private blockchain, whereas the public blockchain authenticates the cluster heads. The existing malicious node detection methods do not guarantee the authentication of the entities in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The unregistered nodes can easily access the resources of the network and perform malicious activities. Moreover, the malicious nodes broadcast wrong route information that increases packet delay and lowers packet delivery ratio. In the proposed model, the trust value is calculated in order to remove the malicious nodes. The secure routing is performed on the basis of the most trustworthy nodes in the network. The aim is to reduce the packet delay and increase the packet delivery ratio. The simulation results show that the high throughput and packet delivery ratio is achieved due to the presence of highly trusted nodes. Moreover, our proposed model detects the malicious nodes effectively.
... This evidence concerns not only the action performed, but also the performing entity. The identity of machines and software can be proven directly and automatically via certificates [39]. In the case of persons, this is usually not possible automatically and requires manual interaction by the involved person. ...
... Most of the related research is to develop a trust or reputation management platform leveraging the advantages of BC such as decentralisation, immutability, trace-ability, and transparency. In this respect, researchers have proposed BC-based trust mechanisms to fortify specific applications in various environments including vehicular networks and intelligent transportation systems [38,12], wireless sensor networks [24,29], or IoT [13,20]. For instance, W. ...
Preprint
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Blockchain technology has been envisaged to commence an era of decentralised applications and services (DApps) without the need for a trusted intermediary. Such DApps open a marketplace in which services are delivered to end-users by contributors which are then incentivised by cryptocurrencies in an automated, peer-to-peer, and trustless fashion. However, blockchain, consolidated by smart contracts, only ensures on-chain data security, autonomy and integrity of the business logic execution defined in smart contracts. It cannot guarantee the quality of service of DApps, which entirely depends on the services' performance. Thus, there is a critical need for a trust system to reduce the risk of dealing with fraudulent counterparts in a blockchain network. These reasons motivate us to develop a fully decentralised trust framework deployed on top of a blockchain platform, operating along with DApps in the marketplace to demoralise deceptive entities while encouraging trustworthy ones. The trust system works as an underlying decentralised service providing a feedback mechanism for end-users and maintaining trust relationships among them in the ecosystem accordingly. We believe this research fortifies the DApps ecosystem by introducing an universal trust middleware for DApps as well as shedding light on the implementation of a decentralised trust system.
... To enhance the protection of module programming and of critical memory, there have been efforts to use blockchain to secure elements of vehicle software, data, and communications. For example, blockchain has been used to secure and validate software updates [10,[16][17][18], to secure odometer readings and vehicle identification [19,20], and for credential management [21], data management, and vehicle authentication [22]. Blockchain has also been used to store and secure vehicle lifecycle data, service records, and accident histories and reconstruction from supply chain through end-of-life [19,[23][24][25]. ...
Article
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Automotive software is increasingly complex and critical to safe vehicle operation, and related embedded systems must remain up to date to ensure long-term system performance. Update mechanisms and data modification tools introduce opportunities for malicious actors to compromise these cyber-physical systems, and for trusted actors to mistakenly install incompatible software versions. A distributed and stratified "black box"audit trail for automotive software and data provenance is proposed to assure users, service providers, and original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) of vehicular software integrity and reliability. The proposed black box architecture is both layered and diffuse, employing distributed hash tables (DHT), a parity system and a public blockchain to provide high resilience, assurance, scalability, and efficiency for automotive and other high-assurance systems.
... The authors of [57] focus on the aspects of trust in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). This article proposes a new application for the blockchain as a secure decentralized storage for cryptographic keys, as well as for exchanging of trust information in the context of autonomous wireless sensor networks. ...
Article
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The blockchain technology is currently penetrating different areas of the modern Information and Communications Technology community. Most of the devices involved in blockchain-related processes are specially designed targeting only the mining aspect, i.e., solving the computational puzzle task. At the same time, the use of wearable and mobile devices may also become a part of eCommerce blockchain operation, especially during the on-charge time. The paper considers the possibility of using a large number of constrained devices to support the operation of the blockchain with a low impact on battery consumption. The utilization of such devices is expected to improve the system efficiency as well as to attract a more substantial number of users. This paper contributes to the body of knowledge with a survey of the main applications of blockchain for smartphones along with existing mobile blockchain projects. It also proposes a novel consensus protocol based on a combination of Proof-of-Work (PoW), Proof-of-Activity (PoA), and Proof-of-Stake (PoS) algorithms for efficient and on-the-fly utilization on resource-constrained devices. The system was deployed in a worldwide testnet with more than two thousand smartphones and compared with other projects from the user-experienced metrics perspective. The results prove that the utilization of PoA systems on a smartphone does not significantly affect the lifetime of the smartphone battery while existing methods based on PoW have a tremendous negative impact. Finally, the main open challenges and future investigation directions are outlined.
... Blockchain-based PKI solutions are distributed and have no centralized point of failure. As a result, certificate-based PKI solutions can be used to realize authentication using blockchain [11], [12]. ...
Article
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Cyber Physical Trust Systems (CPTS) are Cyber Physical Systems and Internet of Things enriched with trust as an explicit, measurable, testable and verifiable system component. In this paper, we propose to use blockchain, a distributed ledger technology, as the trust enabling system component for CPTS. We propose two schemes for CPTSs driven by blockchain in relation to two typical network model cases. We show that our proposed approach achieves the security properties, such as device identification, authentication, integrity, and non-repudiation, and provides protection against popular attacks, such as replay and spoofing. We provide formal proofs of those properties using the Tamarin Prover tool. We describe results of a proof-of-concept which implements a CPTS driven by blockchain for physical asset management and present a performance analysis of our implementation. We identify use cases in which CPTSs driven by blockchain find applications.
... Internet of things [6] . Some approaches have been proposed to use blockchains to ensure validity and integrity of cryptographic authentication data and associate peer trust level in the sensor networks [7] . However, under these situations, the communication, computation and storage overheads for SPV lead a heavy burden on sensor nodes (LCs) and thus significantly affects the lifetime of the network. ...
Article
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With its characteristics of decentralization, security, data traceability, and tamper‐resistance, the blockchain has been widely used in various domains. Considering the difference in the performance of the devices, the light client is proposed so that devices without the ability to store a full blockchain copy can also participate in the blockchain transactions. However, the light client has to communicate with full nodes and verify the authenticity of a transaction which brings in some extent of communication, computation, and storage overheads to the light client. These overheads cannot be ignored for some low‐performance devices, such as embedded devices or IoT chips, and therefore the current light client scheme does not work in this situation. We propose LOPE (a Low‐overhead payment vErification method) for poor‐capacity nodes in the blockchain system. In LOPE, a grouping protocol is designed to partition full nodes into groups to serve the verification requests of the light client. In addition, Practical byzantine fault tolerance (PBFT) is used to ensure the light client to get a credible result in spite of a few dishonest nodes existing in the group. We conduct LOPE and evaluate it in a testbed. The experiment results show that LOPE reduces more than half of the communication overhead, degrades the computation overhead of the light client to a large extent, and avoids the storage overhead of the hash roots of block headers in the light client. We also conduct theoretical analysis to show the performance improvement and security issues of LOPE.
... Without the existence of an uncompromisable and globally accessible entity issuing secret keys to UEs, neither robust traceability nor universality can be obtained. Recently, blockchain technologies have gained prominent popularity mostly due to the lack of a central authority and have thus been used for authentication in sensor networks [40] and data encryption in WiFi [41]. Zhang et al. propose two blockchain-based fair payment protocols called BPay [27] and BCPay [42] for outsourcing services in cloud computing. ...
Article
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The evolving fifth generation (5G) cellular networks will be a collection of heterogeneous and backward-compatible networks. With the increased heterogeneity and densification of 5G heterogeneous networks (HetNets), it is important to ensure security and efficiency of frequent handovers in 5G wireless roaming environments. However, existing handover authentication mechanisms still have challenging issues, such as anonymity, robust traceability and universality. In this paper, we address these issues by introducing RUSH, a Robust and Universal Seamless Handover authentication protocol for 5G HetNets. In RUSH, anonymous mutual authentication with key agreement is enabled for handovers by exploiting the trapdoor collision property of chameleon hash functions and the tamper-resistance of blockchains. RUSH achieves universal handover authentication for all the diverse mobility scenarios, as exemplified by the handover between 5G new radio and non-3GPP access regardless of the trustworthiness of non-3GPP access and the consistency of the core network. RUSH also achieves perfect forward secrecy, master key forward secrecy, known randomness secrecy, key escrow freeness and robust traceability. Our formal security proofs based on the BAN-logic and formal verification based on AVISPA indicate that RUSH resists various attacks. Comprehensive performance evaluation and comparisons show that RUSH outperforms other schemes in both computation and communication efficiencies.
... While, the identity information is stored in the public blockchain maintained by the BSs. The authors in [13] use blockchain to eliminate the third party for trust evaluation and authentication of the nodes. In addition, they store the credentials and the behavior of the nodes in the blockchain. ...
Conference Paper
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In this paper, a blockchain based authentication scheme is proposed for secure routing in the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The unauthenticated and malicious nodes affect the routing process and the correct identification of the routing path becomes a challenging issue. Therefore, in our model, to prevent the participation of malicious nodes in the network, the registration of the nodes is done by a Certificate Authority Node (CAN). Each node that participates in the routing is authenticated by the Base Station (BS) and a mutual authentication is performed. Moreover, the SHA-256 hashing algorithm is used in the verification of the registration process. Furthermore, in the proposed routing protocol, a Cluster Head (CH) sends the data to BS by selecting the forwarder CH node based on the residual energy and minimum distance from BS. The simulation results show that our proposed model improves the packet delivery ratio and the network lifetime is also increased.
... La blockchain peut également être utilisée pour stocker les informations relatives au calcul de la confiance, telles que les propriétés de l'objet, ses capacités ainsi que sa réputation aux vues des autres [287]. Enfin, l'étude [288] propose d'inscrire dans la blockchain uniquement les informations d'authentification et les niveaux de confiance de chaque entité du réseau. ...
Thesis
L’Internet des Objets (IdO) est une infrastructure mondiale, visant à connecter une multitude de systèmes de diverses natures, dans le but de générer de nouveaux services. Alors que cette hyperconnectivité laisse entrevoir de nombreuses perspectives dans tous les secteurs d’activité (e.g. la santé, l’industrie, l’énergie etc.), son déploiement constitue un défi majeur en termes de sécurité et de vie privée. L’usage de la cryptographie devient alors primordial, notamment pour assurer la confidentialité des données. Néanmoins, les algorithmes classiques tels que l’AES ne sont pas conçus pour être embarqués dans des systèmes à ressources limitées que sont les objets connectés. Pour répondre à cette problématique, la communauté scientifique s’oriente vers la cryptographie dite « légère ». Malgré ce qualificatif, jusqu’à quel point cette dernière est-elle pertinente et en adéquation avec les ressources des objets connectés ? Quel niveau de sécurité permet-elle d’atteindre ?Au travers de métriques communes, l’objectif du premier axe de cette thèse est de déterminer les gains qu’apporte la cryptographie légère par rapport à son homologue classique, en termes de taille, de performance et de robustesse face aux attaques par canaux auxiliaires, reconnues comme un vecteur d’attaque majeur. Cette évaluation se focalise sur le standard AES-128 et ses proches dérivés légers PRESENT-80/128 et plus récents GIFT-64-128/GIFT-128-128, dont leur structure orientée au niveau bit favorise l’implémentation matérielle. En termes de performances, GIFT-64-128 se positionne comme la meilleure alternative, avec une réduction de taille de près d’un facteur 10, pour un gain en efficacité de 58% par rapport à l’AES-128. Concernant la résistance aux attaques par canaux auxiliaires, ici la CPA, la cryptographie légère se montre une nouvelle fois plus pertinente, avec PRESENT-128 atteignant une robustesse accrue d’un facteur 3 par rapport à l’AES-128.Bien qu’indispensable, la confidentialité seule n’est pas suffisante pour instaurer un environnement sécurisé. Face à l’émergence des cyberattaques, un écosystème de l’IdO se doit d’intégrer des mécanismes de sécurité pour faire face à diverses menaces. En outre, sa topologie réseau devient propice à la décentralisation pour des questions d’efficacités. Sans organisme central, comment assurer à la fois la fiabilité et la sécurité d’un environnement fortement hétérogène ?La seconde partie de cette thèse propose un protocole de confiance, spécialement conçu pour l’IdO. Inspiré du concept de la blockchain, plusieurs optimisations ont été mises en place, permettant de réduire l’utilisation des ressources au minimum. Dans une approche centrée sur les passerelles réseau, les résultats démontrent une réduction de l’espace de stockage d’un facteur 3 000 par rapport à Bitcoin, ainsi qu’une latence divisée par 18, pour une consommation inférieure à celle d’un chargeur de téléphone. Enfin, une extension du protocole est proposée pour être embarquée dans les objets. Le modèle se concentre sur l’évaluation de la confiance dans un environnement proche, se focalisant sur les entités où une communication directe est possible. Avec moins de 400 octets, le protocole est capable d’évaluer la confiance d’une dizaine d’objets, et jusqu’à une trentaine avec seulement 1 Ko.
... Other researchers also have focused on the security issues in the IoT environment and how to detect security threats and vulnerabilities [12][13][14]. In a first attempt by [15] to design trust and authenticate scheme for WSNs based on Blockchain technology and to investigate the applicability of Blockchain in WSNs to address the security problems. This paper aimed to propose a new scheme using Heuristic, Signature and voting detection methods to identify the optimal countermeasures to detect the malicious and security threats using Blockchain technology. ...
Chapter
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) work in various domains such as smart cities, healthcare domains, smart buildings and transportation. These networks share sensitive data across multiple sensor nodes, smart devices and transceivers. These sensitive data in WSNs environment is susceptible to various cyber-attacks and threats. Therefore, an efficient security mechanism is needed to handle threats, attacks and security challenges in WSNs. This paper proposed a new scheme using Heuristic, Signature and voting detection methods to identify the optimal countermeasures to detect the malicious and security threats using Blockchain technology. In our scheme, the cluster head node (CN) use the three detection systems with Blockchain to detect the malicious sensor nodes. Also, CN uses important parameters such as sensor node-hash value, node-signature and voting degree for malicious to detect malicious nodes in WSNs. The overall results statistic showed that 94.9% of malicious messages were detected and identified successfully during our scheme’s simulation.
... Early research focused on using a blockchain network as an external component of systems that are mainly used as databases for key storage and WSN management [24,25]. Blockchain networks have been used in combination with WSNs for data security, sensor node authentication [26], removing single points of failure in WSNs [27], and secure data accumulation [28]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Currently, the computational power present in the sensors forming a wireless sensor network (WSN) allows for implementing most of the data processing and analysis directly on the sensors in a decentralized way. This shift in paradigm introduces a shift in the privacy and security problems that need to be addressed. While a decentralized implementation avoids the single point of failure problem that typically applies to centralized approaches, it is subject to other threats, such as external monitoring, and new challenges, such as the complexity of providing decentralized implementations for data mining algorithms. In this paper, we present a solution for privacy-aware distributed data mining on wireless sensor networks. Our solution uses a permissioned blockchain to avoid a single point of failure in the system. Contracts are used to construct an onion-like structure encompassing the Hoeffding trees and a route. The onion-routed query conceals the network identity of the sensors from external adversaries, and obfuscates the actual computation to hide it from internally compromised nodes. We validate our solution on a use case related to an air quality-monitoring sensor network. We compare the quality of our model against traditional models to support the feasibility and viability of the solution.
... In the trust module proposed by Moinet et al. BC payloads trigger particular events [153]. The module is applied to establish trust in decentralized sensor networks. ...
... Ethereum's smart contract platform allows software developers to build applications such as title tracking or smart contracts. Other applications secure and validate software updates [63][64][65][66], log readings and system identities [67][68][69], manage credentials [70] and data, and provide authentication [71]. Blockchain has also been used to store and secure lifecycle data, service records, and accident histories and reconstruction from supply chain through end-of-life [67,[72][73][74]. ...
Preprint
Cyber-Physical systems (CPS) have complex lifecycles involving multiple stakeholders, and the transparency of both hardware and software components' supply chain is opaque at best. This raises concerns for stakeholders who may not trust that what they receive is what was requested. There is an opportunity to build a cyberphysical titling process offering universal traceability and the ability to differentiate systems based on provenance. Today, RFID tags and barcodes address some of these needs, though they are easily manipulated due to non-linkage with an object or system's intrinsic characteristics. We propose cyberphysical sequencing as a low-cost, light-weight and pervasive means of adding track-and-trace capabilities to any asset that ties a system's physical identity to a unique and invariant digital identifier. CPS sequencing offers benefits similar Digital Twins' for identifying and managing the provenance and identity of an asset throughout its life with far fewer computational and other resources.
... C. Authentication Schemes to Establish Trust in the Network Traditional authentication mechanisms for IoT are centralized and do not deal with the security and privacy of data [27], [28]. Moreover, they have many issues like privacy leakage, high power consumption and large computation time [29]. ...
Article
In this paper, a blockchained Beyond Fifth Generation (B5G) enabled malicious node detection model is proposed for the Internet of Sensor Things (IoSTs). Moreover, a secure service provisioning scheme using cascading encryption and feature evaluation process is also proposed for the IoSTs. The presence of malicious nodes causes severe issues in the localization and service provisioning, which discourages new entities to join the network. Therefore, it is very important to establish trust between all entities by detecting and removing such nodes. The proposed B5G enabled malicious node detection model uses federated learning for the detection of malicious nodes. The federated learning uses Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Random Forest (RF) classifiers to detect the malicious nodes. The malicious nodes are classified on the bases of their honesty and end-to-end delay. Moreover, the service provider nodes provide services to each other and get the reward. However, the service provisioning in the IoSTs has many issues like a repudiation of service providers as well as the clients. The feature evaluation and cascading encryption mechanisms are used to solve these issues. The digital signature in cascading encryption ensures the non-repudiation of the service provider. On the other hand, feature evaluation of service ensures that the client can not repudiate about actually demanded services. Moreover, the conformance of services is also ensured by the feature evaluation process. The simulation results show the effectiveness of our proposed non-repudiation model. The SVM and RF classifiers are compared in terms of accuracy, precision, F1 score and recall. The accuracy, precision, F1 score and recall of SVM are 79%, 1, 0.8795 and 0.78, respectively. On the other hand, the accuracy, precision, F1 score and recall of RF classifier are 95%, 0.92, 0.96 and 1, respectively. The results show that RF has better accuracy than RF in malicious nodes detection.
... Recently, the focus was given to blockchain for the data security, management and storage of WSN. Moinet et al. proposed a blockchain based multi sensor technique [20]. This technique collects and verify the information data gathered by the sensor. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) comprises of cheap and multifunctional resources constrain nodes that communicate at a fair distances through wireless connections. It is open media and underpinned by an application scenario for data collecting and processing. It can be used for many exclusive applications range from military implementation inside the battlefield, environmental tracking, fitness quarter as well as emergency response of surveillance. With its nature and application scenario, protection of WSN had drawn an attention. It is understood that the sensor nodes are valuable to the attacks because of the construction nature of the sensor nodes and distributed network infrastructure. In order to ensure its capability especially in malicious environments, security mechanisms are essential. In this paper, we have discussed the challenges and the viability of the blockchain to implement in the WSN in order to protect WSN from the attacks.
... With the success of blockchain implementations and their features' sophistication, further cross-chain standards are being proposed [18] . Remote verification and cross-chain authentication data interoperability are essential in the building field due to the generally broad number of players participating in the same project where the authentication standards span different security domains in heterogeneous blockchain networks [10] . ...
Conference Paper
The construction industry is encountering management issues, such as low efficiency, inadequate regulation and enforcement, absence of good coordination and knowledge sharing, and ineffective billing practices. Blockchain is also gaining momentum as a part of the digital transformation in the construction area and response to various challenges. Since various blockchain implementations have different specifications for distributed ledger functionality (e.g., high throughput, scalability), blockchains currently function as independent knowledge islands that cannot access external data or conduct transactions on their own. Such information silos must be bridged to create more stable blockchain applications. This research investigates data synchronization protocols for cross-chain technologies in construction blockchain. It screens the most suitable blockchain frameworks for use in the construction industry to establish a consistent approach to support their application in construction blockchain. Finally, a cross-chain data interaction protocol for blockchain-based supply chain and IFC chain construction is proposed.
... Blockchain refers to a system of distributed ledgers recording information that maintains the fidelity, security, and trust of data without needing a trusted third party. Blockchain provides security, privacy, and trust management, essential for distributed technologies such as sensor networks [1]. At the heart of these provisions is the consensus in blockchain networks. ...
Article
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Blockchain has revolutionized many fields, such as distributed sensor networks, finance, and cryptocurrency. Consensus between distributed network nodes is at the core of such blockchain technologies. The three primary performance measures for any consensus algorithm are scalability, security, and decentralization. This paper evaluates the usefulness and practicality of quantum consensus algorithms for blockchain-enhanced sensor, and computing networks and evaluates them against the aforementioned performance measures. In particular, we investigate their noise robustness against quantum decoherence in quantum processors and over fiber-optic channels. We observe that the quantum noise generally increases the error rate in the list distribution. However, the effect is variable on different quantum consensus schemes. For example, the entanglement-free scheme is more affected than entanglement-based schemes for the local noise cases, while in the case of noisy optical fiber links, the effect is prominent on all quantum consensus schemes. We infer that the current quantum protocols with noisy intermediate-scale quantum devices and noisy quantum communication can only be employed for modular units in intraenterprise-level blockchain, such as Zilliqa, for sensor, and computing networks.
... Towards the same direction, a new blockchain-based authentication and trust management model, called BATM, was proposed in [24]. The BATM blockchain is used as a distributed database to store authentication public keys, digital signatures and information about peers. ...
Conference Paper
Secure and reliable management of identities has become one of the greatest challenges facing cloud computing today, mainly due to the huge number of new cloud-based applications generated by this model, which means more user accounts, passwords, and personal information to provision, monitor, and secure. Currently, identity federation is the most useful solution to overcome the aforementioned issues and simplify the user experience by allowing efficient authentication mechanisms and use of identity information from data distributed across multiple domains. However, this approach creates considerable complexity in managing trust relationships for both the cloud service providers and their clients. Poor management of trust in federated identity management systems brings with it many security, privacy and interoperability issues, which contributes to the reluctance of organizations to move their critical identity data to the cloud. In this paper, we aim to address these issues by introducing a novel trust and identity management model based on the Blockchain for cloud identity management with security and privacy improvements.
Thesis
La Public Key Infrastructure(PKI) est une infrastructure à clés publique dont l’objectif est de répondre à des besoins tel que : l’authentification de clés publiques, le contrôle d'accès et les fonctions d'autorisation, l'identification et l'authentification déterministe et automatisée. La prise en charge de ces services détermine les attributs contenus dans le certificat, ainsi que les informations de contrôle auxiliaires telles que la politique et les contraintes de chemin de certification. La validation du certificat passe par la vérification de ces attributs. Un certificat délivré par une autorité de certification est censé être utilisé pendant toute sa période de validité. Cependant, diverses circonstances peuvent interrompre cette validité. Ces circonstances comprennent le changement de nom, le changement d’association et etc... Sous telles circonstances, l'autorité de certification doit révoquer le certificat. Les services de validation et de vérification de la révocation des certificats sont attendus ou nécessaires dans plusieurs contextes, nous pouvons en citer certains parmi tant d’autres: les communications véhiculaires, le (WWW), l’authentification des utilisateurs et etc. Les communications véhiculaires sont au centre des véhicules de demain et d’une manière plus générale des smart-cities. La sécurisation de ces réseaux est un élément critique au vu des services en perspective. La sécurité des échanges inter-véhicules est basée notamment sur la signature numérique. Cette même signature nécessite d’une infrastructure d’échange de clés (PKI). Le RFC 5280 défini différents méthodes de révocation. Parmi celles-ci nous avons une méthode de révocation qui implique la publication périodique de la part de la CA d’une structure de données signée appelée CRL(Certificate révocation list). Cette approche, qui est la plus utilisée, est mature mais coûteuse en temps et en volume et les communications véhiculaires apportent de nouvelles contraintes. Ces travaux portent sur la vérification de la révocation des certificats X509 et de type pseudonyme utilisés dans les communications véhiculaires. Notre objectif est de réduire la latence due à la vérification de la révocation des certificats X509 et pseudonymes. Nous avons dans ce contexte proposé une méthode de révocation impliquant la publication de la CRL dans une Blockchain de type publique. Nous avons ensuite proposé une méthode de révocation capable de faire face aux nouvelles contraintes introduites par le véhiculaire. Nos contributions ont été validées par une implémentation.
Book
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This book is mainly written for students pursuing graduate programs in Computer Engineering, Information Technology and Software Engineering. After reading the book, you will find new ideas for your research work, social innovation and entrepreneurship. A general audience including educators, environmentalists, development economists, healthcare professionals and policymakers interested in sustainable development will find this book informative. After reading the book, you will be better positioned to understand the potential and pitfalls of ICT in the context of social development.
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Blockchain has transitioned beyond the hype to reality, as evidenced by the amount of research it has attracted and by its commercial applications. One popular application of blockchain is in cybersecurity, which is the focus of this paper. Specifically, we performed a systematic literature review of blockchain use cases for cybersecurity, while focusing on articles published over the past decade. Based on our analysis of 111 articles, we developed a classification framework using the thematic analysis approach. This classification framework is designed to offer readers a comprehensive perspective of the potential of blockchain to enhance cybersecurity in different contexts. The findings have implications for research and practice.
Chapter
Storing data in real time along with keeping it secure is the biggest challenge in industry today. Many land issues arise because there is no database which is protected for tracking the real-time changes in data. Also, land records currently are registered in paper format. This kind of data is thus vulnerable to any changes and maybe destroyed by natural or man-made disasters. The emerging blockchain technology is a boon to store any information in real time and is immune to any changes. In this paper, we propose a solution in the form of distributed app (DApp) which uses the idea of blockchain as distributed database, smart contracts using ethereum platform and Polyline API from Google to mark the land boundaries. Smart contracts allow the performance of credible transactions by using sophisticated cryptography and without interference from third parties. These transactions are traceable and irreversible. Proponents of smart contracts claim that many kinds of contractual clauses may be made partially or fully self-enforcing. In this case, along with the self-verifiable clauses, involving banking parties can perform additional monetary checking. A user can sell or transfer a property that he owns or may buy a new land plot open for sale in desired geographical area. This solution allows maintaining land records easily and in real time without having a single point of failure for the database system. Removal of third-party interventions such as brokers from the process of land title transfer between old and new owners makes the process more transparent and cheaper.
Article
This paper proposes a blockchain based nodes' authentication model for the internet of sensor things (IoST). The nodes in the network are authenticated based on their credentials to make the network free from malicious nodes. In IoST, sensor nodes gather the information from the environment and send it to the cluster heads (CHs) for additional processing. CHs aggregate the sensed information. Therefore, their energy rapidly depletes due to extra workload. To solve this issue, we proposed distance, degree, and residual energy based low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (DDR-LEACH) protocol. DDR-LEACH is used to replace CHs with the ordinary nodes based on maximum residual energy, degree and minimum distance from BS. Furthermore, storing a huge amount of data in the blockchain is very costly. To tackle this issue, an external data storage, named as interplanetary file system (IPFS), is used. Furthermore, for ensuring data security in IPFS, AES 128-bit is used, which performs better than the existing encryption schemes. Moreover, a huge computational cost is required using a proof of work consensus mechanism to validate transactions. To solve this issue, proof of authority (PoA) consensus mechanism is used in the proposed model. The simulation results are carried out, which show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed system model. The DDR-LEACH is compared with LEACH and the simulation results show that DDR-LEACH outperforms LEACH in terms of energy consumption, throughput and improvement in network lifetime with CH selection mechanism. Moreover, transaction cost is computed, which is reduced by PoA during data storage on IPFS and service provisioning. Furthermore, the time is calculated in the comparison of AES 128-bit scheme with existing scheme. The formal security analysis is performed to check the effectiveness of smart contract against attacks. Also, two different attacks, MITM and Sybil, are induced in our system to show our system model's resilience against cyber attacks.
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The electricity that is expended in the process of mining Bitcoin has become a topic of heavy debate over the past few years. It is a process that makes Bitcoin extremely energy-hungry by design, as the currency requires a huge amount of hash calculations for its ultimate goal of processing financial transactions without intermediaries (peer-to-peer). The primary fuel for each of these calculations is electricity. The Bitcoin network can be estimated to consume at least 2.55 gigawatts of electricity currently, and potentially 7.67 gigawatts in the future, making it comparable with countries such as Ireland (3.1 gigawatts) and Austria (8.2 gigawatts). Economic models tell us that Bitcoin’s electricity consumption will gravitate toward the latter number. A look at Bitcoin miner production estimates suggests that this number could already be reached in 2018.
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Wireless Sensor networks (WSN) today suffer from a lack of security adapted to their multiple constraints, to which authentication and trust management solutions such as PGP only partially responds. On the one hand, the constraints of autonomy and co-operation of the nodes necessary to guarantee the coherence of the network do not require a distributed solution. On the other hand, the constraints of energy consumption and the low computing power of the nodes require the use of algorithms of low complexity (Zhang2014) . To our knowledge, no solution can answer both these problems at the same time. We are proposing a new solution for securing WSNs named BATMAN (Blockchain Authentication and Trust Module in Ad-hoc Networks) to reply to these challenges. We present a model of centralized management for authentication and trust, implementable on the Tezos blockchain, and evaluate through simulation the confidence estimators proposed here.
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Sensor networks and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are key components for the development of the Internet of Things. These networks are subject of two kinds of constraints. Adaptability by the mean of mutability and evolutivity, and constrained node resources such as energy consumption, computational complexity or memory usage. In this context, none of the existing protocols and models allows reliable peer authentication and trust level management. In the field of virtual economic transactions, Bitcoin has proposed a new decentralized and evolutive way to model and acknowledge trust and data validity in a peer network by the mean of the blockchain. We propose a new security model and its protocol based on the blockchain technology to ensure validity and integrity of cryptographic authentication data and associate peer trust level, from the beginning to the end of the sensor network lifetime.
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The Internet of Things (IoT) introduces a vision of a future Internet where users, computing systems and everyday objects possessing sensing and actuating capabilities cooperate with unprecedented convenience and economical benefits. As with the current Internet architecture, IP-based communication protocols will play a key role in enabling the ubiquitous connectivity of devices in the context of IoT applications. Such communication technologies are being developed in line with the constraints of the sensing platforms likely to be employed by IoT applications, forming a communications stack able to provide the required power-efficiency, reliability and Internet connectivity. As security will be a fundamental enabling factor of most IoT applications, mechanisms must also be designed to protect communications enabled by such technologies. This survey analyzes existing protocols and mechanisms to secure communications in the IoT, as well as open research issues. We analyze how existing approaches ensure fundamental security requirements and protect communications on the IoT, together with the open challenges and strategies for future research work in the area. This is, as far as our knowledge goes, the first survey with such goals.
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Many technical communities are vigorously pursuing research topics that contribute to the Internet of Things (IoT). Nowadays, as sensing, actuation, communication, and control become even more sophisticated and ubiquitous, there is a significant overlap in these communities, sometimes from slightly different perspectives. More cooperation between communities is encouraged. To provide a basis for discussing open research problems in IoT, a vision for how IoT could change the world in the distant future is first presented. Then, eight key research topics are enumerated and research problems within these topics are discussed.
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The integration of social networking concepts into the Internet of Things (IoT) has led to the so called Social Internet of Things (SIoT) paradigm, according to which the objects are capable of establishing social relationships in an autonomous way with respect to their owners. The benefits are those of improving scalability in information/service discovery when the SIoT is made of huge numbers of heterogeneous nodes, similarly to what happens with social networks among humans. In this paper we focus on the problem of understanding how the information provided by the other members of the SIoT has to be processed so as to build a reliable system on the basis of the behavior of the objects. We define a subjective model for the management of trustworthiness which builds upon the solutions proposed for P2P networks. Each node computes the trustworthiness of its friends on the basis of its own experience and on the opinion of the common friends with the potential service providers. We employ a feedback system and we combine the credibility and centrality of the nodes to evaluate the trust level. Preliminary simulations show the benefits of the proposed model towards the isolation of almost any malicious node in the network.
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Strong public-key cryptography is often considered to be too computationally expensive for small devices if not accelerated by cryptographic hardware. We revisited this statement and implemented elliptic curve point multiplication for 160-bit, 192-bit, and 224-bit NIST/SECG curves over GF(p) and RSA-1024 and RSA-2048 on two 8-bit microcontrollers. To accelerate multiple-precision multiplication, we propose a new algorithm to reduce the number of memory accesses. Implementation and analysis led to three observations: 1. Public-key cryptography is viable on small devices without hardware acceleration. On an Atmel ATmega128 at 8 MHz we measured 0.81s for 160-bit ECC point multiplication and 0.43s for a RSA-1024 operation with exponent e=216+1. 2. The relative performance advantage of ECC point multiplication over RSA modular exponentiation increases with the decrease in processor word size and the increase in key size. 3. Elliptic curves over fields using pseudo-Mersenne primes as standardized by NIST and SECG allow for high performance implementations and show no performance disadvantage over optimal extension fields or prime fields selected specifically for a particular processor architecture.
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In this paper, we quantify the energy cost of authentication and key exchange based on public-key cryptography on an 8-bit microcontroller platform. We present a comparison of two public-key algorithms, RSA and elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), and consider mutual authentication and key exchange between two untrusted parties such as two nodes in a wireless sensor network. Our measurements on an Atmel ATmega128L low-power microcontroller indicate that public-key cryptography is very viable on 8-bit energy-constrained platforms even if implemented in software. We found ECC to have a significant advantage over RSA as it reduces computation time and also the amount of data transmitted and stored.
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The advancement in wireless communications and electronics has enabled the development of low-cost sensor networks. The sensor networks can be used for various application areas (e.g., health, military, home). For different application areas, there are different technical issues that researchers are currently resolving. The current state of the art of sensor networks is captured in this article, where solutions are discussed under their related protocol stack layer sections. This article also points out the open research issues and intends to spark new interests and developments in this field.
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The main aim of this paper is to discuss the Internet of things in wider sense and prominence on protocols, technologies and application along related issues. The main factor IoT concept is the integration of different technologies. The IoT is empowered by the hottest developments in RFID, smart sensors, communication technologies, and Internet protocols. Primary hypothesis is to have smart sensor dealing directly to deliver a class of applications without any external or human participation. Recently development in Internet and smart phone and machine-to-machine M2M technologies can be consider first phase of the IoT. In the coming years IoT is expected to be one of the main hub between various technologies by connecting smart physical objects together and allow different applications in support of smart decision making. In this paper we discuss IoT architecture and technical aspect that relate to IoT. Then, give over view about IoT technologies, protocols and applications and related issues with comparison of other survey papers. Our main aim to provide a framework to researcher and application developer that how different protocols works, over view of some key issues of IoT and the relation between IoT and other embryonic technologies including big data analytics and cloud computing.
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Unlike traditional networks, the wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are very vulnerable to internal attacks from compromised nodes. The trust management system is the most effective way to defend the attack inside the network. The Beta-based Trust and Reputation Evaluation System (BTRES) is proposed in this paper for WSNs' node trust and reputation evaluation. BTRES is based on monitoring nodes' behavior, and beta distribution is used to describe the distribution of nodes' credibility. The node trust values are used to guide the selection of relay nodes, mitigating internal attacks risks. Simulation results show that the use of BTRES could effectively maximize the defense of internal attacks from compromised nodes and improve the WSNs' information security. In this paper, we mainly focus on the communication trust and data trust, and energy trust can be easily integrated into BTRES.
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A future Internet of Things (IoT) system will connect the physical world into cyberspace everywhere and everything via billions of smart objects. On the one hand, IoT devices are physically connected via communication networks. The service oriented architecture (SOA) can provide interoperability among heterogeneous IoT devices in physical networks. On the other hand, IoT devices are virtually connected via social networks. In this paper we propose adaptive and scalable trust management to support service composition applications in SOA-based IoT systems. We develop a technique based on distributed collaborative filtering to select feedback using similarity rating of friendship, social contact, and community of interest relationships as the filter. Further we develop a novel adaptive filtering technique to determine the best way to combine direct trust and indirect trust dynamically to minimize convergence time and trust estimation bias in the presence of malicious nodes performing opportunistic service and collusion attacks. For scalability, we consider a design by which a capacity-limited node only keeps trust information of a subset of nodes of interest and performs minimum computation to update trust. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed trust management through service composition application scenarios with a comparative performance analysis against EigenTrust and PeerTrust.
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Reputation systems can be used to foster good behaviour and to encourage adherence to contracts in e-commerce. Several reputation systems have been deployed in practical applications or proposed in the literature. This paper describes a new system called the beta reputation system which is based on using beta probability density functions to combine feedback and derive reputation ratings. The advantage of the beta reputation system is flexibility and simplicity as well as its foundation on the theory of statistics.
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A purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution. Digital signatures provide part of the solution, but the main benefits are lost if a trusted third party is still required to prevent double-spending. We propose a solution to the double-spending problem using a peer-to-peer network. The network timestamps transactions by hashing them into an ongoing chain of hash-based proof-of-work, forming a record that cannot be changed without redoing the proof-of-work. The longest chain not only serves as proof of the sequence of events witnessed, but proof that it came from the largest pool of CPU power. As long as a majority of CPU power is controlled by nodes that are not cooperating to attack the network, they'll generate the longest chain and outpace attackers. The network itself requires minimal structure. Messages are broadcast on a best effort basis, and nodes can leave and rejoin the network at will, accepting the longest proof-of-work chain as proof of what happened while they were gone.
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Ubiquitous sensing enabled by Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technologies cuts across many areas of modern day living. This offers the ability to measure, infer and understand environmental indicators, from delicate ecologies and natural resources to urban environments. The proliferation of these devices in a communicating-actuating network creates the Internet of Things (IoT), wherein, sensors and actuators blend seamlessly with the environment around us, and the information is shared across platforms in order to develop a common operating picture (COP). Fuelled by the recent adaptation of a variety of enabling device technologies such as RFID tags and readers, near field communication (NFC) devices and embedded sensor and actuator nodes, the IoT has stepped out of its infancy and is the the next revolutionary technology in transforming the Internet into a fully integrated Future Internet. As we move from www (static pages web) to web2 (social networking web) to web3 (ubiquitous computing web), the need for data-on-demand using sophisticated intuitive queries increases significantly. This paper presents a cloud centric vision for worldwide implementation of Internet of Things. The key enabling technologies and application domains that are likely to drive IoT research in the near future are discussed. A cloud implementation using Aneka, which is based on interaction of private and public clouds is presented. We conclude our IoT vision by expanding on the need for convergence of WSN, the Internet and distributed computing directed at technological research community.
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Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are mobile ad hoc networks in which sensors have limited resources and communication capabilities. Secure communications in some wireless sensor networks are critical. Key management is the fundamental security mechanism in wireless sensor network. Many key management schemes have been developed in recent years.In this paper, we present wireless sensor network key management survey and taxonomy. We classify proposed wireless sensor network key management schemes into three categories based on the encryption key mechanism. We then divide each category into several subcategories based on key pre-distribution and key establishment.
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Wireless sensor network localization is an important area that attracted significant research interest. This interest is expected to grow further with the proliferation of wireless sensor network applications. This paper provides an overview of the measurement techniques in sensor network localization and the one-hop localization algorithms based on these measurements. A detailed investigation on multi-hop connectivity-based and distance-based localization algorithms are presented. A list of open research problems in the area of distance-based sensor network localization is provided with discussion on possible approaches to them.
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We present a multi-party key agreement protocol based on a novel authenticated two-party elliptic curve Diffie–Hellman (ECDH) key-exchange protocol for dynamic collaborative peer groups. The security of our two-party and multi-party key agreement protocols is based on the computational intractability of the elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem (ECDLP). The strength-per-key-bit is substantially greater in keys generated using ECDH than in keys generated using Diffie–Hellman (DH) key exchange. Thus, with much smaller parameters like the key size, ECDH keys provide equivalent security compared to DH keys. We show that the proposed protocols establish an authenticated, distributed, and contributory group secret key among a group of members. Our multi-party key agreement protocol supports group dynamics like member-join, member-leave, group-fusion, and group-fission securely. Further, it introduces array-based binary key-trees (ABKTs), which are balanced trees that bound the key-computation cost of handling member dynamics to O(logn), where n is the number of members in the group.
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Learn all you need to know about wireless sensor networks!. Protocols and Architectures for Wireless Sensor Networks provides a thorough description of the nuts and bolts of wireless sensor networks. The authors give an overview of the state-of-the-art, putting all the individual solutions into perspective with one and other. Numerous practical examples, case studies and illustrations demonstrate the theory, techniques and results presented. The clear chapter structure, listing learning objectives, outline and summarizing key points, help guide the reader expertly through the material. Protocols and Architectures for Wireless Sensor Networks: Covers architecture and communications protocols in detail with practical implementation examples and case studies. Provides an understanding of mutual relationships and dependencies between different protocols and architectural decisions. Offers an in-depth investigation of relevant protocol mechanisms. Shows which protocols are suitable for which tasks within a wireless sensor network and in which circumstances they perform efficiently. Features an extensive website with the bibliography, PowerPoint slides, additional exercises and worked solutions. This text provides academic researchers, graduate students in computer science, computer engineering, and electrical engineering, as well as practitioners in industry and research engineers with an understanding of the specific design challenges and solutions for wireless sensor networks. Check out www.wiley.com/go/wsn for accompanying course material!. "I am deeply impressed by the book of Karl & Willig. It is by far the most complete source for wireless sensor networks. The book covers almost all topics related to sensor networks, gives an amazing number of references, and, thus, is the perfect source for students, teachers, and researchers. Throughout the book the reader will find high quality text, figures, formulas, comparisons etc. - all you need for a sound basis to start sensor network research."
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