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Blockchain (BC) based Vehicular Energy Network (VEN) enables secure and distributed trading between the vehicles. Furthermore, reputation management is a critical requirement for building trust in BC based VENs. However, the existing BC based reputation schemes are vulnerable to replay attacks due to insecure reputation verification. Moreover, a BC based VEN also requires a privacy preserving traceability mechanism to prevent false information dissemination and fraudulent transactions. Furthermore, a VEN also necessitates an efficient storage mechanism to reduce the storage overhead incurred by the BC ledger. To address these issues, this paper presents a BC based secure and efficient reputation management scheme for VENs. The proposed scheme provides a secure vehicles' reputation verification mechanism to prevent the replay attacks. Moreover , the proposed scheme uses Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm based pseudonym mechanism to enable conditional anonymity and vehicles' traceability. Furthermore, the proposed scheme uses InterPlanetary File System to efficiently store the vehicles' reputation information and consequently, reduces the storage overhead. Finally, performance and security analysis is performed to show the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed scheme.
Blockchain enabled Secure and Efficient Reputation
Management for Vehicular Energy Network
Abid Jamal1, Muhammad Usman Gurmani1, Saba Awan1, Maimoona Bint E Sajid1, Sana Amjad1, Nadeem Javaid1,
1Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
Corresponding Author:;
Abstract—Blockchain (BC) based Vehicular Energy Network
(VEN) enables secure and distributed trading between the vehi-
cles. Furthermore, reputation management is a critical require-
ment for building trust in BC based VENs. However, the existing
BC based reputation schemes are vulnerable to replay attacks
due to insecure reputation verification. Moreover, a BC based
VEN also requires a privacy preserving traceability mechanism
to prevent false information dissemination and fraudulent trans-
actions. Furthermore, a VEN also necessitates an efficient storage
mechanism to reduce the storage overhead incurred by the BC
ledger. To address these issues, this paper presents a BC based
secure and efficient reputation management scheme for VENs.
The proposed scheme provides a secure vehicles’ reputation
verification mechanism to prevent the replay attacks. More-
over, the proposed scheme uses Elliptic Curve Digital Signature
Algorithm based pseudonym mechanism to enable conditional
anonymity and vehicles’ traceability. Furthermore, the proposed
scheme uses InterPlanetary File System to efficiently store the
vehicles’ reputation information and consequently, reduces the
storage overhead. Finally, performance and security analysis
is performed to show the effectiveness and practicality of the
proposed scheme.
The number of vehicles in the urban areas is increasing
at a rapid pace. This increase introduces multiple challenges,
including environmental pollution, road jams, traffic accidents,
etc., [1]–[3]. To deal with these issues, Intelligent Transport
System (ITS) is introduced to effectively manage the traffic
conditions in highly populated urban areas.
Vehicular Energy Network (VEN) is one of the prominent
applications of ITS, which has recently gained attention due to
its promising features like energy trading, information sharing,
load balancing, etc., [4]–[6]. Vehicles in a VEN use Dedicated
Short Range Communications (DSRC) protocol to commu-
nicate with the other vehicles to share information, trade
energy and broadcast announcement messages in the network.
However, as the conventional VENs rely on a centralized
server for the network management, it is vulnerable to the
Denial of Service (DOS) attacks and scalability issue. Hence,
several researchers have proposed decentralized solutions for
On the other hand, Blockchain (BC) is a distributed ledger
technology that was introduced by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008
[7]. With the popularity of Bitcoin, different variants of BC
have been introduced. Ethereum is one of the renowned BC
framework [8] that introduces the concept of smart contract
which enables the users to trade assets and share information
without the involvement of a third party.
Due to its prominent features, like transparency, data
integrity, availability, tamper-proof records, etc., the BC
technology can improve the conventional VENs [9]–[13].
In BC based VEN, different set of vulnerabilities related to
privacy and security exist. Due to the open nature of BC, the
malicious vehicles can spread false information and perform
fraudulent transactions in the VEN. Moreover, the existing
BC based VENs lack effective vehicle traceability mechanism
to identify and revoke malicious vehicles. Furthermore, due
to the limited storage of VEN nodes, the current BC based
VENs are prone to data unavailability and they incur high
storage cost.
To overcome these issues, we propose a BC based secure
and efficient reputation management scheme, which prevents
replay attack, enables conditional privacy and efficient data
storage. The following is the list of our contributions.
An effective vehicle reputation verification mechanism is
proposed in which the vehicles’ ratings are stored in the
latest block to prevent the replay attacks.
Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA)
based vehicle authentication mechanism is used to enable
conditional anonymity in VENs.
InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) is used for ensuring
persistent data availability and efficient data storage.
The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In section II, the
related work is presented. A problem statement, formulated
based upon the related work, is presented in section III. In
section IV, the proposed system model is shown. The working
of the proposed scheme is discussed in section V. The Security
analysis is presented in section VI, whereas the results are
shown in section VII. Finally, the conclusion is drawn in
section VIII.
Recently, the researchers have focused on the applications
of ITS for reducing the environmental pollution caused by
the traffic. The conventional centralized vehicular network
architecture fails to aid in these applications due to several
reasons, including scalability issue, increased security risks,
trust management, etc. To overcome these issues, decentralized
solutions are proposed.
A. Reputation
In [14], the authors address the issue of security vul-
nerabilities in smart vehicles. They exploit a permissioned
BC based reputation scheme to prevent false information
dissemination in the network. However, their proposed rep-
utation scheme does not allow the less reputed vehicles to
regain their reputation values. In [15], authors propose One-
Time Password (OTP) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) based
reputation mechanism in vehicular edge computing to enable
secure data sharing. A secure BC based incentive scheme is
proposed in [16] for traffic event validation. In this scheme,
the reputation of vehicles is calculated based on their past
events and consortium BC is utilized for storing the vehicles’
reputation values. The authors in [17] address the issue of
malicious service provision in vehicular cloud network. They
propose a BC based trust management scheme by utilizing
three-valued subjective logic to identify the malicious service
providers. The authors in [18] address the issue of compu-
tationally intensive reputation and consensus mechanism in
vehicular energy network. They propose Proof of Work based
reputation scheme to reduce the mining cost. The authors in
[19] propose a BC based energy and data trading scheme.
Their proposed scheme uses smart contracts to handle trading
disputes and data redundancy.
The authors in [20] propose a BC based scheme to store
and manage the authentication information of the vehicles.
Moreover, they utilize vehicular edge computing to reduce the
computational and storage cost. The authors in [21] address the
issue of false information sharing in the network. They propose
a BC based decentralized trust management system to record
the vehicle reputation based on their network participation rate.
B. Storage
The authors in [22] propose a BC based data storage system
to overcome the overwhelming cost of uploading data on the
BC. They use smart contracts to reduce the size of reuploaded
data and exploit data partitioning mechanism to decrease the
computational overhead. They also adjusted the difficulty of
Proof of Work consensus algorithm to enhance the system
efficiency in terms of data updates. In [23], authors address
the issue of high computational and storage cost in BC based
Internet of Vehicles. They propose a consortium BC enabled
edge computing system to reduce the communication cost and
storage requirement.
C. Security
Due to open nature of the BC based vehicular networks,
it is necessary to detect and revoke the malicious vehicles
from the network. In this regard, the authors in [24] propose
a BC enabled efficient certificate revocation list management
scheme. Their proposed pseudonym shuffling mechanism re-
duces the storage cost of large number of pseudonyms. In
[25], the authors utilize BC based edge computing for efficient
vehicles’ trust data calculation and storage. However, their
proposed scheme is vulnerable to private information leakage
due to transparency feature of BC. In [26], the propose a
BC based distributed authentication scheme. However, their
proposed scheme is susceptible to single point of failure as
the users’ authentication information is stored in a central-
ized cloud server. In [27], the authors propose a distributed
pseudonym identity management mechanism to utilize self-
generated vehicle certificates in BC based vehicular networks.
However, their proposed scheme does not support vehicle
traceability, which can lead to false information dissemination
and fraudulent transactions.
Reputation management is necessary for the vehicular net-
work to verify the trustworthiness of a vehicle before trading or
sharing information. The authors in [28] propose a reputation
scheme in which the vehicles prove their trustworthiness by
sharing the index of transaction, which contains their reputa-
tion value. However, this scheme is inherently vulnerable to
replay attacks as the malicious vehicles can share the index of
an old transaction to appear as reliable entities. Furthermore,
the authors in [29], use One-Time Address (OTA) mechanism
to prevent unique identification of a vehicle. However, due to
the lack of conditional anonymity, the malicious vehicles can-
not be traced or removed from the network. Another common
issue in BC based vehicular networks is the high storage cost
due to the data redundancy and indefinite growth of BC ledger.
To overcome this issue, the authors in [27] store the BC ledger
on pre-selected Roadside Units (RSUs) to save the storage
space. However, in addition to the increased communication
cost, their proposed solution is prone to scalability and data
unavailability issue.
In this paper, we propose a secure and efficient reputation
management scheme for VENs. The proposed model consists
of three phases, as shown in Figure 1. The first phase is
registration phase in which the vehicles are registered with the
Certificate Authority (CA) by sending their identity informa-
tion. The second phase is vehicle trading phase. In this phase,
the secure trading is ensured by verifying the trustworthiness
of the vehicles on the BC. The third phase is the data storage
phase, wherein the RSUs store the users’ reputation data on
IPFS to save their storage. The proposed model depicted in
Figure 1, contains a mapping table of the limitations and their
solutions. The limitations ranging from L1 to L3 are mapped
with the solutions ranging from S1 to S3, respectively.
Req = Sigvi(P_keyvi,RIDvi,ts)
Input: (Sigvi , RIDVi)
Output: PIDVi
Resp = SigCA(PIDvi)Authorized vehicle
joins the network
Limitations Identified
L1: Replay attacks due to
insecure reputation
L2: Lack of traceability
mechanism for malicious
L3: Data unavailability due
to substandard storage
Proposed Solutions
S1: Use of latest blocks for
S2: Conditional anonymity
to enable traceability
S3: Use of IPFS to ensure
data availability
TxReq = SigPRv1(req,ts,PIDv1)
TxRes = SigPRv2(res,ts,PIDv2)
TxReq = SigPRv1(req,ts,PIDv1)
TxRes = SigPRv2(res,ts,PIDv2)
TxReq = SigPRv1(req,ts,PIDv1)
TxRes = SigPRv2(res,ts,PIDv2)
Ledger stored
on RSUs
- Verify Sigvi
- Generate PIDvi
- Store Enc(M(PID-> RID)) 3
V2V trading
Certificate AuthorityCertificate Authority
RoadSide UnitRoadSide Unit
Smart ContractSmart Contract
Registration Trading
Fig. 1. Proposed System Model
A. Entities
The proposed system model contains the following entities.
1) Certificate Authority: The Certificate Authority (CA) is a
central trusted entity, which handles the registration process of
the vehicles and RSUs. In the proposed scheme, the CA stores
an encrypted copy of the mapping between the real ID and the
pseudo-ID of the vehicles to ensure vehicles’ traceability.
2) RoadSide Unit: RSUs perform multiple operations in
the vehicular networks. RSUs aid the vehicles in retrieving
reputation data from BC and the IPFS to ensure secure
transactions between the vehicles. The BC ledger is stored
on the RSUs, which contains all the information about the
reputation of the vehicles and the previous transactions. The
BC ledger stored on all RSUs ensures the data availability.
3) Vehicles: In the proposed system, the vehicles share
announcements with each other and the RSUs about the road
conditions. The vehicles also trade data and energy with each
other to increase their reputation value and earn monetary
4) Blockchain: In the proposed model, the BC is used to
store the reputation data of the vehicles in a distributed manner
to overcome the single point of failure issue. Moreover, it also
provides transparency, integrity and availability of the data.
5) Smart Contract: In the proposed model, vehicles use
smart contracts for requesting the reputation data of their trad-
ing partner from BC before initiating a trade. Moreover, RSUs
use smart contract for storing and updating the reputation data
of the vehicles in the BC.
6) InterPlanetary File System: IPFS is a distributed storage
framework that ensures long term data availability and easy
accessibility. In the proposed framework, the IPFS is used to
store the reputation data of the vehicles. The reputation data
of 100 vehicles is combined to form a single batch. The IPFS
returns a fix sized SHA-256 hash for every batch. This hash
is then stored on the BC to ensure transparency.
In this section, the details of all phases of the proposed
scheme are presented. Some of the notations used in the
scheme are as following. V1and V2represent two vehicles
that perform trading. Whereas, RID and P ID are the real ID
and pseudo ID of the vehicles, respectively.
A. System Initialization
For system’s initialization, an Elliptic curve y2=x3+
ax +b mod p is selected. Here a,bZ
p, and pis large
prime number. gis the generator of the elliptic group. After
that, the CA generates its cryptographic material by selecting
a master private key CAMS K and generating a master public
key CAM P K =CAM SK ×g. CA uses ECDSA for signing
the digital certificates. The signing key and verifying key of
CA are CAsig Key and C AverK ey , respectively.
B. Registration Phase
In this phase, the vehicle V1requests the CA for a
pseudo ID by sending its private information RIDV1=
(N ame, SSN , PlateN umber)over a secure channel. The
CA first verifies the RIDV1by checking the list of existing
users and the blacklist to see if the vehicle is malicious. After
verification, the CA generates a pseudo ID P IDV1for the
vehicle V1. The CA also generates a mapping between RIDV1
and P I DV1and stores it in the encrypted form as which is
described as. Mapping(P I DV1)=EncC AMP K (P I DV1>
RIDV1). This mapping ensures the vehicles’ traceability
while preserving their privacy.
C. Vehicle Trading Phase
After registration, the vehicles become a part of the
network and can trade with other members of the network.
In the trading process, the vehicle V1first sends a trading
request signed with its private key to V2for trading the
data, V11> V2:T xReq =(req, ts, P I DV1, SigV1sigK ey ).
Here req is the requested data, ts is the timestamp, P I D is
pseudo ID and Sig(.)shows that the request is signed. When
the vehicle V2receives the request, it extracts the PI DV1
from the T xReq and sends it to the RSU for checking the
reputation value.
V2> RSU :RepCheckReq =(P IDV1, ts, S igV2sigKey )
RSU > V2:repV alue(V1)
The RSU returns the reputation value by requesting the data
from the BC via smart contract. After receiving the reputation
information of V1, the V2initiates the trade with V1if the
reputation value of V1is above the pre-defined threshold.
D. Data Storage Phase
In this phase, the RSU stores the reputation data of the
vehicles on the IPFS to reduce the storage cost of BC. The
reputation data is divided into the batches of 100 users before
it is uploaded to the IPFS. Each batch is encrypted with the
RSU’s public key RSUpk before it is stored on the IPFS
to prevent malicious data access. The request IP F SReq =
EncRS Upk (ReputationData||ts)is sent to IPFS. In return,
the IPFS sends a fixed length SHA-256 hash to the RSU which
is then stored on the BC ledger.
In this section, we discuss two of the existing BC based
VEN vulnerabilities and their countermeasures.
Fig. 2. Time cost of OTA and ECC
A. Replay Attacks Prevention
When a valid data transmission is maliciously repeated,
it is termed as a replay attack. As discussed in section III,
the vehicles in the BC based vehicular networks prove their
trustworthiness by sharing the index of the transaction, which
contains their reputation value. This approach is vulnerable to
the replay attacks as the vehicles can share older transaction
indexes to appear as more trustworthy. To overcome this issue,
our proposed scheme stores all of the reputation information in
the latest block using IPFS. The users are restricted to only use
the latest block for verifying the trustworthiness of a vehicle.
B. Conditional Privacy Preservation
In the proposed scheme, the pseudonym certificates are used
for hiding the real identity of the vehicles. The real identity
information of the vehicles is stored with the CA so that in case
of disputes or misbehaviour, the true identity of the malicious
vehicles can be exposed. In [29], authors use OTA method to
prevent privacy leakage due to data linkage. However, their
proposed OTA scheme lacks traceability feature, due to the
which the malicious vehicles cannot be identified or removed
from the network.
The proposed scheme is compared with existing solutions
provided in the literature. For the transactions signing, we have
compared the use of OTA scheme with ECDSA. Moreover, we
have compared the use of BC and IPFS for data storage. Also,
we have related response delays of vehicles with the malicious
Figure 2 shows the comparison of different cryptographic
operations OTA scheme, used in [29], with the ECDSA based
pseudonym certificate generation scheme. It can be observed
that the OTA takes significantly longer time to generate keys
due to the use of Kerl hashing algorithms. In OTA scheme,
each address is used only once to prevent the private key leak-
age. However, due to immense computational cost, it cannot
fulfil the requirement of quick authentication of fast-moving
vehicles in the vehicular networks. Hence, we utilize ECDSA
which enables quick authentication and privacy preservation.
The results show the comparison of both schemes in terms
Fig. 3. Storage cost comparison of BC and IPFS
Fig. 4. Malicious vehicle detection using delays in response time
of computational time required for key generation, signature
generation and verification.
Figure 3 shows the comparison of storage cost of storing
reputation data directly on BC and its IPFS hash. It is evident
from the figure 3 that storing the actual data on BC is
a resource intensive task as the same copy of the data is
needed to be stored on every node. Authors in [27] have
stored the BC ledger on selective RSUs to overcome the
overwhelming storage cost; however it introduces the issues
of data unavailability and increased communication cost due
to increased number of data retrieval requests. Hence, to
overcome this issue, we use IPFS to store the actual data and
store only the IPFS hash on the BC. As the IPFS returns a
fixed size SHA-256 hash value for the data irrespective of its
size, hence, it is an efficient approach to store the IPFS hash
of the data on BC instead of storing the actual data.
Figure 4 shows the time delays in the vehicle’s request and
response. In a vehicular network, the vehicle sends requests
to other vehicles for information sharing or energy trading.
The other vehicle has to respond with the correct information
and prove its trustworthiness. The results depict that when a
vehicle share authentic reputation information with its peer, the
response time generally follows a same trend. However, when
a vehicle shares fake reputation information, it takes a longer
than the authentic response like the 7th request in figure 4. The
reason of taking longer time is that, the malicious vehicle will
need to generate fake reputation information before sending
the response. Hence, we have used the delay in response time
to identify the malicious vehicles.
In this paper, we propose a BC based secure and efficient
reputation management scheme to prevent replay attacks,
enable conditional anonymity and reduce the storage cost of
VEN. We have used IPFS to efficiently store the reputation
data of the vehicles in the latest block to enable secure
reputation verification. Moreover, ECDSA is used for enabling
conditional anonymity. The security analysis is performed
to show the robustness of the proposed scheme. Also the
performance analysis shows the practicality of the proposed
scheme. In future, this scheme will be further extended to
include distributed revocation mechanism.
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... This paper is an extension of [19]. Moreover, it is worth mentioning that vehicles and ambulances are used alternatively in the manuscript. ...
Full-text available
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The use of Blockchain technology has recently become widespread. It has emerged as an essential tool in various academic and industrial fields, such as healthcare, transportation, finance, cybersecurity, and supply chain management. It is regarded as a decentralized, trustworthy, secure, transparent, and immutable solution that innovates data sharing and management. This survey aims to provide a systematic review of Blockchain application to intelligent transportation systems in general and the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) in particular. The survey is divided into four main parts. First, the Blockchain technology including its opportunities, relative taxonomies, and applications is introduced; basic cryptography is also discussed. Next, the evolution of Blockchain is presented, starting from the primary phase of pre-Bitcoin (fundamentally characterized by classic cryptography systems), followed by the Blockchain 1.0 phase, (characterized by Bitcoin implementation and common consensus protocols), and finally, the Blockchain 2.0 phase (characterized by the implementation of smart contracts, Ethereum, and Hyperledger). We compared and identified the strengths and limitations of each of these implementations. Then, the state of the art of Blockchain-based IoV solutions (BIoV) is explored by referring to a large and trusted source database from the Scopus data bank. For a well-structured and clear discussion, the reviewed literature is classified according to the research direction and implemented IoV layer. Useful tables, statistics, and analysis are also presented. Finally, the open problems and future directions in BIoV research are summarized.
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The rapid growth and technological progressions in the vehicle edge computing and networks (VECON) enhanced existing vehicular administrations through information sharing and information investigation, which further incremented traffic security difficulties. This carries the need to verify vehicle networks with gigantic information stockpiling substances. Recognizing the vehicles that communicate fashioned messages and ensuring the protection of every vehicle is an essential assignment. Blockchain can be utilized as an effective solution to provide security during vehicle edge computing. Every transaction and data is recorded in the blockchain, which expands the number of blocks after some time. Another test in blockchain methods is utilizing a consensus mechanism, which can be effectively undermined by the attackers. Artificial intelligence (AI) trained by machine learning (ML) algorithms as an amazing paradigm can be incorporated with blockchain to settle these issues. The data storing methods of blockchain can likewise be enhanced with the assistance of ML algorithms. In this paper, a two-tier authenticated consortium blockchain (TTA-CB) protocol is proposed for secure information partaking in Vehicle Edge Computing and Networks (VECONs). Utilizing a one-time password (OTP) based notoriety estimation calculation, the misbehaving vehicles are recognized. The use of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) understands the ideal data provider selection issue utilizing notoriety esteems. Exploratory outcomes demonstrate the importance of the proposed strategy, and the correlation results demonstrate that the proposed technique is unrivaled and secure.
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Blockchain is the consensus-based technology used to resolve conflicts in Byzantine environments. Vehicles validate the messages received from neighboring vehicles using the gradient boosting technique (GBT). Based on the validation results, the message source vehicle generates the ratings that are to be uploaded to roadside units (RSUs), and through that, the trust offset value can be calculated. All RSUs maintain the trust blockchain, and each RSU tries to add their blocks to the trust blockchain. We proposed a blockchain-based trust management model for the vehicular adhoc network (VANET) based on Tendermint. It eliminates the problem of malicious nodes entering the network, and will also overcome the problem of power consumption. Simulation results also show that the proposed system is 7.8% and 15.6% effective and efficient in terms of packet delivery ratio (PDR) and end-to-end delay (EED), respectively, to collect the trusted data between the vehicles.
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The emerging advances in personal devices and privacy concerns have given the rise to the concept of Federated Learning. Federated Learning proves its effectiveness and privacy preservation through collaborative local training and updating a shared machine learning model while protecting the individual data-sets. This article investigates a new type of vehicular network concept, namely a Federated Vehicular Network (FVN), which can be viewed as a robust distributed vehicular network. Compared to traditional vehicular networks, an FVN has centralized components and utilizes both DSRC and mmWave communication to achieve more scalable and stable performance. As a result, FVN can be used to support data-/computation-intensive applications such as distributed machine learning and Federated Learning. The article first outlines the enabling technologies of FVN. Then, we briefly discuss the high-level architecture of FVN and explain why such an architecture is adequate for Federated Learning. In addition, we use auxiliary Blockchain-based systems to facilitate transactions and mitigate malicious behaviors. Next, we discuss in detail one key component of FVN, a federated vehicular cloud (FVC), that is used for sharing data and models in FVN. In particular, we focus on the routing inside FVCs and present our solutions and preliminary evaluation results. Finally, we point out open problems and future research directions of this disruptive technology.
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The efficiency of cooperative communication protocols to increase the reliability and range of transmission for Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is proven, but identity verification and communication security are required to be ensured. Though it is difficult to maintain strong network connections between vehicles because of there high mobility, with the help of cooperative communication, it is possible to increase the communication efficiency, minimise delay, packet loss, and Packet Dropping Rate (PDR). However, cooperating with unknown or unauthorized vehicles could result in information theft, privacy leakage, vulnerable to different security attacks, etc. In this paper, a blockchain based secure and privacy preserving authentication protocol is proposed for the Internet of Vehicles (IoV). Blockchain is utilized to store and manage the authentication information in a distributed and decentralized environment and developed on the Ethereum platform that uses a digital signature algorithm to ensure confidentiality, non-repudiation, integrity, and preserving the privacy of the IoVs. For optimized communication, transmitted services are categorized into emergency and optional services. Similarly, to optimize the performance of the authentication process, IoVs are categorized as emergency and general IoVs. The proposed cooperative protocol is validated by numerical analyses which show that the protocol successfully increases the system throughput and decreases PDR and delay. On the other hand, the authentication protocol requires minimum storage as well as generates low computational overhead that is suitable for the IoVs with limited computer resources.
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The conventional architecture of vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) with a centralized approach has difficulty overcoming the increasing complexity of intelligent transportation system (ITS) applications as well as challenges in providing large amounts of data storage, trust management, and information security. Therefore, vehicular edge computing networks (VECNets) have emerged to provide massive storage resources with powerful computing on network edges. However, a centralized server in VECNets is insufficient due to potential data leakage and security risks as it can still allow a single point of failure (SPoF). We propose consortium blockchain and smart contracts to ensure a trustworthy environment for secure data storage and sharing in the system to address these challenges. Practical byzantine fault tolerance (PBFT) is utilized because it is suitable for consortium blockchain to audit publicly, store data sharing, and records the whole consensus process. It can defend against system failures with or without symptoms to reach an agreement among consensus participants. Furthermore, we use an incentive mechanism to motivate the vehicle to contribute and honestly share their data. The simulation results satisfy the proposed model’s design goals by increasing vehicular networks’ performance in general.
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The drastic increase in real-time vehicle generated data of various types has imparted a great concept of data trading in vehicular networks. Whereas immense usage of Electric Vehicles (EVs) as mobile energy carriers have supported distributed energy trading due to their bidirectional charging and discharging capabilities. The trustless environment of Internet of Electric Vehicles (IoEV), including fuel vehicles and EVs, encounters trading disputes and conflicting interests among trading parties. To address these challenges, we exploit consortium blockchain to maintain transparency and trust in trading activities. Smart contracts are used to tackle trading disputes and illegal actions. Data duplication problem occurs when a dishonest user sell previously traded data multiple times for financial gain. Therefore, data duplication validation is done through previously stored hash-list at roadside units (RSUs) employed with bloom filters for efficient data lookup. Removing data duplication at an earlier stage reduces storage cost. Moreover, an elliptic curve bilinear pairing based digital signature scheme is used to ensure the reliability and integrity of traded data. To ensure persistent availability of traded data, InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) is used, which provides fault-tolerant and a reliable data storage without any single point of failure. On the other hand, the energy trading transactions among EVs face some security and privacy protection challenges. An adversary can infer the energy trading records of EVs, and launch the data linkage attacks. To address this issue, an account generation technique is used that hides the energy trading trends. The new account generation for an EV depends upon its traded volume of energy. The experimental results verify the efficiency of the proposed data and energy trading scheme in IoEV with the reliable and secure data storage.
With the development of autonomous driving and the Internet of Vehicles, vehicle data communication and data security become more and more important. Blockchain which has transparency, decentralization and immutability nature is treated as a promising approach to support intelligent vehicle systems. However, due to the high data update overhead, vulnerable raw data storage policy and inflexible consensus algorithm, traditional blockchain technologies are not suitable in modern vehicular systems. Hence, we propose BUS, a blockchain data storage system that supports incremental data updating. Specifically, the system reduces the re-uploaded data size through smart contract and data partition to decrease the overhead. Besides, data replica and multi-data source addressing of index on the chain enhance the data reliability. In addition, an adaptive proof-of-work algorithm is developed, whose execution cost is dynamically adjusted based on nodes' behavior. It greatly improves the data record and updating efficiency. Comprehensive experimental results show that BUS can effectively improve the data updating efficiency with low overhead and fewer resources in intelligent vehicle scenarios.
With the emergence of computation intensive vehicular applications, computation offloading based on mobile edge computing (MEC) has become a promising paradigm in resource constrained vehicular cloud networks (VCNs). However, when doing computation offloading in a VCN, malicious service providers can cause serious security concerns on the content offloading. To address that, in this paper a blockchain based secure computation offloading scheduling scheme is proposed. It embraces the blockchain based trust management paradigm and smart contract enabled Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) algorithm. As for the trust management, the long-term reputation and short-term trust variability are jointly considered. Specifically, a novel three-valued subjective logic (3VSL) scheme is adopted to obtain a more comprehensive reputation, and the statistics of behavioral transitions can provide a short-term trust variability to timely capture the malicious behaviors. In addition, to securely update, validate, and store the trust information, we propose a hierarchical blockchain framework that comprises vehicular blockchain, RSU blockchain, and cloud blockchain. Furthermore, a smart contract enabled DRL algorithm is proposed to implement the secure and intelligent computation offloading scheduling in a VCN. Simulations are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Along with the development of Internet of Things (IoT) technology and Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs), security and effectiveness of road utilization have also been greatly improved. Currently, many certificateless signature schemes have been proposed to improve the communication speed while protecting the communication contents and real identities of the vehicles. Among others, some schemes realize batch verification or aggregation of multiple signatures. However, they either incur high calculation costs or cannot execute the operation of batch verification successfully. In this paper, we propose an efficient and privacy-preserving certificateless public key signature scheme based on the blockchain. Firstly, our scheme provides support for batch verification and aggregation of the signatures, and has lower calculation cost compared with the previous ones. Secondly, our scheme adds two blockchains to the structure in order to protect the identity privacy of the vehicles. Utilizing the immutability and openness of the blockchain, all nodes in VANETs can verify whether the identity of the vehicle is legal. Therefore, the scheme can greatly reduce the risk of privacy disclosure, and the pseudo-identities can be generated by the vehicles themselves. Thirdly, our scheme can realize traceability of the vehicles, which means the real identities of the vehicles can be revealed if they commit an illegal behavior. The experimental results show that our scheme can greatly reduce the computational cost of the vehicles and provide the functions of batch verification and aggregation. Therefore, the proposed scheme can simultaneously improve security and efficiency of the signature schemes for VANETs.