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The aim of the paper is to identify the dimensions of the Internal Marketing that contributes to business resilience and social inclusion. Marketing is approached as a tool for social transformation. The documentary and data analysis focused on the relevant theoretical and practical models proposed in the last decades. It concludes with the proposal of four dimensions of internal marketing that stimulate business resilience and social inclusion wich are: 1) the attraction and development of talent through the competitiveness of the workplace; 2) organizational change; 3) leadership development and empowerment; and 4) communication for the exchange of knowledge and motivation.
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Year 22, n. 43, January-June, 2021
Mercados y Negocios por Departamento de Mercadotecnia y Negocios In ternacionales. Universidad de Guadalajara se distribuye bajo una Licencia Creative Commons Atribución-
NoComercial 4.0 Internacional. Basada en una obra en
Business Resilience and Social Inclusion: A Critical Reflection
on Internal Marketing
Resiliencia en los negocios e inclusion social: Reflexión crítica sobre el
Marketing Interno
Francia Contreras García
Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios
Superiores de Monterrey (Mexico)
Tania Elena González Alvarado
Universidad de Guadalajara (Mexico)
Received: November 23, 2020
Accepted: December 29, 2020
The aim of the paper is to identify the dimensions of the Internal Marketing that contributes
to business resilience and social inclusion. Marketing is approached as a tool for social
transformation. The documentary and data analysis focused on the relevant theoretical and
practical models proposed in the last decades. It concludes with the proposal of four
dimensions of internal marketing that stimulate business resilience and social inclusion wich
are: 1) the attraction and development of talent through the competitiveness of the workplace;
2) organizational change; 3) leadership development and empowerment; and 4)
communication for the exchange of knowledge and motivation.
Keywords: Sustainable development goals, Internal marketing, resilience, social inclusion
JEL CODE: M31, M51, O15
Business Resilience and Social Inclusion: A Critical Reflection on Internal Marketing
MERCADOS y Negocios
El objetivo del artículo es identificar las dimensiones del marketing interno que contribuyen
a la resiliencia empresarial y a la inclusión social. El análisis documental y de datos se centró
en los modelos teóricos y prácticos propuestos en los últimos cuarenta años. Se concluye con
cuatro dimensiones del marketing interno que favorecen a la resiliencia empresarial y a la
inclusión social: El objetivo del artículo fue identificar las dimensiones del marketing interno
que contribuyen a la resiliencia empresarial y a la inclusión social. Se abordó al Marketing
como una herramienta para la transformación social. El análisis documental y de datos se
centró en los modelos teóricos y prácticos propuestos en los últimos cuarenta años. Se
concluyó con cuatro dimensiones del marketing interno que favorecen a la resiliencia
empresarial y a la inclusión social: 1) atracción y desarrollo de talento; 2) cambio
organizacional; 3) Lideraqzgo y empoderamiento; 4) comunicación para la creación del
conocimiento y la motivación..
Palabras clave: Objetivos del desarrollo sostenible, Marketing interno, resiliencia, inclusión
JEL CODE: M31, M51, O15
Contreras, F.; González, T.
Year 22, N. 43, January-June 2021:77-96
The aim of the paper is to identify the dimensions of the Internal Marketing that contributes
to business resilience
and social inclusion
. Marketing was approached as a tool for social
transformation. There is also Internal Marketing for companies in the industrial sector. It is
possible that its application will gradually reverse the inertia of the maquila, from hiring of
cheap labor, and move towards production activities with a greater contribution to the well-
being of the employees.
In order to support this, the writing is divided into five sections. The first is this introduction.
The second presents the theoretical and contextual framework on business tools aimed at
increasing productivity through the internal promotion of the company's image: Internal
Marketing. This second section was built with the idea that the technique has led the tool to
yield results that are far from the well-being of the employee, also affecting the resilience of
the company. The third section is the methodology. The fourth one exposes Internal
Marketing as transformation tool taking on consideration "the constant" as the "change is
the only constant"; Three models are presented for Internal Marketing with their business
resilience indicators; as well as the relationship between the descriptive-explanatory model
and the prescriptive model in companies. All this in order to establish which dimensions
contribute to both business resilience and social inclusion (Sabatino, 2016; Sheffi, 2005; Starr
et al. 2003). Based on the latter, the conclusions presented in the fifth and last part of the
work are derived.
Some research indicates that the reconciliation between the interests of the employee with
the needs and expectations of the client increased the productivity, commitment and well-
being of the employee (Cali et al. 2018; Gil and Ospina, 2018; Perilla and Gómez, 2017;
González, 2017; Rodríguez and Suárez, 2016; Barth and Negri, 2015; Guzmán, 2013;
González and Hernández, 2012; Cequea et al. 2011; Sinn, 2008; Gracia et al. 2006;
Hernández et al. 2003; Rodríguez and Sanz, 2011; Berry, 1981). There was even a decrease
in work stress (Goodman, 2014; Garrosa and Carmona, 2011). However, the models applied
to achieve this conciliation in recent decades have focused only on productivity at the
The quality of being able to return quickly to a previous good condition after problems (Cambridge
University, 2020).
The idea that everyone should be able to use the same social facilities, take part in the same activities, and
enjoy the same experiences, including people who have a disability or other disadvantage (Cambridge
University, 2020).
Business Resilience and Social Inclusion: A Critical Reflection on Internal Marketing
MERCADOS y Negocios
expense of employee well-being (Drucker, 1999). The decrease in production costs has led
to a drop-in wages and job insecurity (Borderías and Martini, 2020) worldwide. This situation
makes it possible to declare that the technique of senior management has led the tool to offer
results that are far from the well-being of the employee, also affecting the resilience of the
organization in times of greater change in the environment.
Business tools aimed at increasing productivity based on cost reduction need to be modified
in the face of global changes. No matter how competitive and old companies are, they all
face uncertain scenarios, the main characteristics of which are usually: climate change,
migratory flows and new poverty profiles (Rangel and Campos, 2018; Marí-Klose Pau and
Marí-Klose Marga, 2017; Stefoni et al. 2017, Salgado, 2015; Climent, 2015; Villaseca and
Padópulos, 2011, Medialdea and Álvarez, 2005).
Climate change is not the only cause of migratory flows; but it is a factor that has intensified
them; in turn, high-income countries and large cities have not had the capacity to absorb these
flows, encouraging the existence of new poverty profiles (Martín and González, 2016).
On the one hand, the logic driven by a greater reduction in production costs through labor
flexibility and outsourcing (Hernández, 2016; Vélez and Granda, 2016; Vesga, 2011;
Sánchez, 2010; Gallego and Vargas, 2006) has contributed to the erosion of the world
economic system, which no longer guarantees the long-term sustainability of global
businesses (Martín and González, 2016).
On the other hand, the Sustainable Development Goals (UNDP, 2020) consider social
inclusion and an increase in the employee's welfare as means for greater sustainability. One
of the 17 goals of sustainable development is to achieve full, productive and decent
employment for all. In the capitalist system, work is one of the main mechanisms for social
inclusion (Sisto, 2009). If this is analyzed superficially, it seems ambitious, contradictory and
little complementary to the current logic of large companies and the prevailing modes of
production. However, if it is considered that business tools are dynamic and that it is the
vision of decision makers that determines them, then this development objective does not
seem so contradictory and much easier to achieve, benefiting in parallel the company and the
employee. The basis of this rests on the reorientation and adaptation of the tools towards the
new scenarios. In this way, Internal Marketing is an example in the reorientation of its tools
towards the construction of a more sustainable economic system (Kortam and Mahrous,
2020), increasing productivity and reducing costs, without detriment to the employee's
welfare, and even, building more resilient organizations in the face of adverse scenarios
(González and Martín, 2013).
Contreras, F.; González, T.
Year 22, N. 43, January-June 2021:77-96
Given the current challenges and the search for the creation of more inclusive jobs, which
guarantee the employee's welfare; but, at the same time make the company more resilient, is
the Internal Marketing is considered as a theoretical model that in practice offers especially
appropriate tools (figure 1).
Figure 1. Contribution of internal marketing to business resilience
Source: own elaboration.
Figure 2. Business dilution between three markets through internal Marketing
Source: own elaboration.
Internal Marketing is (1) satisfaction and motivation of the employee to (2) focus on the
customer and their satisfaction, by (3) coordination and functional inter (4) integration with
a market approach and (5) implementation of corporate strategies and / or specific actions
(Rafiq and Ahmed, 2000; Foreman and Money, 1995). Under this perspective, job
satisfaction is granted through customer satisfaction (Lings, 2004). It is a more humanistic
vision of the results of the company because it includes the different perceptions of the
employees and the multiple realities that coexist in their work area. By operating as an
internal market, the company is diluted between the labor and goods and services markets,
Increase in
job well-
Internal market (internal
customer satisfaction)
Market for goods and
services (external
Labor market (talent
Business Resilience and Social Inclusion: A Critical Reflection on Internal Marketing
MERCADOS y Negocios
being more consistent in its actions and adapting to changes faster. Diluting between the two
markets does not mean disappearing, it means acting with the same logic and speed,
becoming more resilient (figure 2). Both marketing strategies (internal and external) are
aligned (Lings and Greenley, 2005), the capabilities of the company are dynamic, and the
market responds more quickly (Gounaris, 2006).
This vision of Internal Marketing is congruent with the vision of a XXI century work
flexibility, with greater benefits for the employee. The current company is a Collage in
continuous assembly and disarmament (Sisto, 2009). In this Collage, the employee is more
than a piece of assembly under unstable joints in which he is expected to remain long-term,
grow professionally and develop his talents. The employee is the human part that articulates
and gives meaning to the other elements of the Collage. The vision of the three markets
provides speed and consistency between the internal elements of the company and those
external to it, increases its capacity to respond to changes and even makes it an agent of
It is possible that this dynamic and uncertain vision also facilitates a greater understanding
of productivity, and allows the rediscovery of why one employee is more productive than
another under the same conditions; Or, what causes an employee to be more productive in
different periods or circumstances, and even in adverse circumstances. Internal Marketing
identifies the differences between what the employer perceives about the image of the
employee by the company, and the true perception of the employee on itself and for the
company, thereby achieving the reinvention of their work, the working environment and
employer-employee-client relationships.
An approach has been made to the phenomenon has been made through the compilation and
documentary analysis of the last forty years (books, magazines, videos, blogs, among others)
on the actions of companies worldwide to create a better work environment through the
approach "the employee is the client". Based on this, three models were identified. Two of
them are descriptive-explanatory and one is prescriptive. These models were analyzed and
compared according to their dimensions and to the theoretical basis. This analysis had as a
second claim the increase in the employee's welfare in the face of climate change, the new
poverty profiles and migratory flows, resulting in greater business resilience.
The preliminary results were exposed to the debate of the scientific and academic community
through participation in multidisciplinary conferences, seminars and congresses. In the same
Contreras, F.; González, T.
Year 22, N. 43, January-June 2021:77-96
way, triangulation between experts has been a necessary and essential measure, in order to
achieve consistency and greater objectivity in what is collected and analyzed.
Before the free trade, it was considered that the formal structures of the company were
designed to achieve the main activities and enabled to capitalize on human potential (Argyris,
1993), under a planned environment and with little possibility of facing to international
competition. The prevailing theoretical thinking in business aspects attributed minimal
importance to tackle climate change, the new poverty profiles and migratory flows. The
companies had rigid structures and with many hierarchical levels. The procedure manual was
highly indispensable and was based on rigid rules and policies to which the employee had to
quickly adapt without question.
Figure 3. Transformation of thinking based on internal marketing
Source: own elaboration.
The transition from a closed economy to an open one, implying the confrontation with
international changes, led theorists to consider companies as open sociocultural systems and,
as such, inclusive of ideological elements, collective schemes of meanings, values,
The constant
1976. Customer service
Focused on the goods and services market
The company is a supplier in the market
The only thing that is constant is change
2030. Social inclusion through job placement
Focused on the labor market
The company is an internal market with suppliers and
demanders within it
Business Resilience and Social Inclusion: A Critical Reflection on Internal Marketing
MERCADOS y Negocios
knowledge and beliefs, forming an integrated whole with more dynamic structures, emerging
strategies, policies and processes of the organization in constant change (Crosby, 2002).
Internal Marketing was part of the transformation from "the constant" to "change as the only
constant" (figure 3).
According to the literature review, the first reference to appears in 1976 Internal Marketing.
Almost twenty-five years before the world committed to the Millennium Goals, and nearly
forty years before the Sustainable Development Goals. Berry et al. (1976) raised the
importance of Internal Marketing in customer service, while Flipo (1986) censured marketing
without employee involvement and Grönroos (1990) linked marketing service with
satisfaction. Although it was Collins and Payne (1991) who found the importance of the
employee in the achievement of the company's objectives, through strategies marketing.
The link between Internal Marketing and quality in customer service was clearly explained.
However, its application was not extended to other functions within the company, nor did it
involve companies that were not typical of the service sector. The bet was towards the
employee who dealt directly with the customer. Piercy and Morgan (1991), almost at the
same time as Collins and Payne (1991), related the motivation of the employee with the costs
of the company. Finally, Berry and Parasuraman (1991) proposed to practice first Internal
Marketing, before external one.
Internal Marketing involved the treatment of employees and customers to increase corporate
effectiveness, improving internal relations (Helman and Payne, 1992). Wright et al. (1994)
showed that Internal Marketing contributes to the adaptation of the company to new market
environments. Caruana and Calleya (1998), emphasized the relationship with organizational
While Ahmed et al. (2003), added the sense of belonging, motivation, communication and
empowerment. Bak et al. (1995) explained that Internal Marketing achieves more effective
and participatory employees, directing their participation towards learning environments.
That is why Cahill (2017; 1995), demonstrated the relationship between Internal Marketing
and organizational learning. The studies presented by these researchers are from the last
decade of the last century, which was an important moment in the process of globalization
and trade opening in different parts of the world.
Organizational learning is key to resilience in organizations. A learning organization is easily
adaptable to external changes, stimulating the achievement of organizational objectives. It is
possible that a company with Internal Marketing is a learning organization and, therefore, it
is more resilient. Therefore, it is not surprising that Barney and Wright (1998) demonstrated
the positive impact of internal Marketing on the competitiveness of the company and its
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Year 22, N. 43, January-June 2021:77-96
organizational performance. As it was demonstrated, companies globally were facing major
changes in the face of liberalization, deregulation and decentralization. There were rapid
changes in the international environment.
The entrepreneur at that time (last five years of the last century), had been subject to new
challenges. He faced international competition without leaving home because this
competition was installed in his locality. He also faced new financial challenges, one of them
arose from a system of exchange parity not controlled by the government, another challenge
had to do with the new financing schemes. These challenges indicated the transformation of
his town on a more international stage. In that same five years, labor flexibility had knocked
on the door in the world economic system and it had been opened wide. Which is why Internal
Marketing took on a new justification. Hogg et al. (1998) concluded that the employee had
an impact on the perception of clients towards the company, and that this was directly related
to performance and values, among other factors.
The business tools that revolved around Internal Marketing had become, by that time, in
allies of companies that increased productivity hand in hand with the fall in wages worldwide,
the weakening of pension systems, as well as the stiff competition that middle and senior
management employees were subjected to. Climate change and migratory flows were not
considered. New poverty profiles emerged in the most prosperous cities and rich countries.
Companies focused on the accounting benefits of labor flexibility and sought strategies to
reduce costs, not to adapt to changes in the environment.
All talent retention strategy was practically unrelated to salary and job stability. Short-term
employee commitment was obtained without genuine commitment from the company. In this
scenario, Chew (2004) related business performance to employee retention; linked the
capacity for innovation and business development with the knowledge and skills of
However, Internal Marketing is based on models that aim at internal customer satisfaction,
based on participatory management processes (Bohnenberger, 2005), interfunctional
coordination, integration and empowerment (Rafiq and Ahmed, 2000). All of this requires
motivation, training, recognition and empowerment (Bansal et al. 2001).
For the present study, an analysis of three models with the highest incidence in business
practice in recent years was run (table 1). They present a long-term vision of the employer-
employee relationship, fostering permanent reciprocity and loyalty between the company and
its employees.
Business Resilience and Social Inclusion: A Critical Reflection on Internal Marketing
MERCADOS y Negocios
In the first model (Berry and Parasuranam, 1991) the best employees are recognized, attracted
and retained. The second model (Ahmed et al. 2003) emphasizes motivation and
empowerment, reinforcing the combination between personnel management and marketing.
The third model (GPTW, 2019) focuses entirely on business practice and with the nuances
of a multidimensional reality.
Table 1. Orientation of internal marketing models and their indicators for business resilience
Berry & Parasuranam
Oriented to customer
Ahmed, Rafiq & Saad (2003)
Oriented to business
Great Place To Work (2019) &
Levering (1995)
Oriented to the employee's welfare
Talent attraction
Management empowerment
and psychological
Trust and commitment
Assertive communication
Middle management
Continuous training
Strategies for performance
Credibility and loyalty towards
the company
Integration of high-
performance teams
Impartiality and social inclusion
Freedom for work
Incentive system and
adaptation in processes
Sense of belonging (pride)
Recognition for results
Inter-functional coordination
and integration through
Fellowship and collaboration
Training and development of
individual skills
Source: own elaboration based on the authors’ proposal.
Figure 4, on its left side, showing the elements of the descriptive explanatory model built
based on two main theoretical models (Berry and Parasuranam, 1991; Ahmed et al 2003)
shown in Table 1. The right side of Figure I shows the prescriptive model generated by Great
Place to Work (GPTW, 2019), which is supported by a group of companies (45 countries on
6 continents) at the global level. They work with an anonymous survey, with 51 items, to
which the employee (around 10 million worldwide) answers, detailing how they feel and
what they think about the company and their workspace (GPTW, 2019).
Great Place to Work (GPTW, 2019) is a model of Internal Marketing that provides feedback
to the company regarding the internal work environment and the external labor market.
Companies look beyond productivity and profitability; they seek a distinction from the
The feedback and the distinction Great Place to Work contribute to the company operations
in congruence with the three markets: internal, labor and goods and services. The main
elements considered by this prescriptive model are comparative measurement and analysis
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Year 22, N. 43, January-June 2021:77-96
of workplace competitiveness; Intellectual Capital for Leadership Development and Human
Capital Best Practices and Knowledge Sharing (GPTW, 2019). In the business environment
there is a lot of optimism and credibility towards this model.
Figure 4. Internal Marketing orientation towards business resilience
Source: own elaboration.
In this way, those who make decisions based on their beliefs lead the practice to transform
the business reality, in turn, the new business reality transforms the theory (explanation of
reality). The Great Place to Work model is an essential link between practical reality and
theory of Internal Marketing (GPTW, 2019; Dabirian et al. 2017; Bakker, 2010; Fulmer et
al. 2003; Levering, 1995).
Great Place to Work strengthens the phenomenon (Internal Marketing) and gives it
continuity in such a way that practices Internal Marketing originally focused on the service
sector have transferred to industrial sector, with more and more companies in the industrial
sector interested in obtaining the distinction and in carrying out the necessary practices to
improve employee welfare.
In the Great Place to Work model, the main characteristic in determining a great workplace
is the level of trust between management and employees, not specific policies or practices.
Business Resilience and Social Inclusion: A Critical Reflection on Internal Marketing
MERCADOS y Negocios
The benefits represent a modern and more ambitious version of Elton Mayo's (1972)
approach. Mayo (1972) focused on individual job satisfaction without addressing the most
basic issues necessary to create a high level of trust.
Great Place to Work is based on communication (two-way dialogue), the strengthening of
work skills and integrity, essential for trust in the workplace (Levering and Moskowitz,
1993). This model confirms that Internal Marketing has been altered by social changes and
company management. The importance of Internal Marketing is undoubted, and it is possible
that companies allocate a larger budget to strengthening it (table 2).
Table 2. Contribution of dimensions Internal Marketing to business resilience and social
inclusion (Sustainable Development Goals)
Internal marketing dimension
Attracting and developing talent
through workplace
competitiveness (GPTW, 2019;
Barney and Wright, 1998;
Levering, 1995; Berry and
Parasuraman, 1991)
Builds elements that attract the best,
develop individual skills that add to the
capabilities of the company and to the
performance of the business.
It encourages social
inclusion, because it
focuses on talent and not
on the individual's social
and economic
Organizational change (Ahmed et
al. 2003; Barney and Wright,
1998; Levering, 1995)
Dynamic business processes in constant
modification through self-assessment and
Increases the level of
response of the company
towards changes in the
labor market as well as
goods and services,
fosters resilience.
Leadership and empowerment
development (GPTW, 2019;
Ahmed et al. 2003; Barney and
Wright, 1998; Levering, 1995;
Berry and Parasuraman, 1991)
Construction of high-performance teams,
improvements in the work environment,
appropriation of knowledge and support
from senior management to act on the
basis of such ownership.
It promotes the learning
environment in the
company. It turns learning
environments into the best
allies for organizational
adaptation to new
Communication for the exchange
of knowledge and motivation
(GPTW, 2019; Ahmed et al. 2003;
Barney and Wright, 1998;
Levering, 1995; Berry and
Parasuraman, 1991)
Clear and accessible communication,
contributing to integration and the
generation of competences . Employees
trust the people they work for, take pride
in what they do, and enjoy who they work
with. They are motivated for continuous
It encourages social
inclusion and the creation
of new jobs, while
increasing productivity,
innovation and
continuous learning.
Source: Own elaboration.
Contreras, F.; González, T.
Year 22, N. 43, January-June 2021:77-96
Internal Marketing is a social process. People become relevant as their ability to generate
value in the company begins to be recognized, through increased productivity, improvements
in customer service and impact on the economic results of the company (Winston and Cahill,
2012; Pfeffer, 1998). Internal Marketing contributes to the dynamic capabilities and
value(Berry and Parasuraman, 1991; Rafiq and Ahmed, 2000; Lings, 2002). It also
contributes to the financial performance of the company (GPTW, 2019; Fu et al. 2018;
Salehzadeh et al. 2017; Išoraitė, 2017)
However, its contribution to business resilience and social inclusion is more important (table
2) under the new scenarios. Of course, the impact of Internal Marketing on business
resilience and social inclusion depends a lot on the long-term vision of senior management.
The dimensions that contribute to resilience and social inclusion require a strategic vision
that is not static, not short-term, and much less linear.
As analyzed in this work, a limitation for obtaining better results in business practice, in the
face of current challenges, is the existence of tools that are conceived by those who occupy
positions in senior and middle management, which tend to be static and isolated. A static,
short-term and linear view is dangerous because it leads to poor results, even when the best
tools are avilable. A large part of these arose in the middle of the last century, in a
protectionist environment and planned economies. Faced with a change in circumstances,
decision makers have to modify their vision: from short term to long term, from planned to
emergent, from linear to multidimensional. This work considered that, in most cases, the
technique (the way something is done or applied) limits the results before the tool itself.
Internal Marketing is key to business resilience to climate change, new poverty profiles and
migration flows at the time that reconciles the welfare of employee, his labor productivity
with social inclusion. This requires making long-term decisions and analysis. It requires
transforming the vision from the short term into the long term so that it can take effect.
The maximum use depends on the vision of senior management regarding changes in the
environment. Once the company acts in congruence with the three markets: internal, labor
and of goods and services, it is possible that it will achieve better results in terms of customer
satisfaction, business performance and the employee's welfare.
It is concluded that the dimensions of internal marketing that contribute to business resilience
and social inclusion are the following: 1) the attraction and development of talent through
Business Resilience and Social Inclusion: A Critical Reflection on Internal Marketing
MERCADOS y Negocios
the competitiveness of the workplace; 2) organizational change; 3) leadership development
and empowerment; and 4) communication for the exchange of knowledge and motivation.
This conclusion is based in the analysis of data from Great Place to Work and the
documentary analysis of the theories that support Internal Marketing model, recognizing the
need to delve even deeper into more specific realities. It would imply new lines of
investigation, which require direct investigation to gather evidence about what happens
within companies that apply any of the three models identified in the work.
The new reality that the business sector and the labor market have entered also leads to the
opportunities of comparative studies between before and after the pandemic modifications of
modus operandi in what respects the Internal Marketing and employment commitment. As
well as its possible contribution or not contribution to the resilience of the company in times
of pandemic.
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The article is from the doctoral thesis corresponding to the Doctorate Program in
Administration Sciences, included in the National Register of Quality Postgraduate Programs
(Padrón Nacional de Posgrados de Calidad in Spanish), Conacyt, Mexico and Francia
Contreras has a Conacyt Scholarship.
... Resilience depends on the ability to reinvent business models and strategies as circumstances change constantly (Demmer, Vickery, & Calantone, 2011;Contreras & Alvarado, 2021). Best practices are insufficient when changes in the global environment are radical and surprising (Hamel & Valikangas, 2003). ...
... Resilient companies can absorb change and disruption, both internal and external, without affecting their profitability (Swaminathan, 2022). They even gain extra benefits from adverse and unforeseen circumstances (Contreras & Alvarado, 2021). ...
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The study aims to analyze the resilience of corporate tourism in the last three years. Interviews were conducted with industry professionals, and a questionnaire was applied to corporate clients. The results show that adaptation was achieved through short-term planning, bleisure tourism, digitalization, and sustainability. The main conclusion is that resilient companies have changed their line of business, accepted to operate in the short term, and offered more flexibility in pricing.
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O ambiente interno de uma organização é um tema presente e fundamental para as empresas que buscam permanecer com êxito no mercado atual. Ao longo das literaturas, observa-se a importância de trabalhar o ambiente interno, buscando cada vez mais, a satisfação dos públicos internos da organização. Essa percepção remete ao Marketing Interno, assunto que, com frequência, tem sido objeto de estudos, apesar de ser considerada, ainda, uma área nova. Sendo assim, o presente trabalho aborda conceitos e definições sobre o Marketing Interno, com a finalidade de compreender o processo alicerçando-se nas teorias pesquisadas. Para isso, o estudo foi fundamentado a partir de diversos autores, como Bekin (2004), Kotler e Keller (2006) e Brum (2010). Ao fim do estudo, contata-se que o Marketing Interno e suas ações são extremamente importantes nas organizações, trazendo benefícios mutuamente satisfatórios tanto para funcionários, como para a própria empresa. Salienta-se, também, a importância da permanente atenção no que se refere às ações de Marketing Interno, visando melhores práticas de administração. Dessa maneira, busca-se um vínculo ainda maior entre empresa e funcionário e, por consequência, o sucesso e o êxito de todos os envolvidos no processo.
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This paper aims to demonstrate that while marketing and sustainability might seem to be as different as "A Polar Bear and A Bengal Tiger", there is growing evidence that the two disciplines have something to offer each other and the universe. With a view toward gaining this synergy, this research proposes that a lasting sustainability marketing as an academic discipline and managerial practice must aim deliberately and thoroughly to reassure itself as an outstanding potential for a marketing revolution and distance itself away from the danger of ending up as a quick-shot research fad. Conclusively, a sustainability marketing revolution can be sparkled and kept alive and a sustainability marketing research fad can be avoided and reversed through a number of highly recommended visible venues of marketing research and managerial pursuits.
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Objetivo: El artículo tiene como objetivo analizar el endomarketing desde el paradigma de la sostenibilidad, mediante la elaboración de una revisión de la literatura. La relevancia que evidencia la variable como tópico de investigación de la disciplina del mercadeo en la actualidad y la necesidad de apuntar a la sostenibilidad organizacional para poder participar activa y responsablemente en el mercado, justifica la pertinencia del estudio. Método: Dentro de este marco, la investigación se presenta con un diseño cualitativo e interpretativo, de tipo documental, el cual determinó el procedimiento de selección, acceso y registro de la muestra documental, empleándose la técnica del análisis de contenido para la interpretación de los datos, privilegiando como fuente de información artículos indexados en la base de datos SCOPUS, Google Académico y Dialnet [226 artículos]. Resultados y discusión: Los resultados sugieren que el endomarketing toma relevancia en la literatura científica desde el ámbito empresarial debido a sus aportes sobre la productividad, especialmente asociado al desarrollo y motivación de los colaboradores, vinculando así el paradigma de la sostenibilidad, desde su dimensión social que persigue de la misma forma el bienestar y satisfacción del personal como respuesta a la responsabilidad de las organizaciones con sus grupos de interés. Conclusiones: En cuanto al objetivo del estudio se concluye que la implementación del endomarketing en las organizaciones contribuye al logro de los objetivos corporativos a través de la motivación del cliente interno, y al mismo tiempo, permite cubrir el compromiso social de las empresas con los trabajadores, en respuesta al enfoque de sostenibilidad que ha sido adoptado con mayor frecuencia en la actualidad.
Conference Paper
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El futuro del empleo continúa hoy siendo uno de los asuntos más controvertidos e importantes para nuestra sociedad. La emergencia de las tecnologías exponenciales del mundo digital –la hiperconectividad mediante dispositivos móviles inteligentes, el Internet de las cosas, el big data, la inteligencia artificial, los robots, el aprendizaje de las máquinas- van a alterar muy profundamente todos los ámbitos de la vida social, y entre ellos el empleo. En cualquier debate ambicioso sobre el futuro del empleo, cuatro cuestiones emergen entre otras muchas. Primera, ¿cuál será el impacto de la automatización en el volumen de empleo? Segunda, ¿cómo cambiarán los modelos, estructuras y tipos de trabajo que realizaremos los humanos en esta nueva era de las máquinas? Tercera, ¿qué efectos tendrá la robotización y digitalización en los salarios, las rentas y la desigualdad? Y cuarta, ¿cuáles son las mejores respuestas privadas y públicas, para ayudar en la transición y sostener el Estado de Bienestar? La exposición trata de abordarlas de modo sucinto.
Durante años se pensó que el cliente era solo un agente externo, objeto de un producto o servicio, pero se ha notado que los clientes existen tanto al interior como al exterior de la empresa y es entonces cuando se comienza a hablar del cliente interno, de tal forma que la preocupación por mantener y desarrollar el estado del cliente externo se extienda al mismo nivel del interno, debido a que el recurso humano representa el activo más valioso de toda organización y por ende este activo se debe conservar en aras de evitar la alta rotación de personal. Debido a que la rotación de personal es un tema tan sensible para toda organización, el presente artículo presenta el Endomarketing como una herramienta de gestión para las organizaciones con el fin de integrar en su estructura estrategias para desarrollar y mantener el cliente interno, por lo cual se analiza su contexto, importancia, beneficios y dificultades con el fin de desarrollar una estrategia dirigida hacia el cliente interno dentro de la organización.
Marketing is all about value. However, many marketers are struggling to demonstrate the value they are creating. In this article, we propose a feedback-system intervention called the ROI Marketing Methodology. It examines customers’ reaction, learning, and actions to assess their effects on business outcomes and eventually ROI. Using this methodology, HPT practitioners can help marketers obtain the feedback they need to enable their organizations to develop sustainable competitive advantages.
Establishing a difference is the lynchpin of marketing. It can be achieved in many ways. The results can be magical and powerful: such as increasing, with little expense, the price of a little regarded fish from €0.15 a kilo to €1.00. As with many other disciplines which have great value, this potency has often resulted in the discussion of marketing being prey to increasing complexity. This frequently intimidates those marketing could help. Often it is due to the touting of supposedly new paradigms, given plausibility by conveniently invented metrics, and an emphasis on the rational and conscious over the emotional and unconscious, despite the latter aspects appearing to be the basis for much choice. This imbalance has been highlighted by recent insights from psychology, neurology and behavioural economics. Rather than simply embracing these advances, the focus of marketing has been on additional layers of intricacy and a weighting of emphasis towards means of communication, further distancing marketing from its base. This book aims to cut through to the pivotal role of differentiation, illustrated by case histories and the advances in the related fields referred to, particularly the work of psychologists such as Daniel Kahneman. Unlike much writing on marketing, it has tried to follow Einstein's advice to be "as simple as possible, but no simpler".