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Culture de Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fr.) Singer sur substrat ligno-cellulosique en République Démocratique du Congo

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Cette étude a concerné la culture sur pailles de riz et sciure de bois de Gilbertiodendron dewevrei de Pleurotus tuber-regium, espèce fongique tropicale appréciée pour sa saveur et ses propriétés médicinales. Les blancs ont été obtenus localement par isolement de spores de spécimens récoltés dans leur environnement naturel aux environs de Kisangani (RD Congo). La formation de sporophores est conditionnée à celle de sclérotes 14 jours au préalable. Trois poussées ont été enregistrées avec un rendement total de 42,25 % qui peut être considéré comme très satisfaisant et de loin supérieur au rendement économique de 20 % généralement reconnu pour qu’un substrat soit jugé approprié à la production de champignons.
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Culture de Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fr.) Singer sur substrat
ligno-cellulosique en République Démocratique du Congo
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Mwinyi Waziri
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Résumé :
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Abstract :
/?@JJKL;P:FE:<IE<;K?<:LCK@M8K@FEFEI@:<JKI8N8E; Gilbertiodendron dewevrei J8N;LJKF=
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Tropicultura  Volume 39 (2021) )LDZIF 
DLJ?IFFDGIF;L:K@FE
Keywords +C<LIFKLJKL9<II<>@LD :LCK@M8K@FE 8IK@d:@8CJL9JKI8K< -FE>F
Introduction
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M8C<LIELKI@K@M<;<JJGFIFG?FI<J;< Pleurotus tuber-regium G<KFI>9FI et al.
Matériel et Méthodes
Isolement de la souche et mise en culture
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Tropicultura  Volume 39 (2021) )LDZIF 
Figure 1 : Isolement de souche à partir d’une sporée
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Figure 2 : Ballots fructifères avec anneau de 3 cm à l’encolure bouché d’ouate et couvert
de papier aluminium.
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Tableau 1 : Composition des substrats de fructi=cation des ballots fructifères
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Tropicultura  Volume 39 (2021) )LDZIF 
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;L >F9<K8>< <JK LK@C@JZ< GFLI C8 G?8J< ;< GIF;L:K@FE '<J 98CCFKJ ;< =IL:K@d:8K@FE :FEK<E8EK C<J
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Analyse des données
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'8 GIF;L:K@FE ;<  98CCFKJ ;< =IL:K@d:8K@FE <JK ZM8CLZ< G8I G<JZ< ;L GF@;J =I8@J ;<J JGFIFG?FI<J
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IZ8C@J<ILE<:FDG8I8@JFEDLCK@GC<;<JDFP<EE<J
Résultats
Croissance du mycélium
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C<JL9JKI8K;<J98CCFKJ;<=IL:K@d:8K@FE
Productivité en sporophores
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;b@E:L98K@FE ,L8KFIQ< AFLIJ JbZ:FLC<EK <EJL@K< 8M8EK C8 =FID8K@FE ;<J J:CZIFK<J '8 GI<D@YI< C<MZ<
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 '8 IZ:FCK< <JK IZ8C@JZ<  W  AFLIJ 8GIYJ Cb8GG8I@K@FE ;<J JGFIFG?FI<J :8I :<LO:@ ;<M@<EE<EK
I8G@;<D<EK :FI@8:<J <K C<LI 8GGZK<E:< <E <JK ;@D@ELZ< <LO 8LKI<J C<MZ<J J< JL::Y;<EK W LE
@EK<IM8CC<;b<EM@IFEAFLIJ
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Figure 3 : Production de sporophores de Pleurotus tuber-regium par technique de gobetage
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Tableau 2 : Productivité en sporophores (g) de 17 ballots de 600 g chacun
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-<E;<D<EK S S S
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;L JL9JKI8K '< I<E;<D<EK G8I C<MZ< <JK F9K<EL <E ;@M@J8EK C< GF@;J KFK8C ;< JGFIFG?FI<J GIF;L@KJ
G8I C< GF@;J KFK8C ;L JL9JKI8K '8 :FDG8I8@JFE ;<J GF@;J DFP<EJ F9K<ELJ G8I C<MZ< <JK @CCLJKIZ<
;8EJC8d>LI<
Tropicultura  Volume 39 (2021) )LDZIF 
Figure 4 : Evolution du poids moyen en sporophores (g) par ballot au cours de la production.
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IZMYC<EK HLb<CC<J ;@cYI<EK J@>E@d:8K@M<D<EK C<J LE<J ;<J 8LKI<J G   EFK8DD<EK <E I8@JFE ;<
CbZGL@J<D<EK;LD@C@<L8L=LI<KWD<JLI<;<C8GIF;L:K@FE
Conclusion
'8 DZK?F;< ;< =IL:K@d:8K@FE ;< Pleurotus tuber-regium W G8IK@I ;< 9C8E: ;< J<D@J F9K<EL EFE W
G8IK@I ;< J:CZIFK<J D8@J G8I @JFC<D<EK ;< JGFI<J ;< JGZ:@D<EJ IZ:FCKZJ ;8EJ C<LI <EM@IFEE<D<EK
E8KLI<C 8 ;FEEZ ;<J IZJLCK8KJ GIFD<KK<LIJ <KK< DZK?F;< 8@EJ@ HL< C<J IZJLCK8KJ F9K<ELJ
FLMI<EK ;<J G<IJG<:K@M<J HL8EK W C8 GFJJ@9@C@KZ ;< JZC<:K@FEE<I <E =I@HL< KIFG@:8C< ;<J JFL:?<J
G<I=FID8EK<J ;< Pleurotus tuber-regium GFLI C8 D@J< <E :LCKLI< <K <JJ8@ GIZC@D@E8@I< C@D@KZ W
LE< JFL:?< J8LM8>< @JFCZ< ;8EJ C<J <EM@IFEJ ;< &@J8E>8E@ <E -ZGL9C@HL< ;ZDF:I8K@HL< ;L FE>F
8 <E <c<K ;ZDFEKIZ LE< M@K<JJ< ;< :IF@JJ8E:< ;L DP:ZC@LD @DGFIK8EK< <K ;<J I<E;<D<EKJ ;<
LCKLI<;<+C<LIFKLJKL9<II<>@LD!I.@E><IJLIJL9JKI8KC@>EF:<CCLCFJ@HL
GIF;L:K@FE <E JGFIFG?FI<J <E:FLI8><8EKJ '< I<E;<D<EK KFK8C ;<   F9K<EL W Cb@JJL< ;<
EFKI< <OGZI@D<EK8K@FE G<LK <E <c<K [KI< :FEJ@;ZIZ :FDD< KIYJ J8K@J=8@J8EK <K ;< CF@E JLGZI@<LI
8L I<E;<D<EK Z:FEFD@HL< ;<   >ZEZI8C<D<EK I<:FEEL GFLI HLbLE JL9JKI8K JF@K AL>Z 8GGIFGI@Z
W C8 GIF;L:K@FE ;< :?8DG@>EFEJ @98CLB8 et al.,   *<@  '8 IZLJJ@K< ;< C8 :LCKLI< ;<
Pleurotus tuber-regium 8GG8I8\K KIYJ ;ZG<E;8EK< ;L :?F@O ;L JL9JKI8K :FDD< <E KZDF@>E<EK C<J
Z:?<:J <EI<>@JKIZJ JLI =<L@CC<J ;< A8:@EK?< ;b<8L Eichhornia crassipes <K G8@CC<J ;< D@CC<K Eleusine
coracana G<KFI>9FI et al.  '< DZC8E>< ;< I@Q G8;;P <K ;< J:@LI< ;< 9F@J LK@C@JZ ;8EJ C<
GIZJ<EK <JJ8@ :FEJK@KL< LE< 8CK<IE8K@M< 8LO =<L@CC<J ;< 98E8E@<I GC8EK8@E FL W C8 J:@LI< ;< 9F@J
:FDGFJKZ< Triplochiton scleroxylon HL@ 8JJLI<EK Z>8C<D<EK LE< GIF;L:K@FE ;< JGFIFG?FI<J ;<
:<KK< <JGY:< G<KFI>9FI et al.  'b<EA<L <JK ;ZJFID8@J ;< IZ;L@I< C<J ;ZC8@J <EKI< C<J C<MZ<J
WKI8M<IJLE<JZC<:K@FE;<JFL:?<J;<;@M<IJ<JFI@>@E<J
Remerciements
'< GI<D@<I 8LK<LI I<D<I:@< C< +IFA<K 1'$-0*. GFLI Cb8GGL@ dE8E:@<I ;8EJ C8 IZ8C@J8K@FE ;< :<
GIFA<K C<J ;@cZI<EK<J =FID8K@FEJ <E DP:FCF>@< <K 8C>FCF>@< ;FEK @C 8 9ZEZd:@Z 8@EJ@ HL< C< JFLK@<E
;8EJJ8G8IK@:@G8K@FEW;@cZI<EKJJPDGFJ@LDJJLIC8DP:FCF>@<
Bibliographie
 G<KFI>9FI&QFD<BL(G<KFI>9FI(("IFNK?=8:KFIJ8E;:LCK@M8K@FE
F= Pleurotus tuber-regium FEJ<C<:K<;GC8EKN8JK<J$EK<IE8K@FE8C!FF;-<J<8I:?%FLIE8C
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Tropicultura  Volume 39 (2021) )LDZIF 
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 #@KFJ?@)/8B8F)+?PCF><E<K@:8E8CPJ@JF= Pleurotus 98J<;FE;8K8=IFD
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GIF;L:<;9PK?<KIFG@:8C=LE>LJ Pleurotus tuber-regiumEKFE@<M8E'<<LN<E?F<B
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Pleurotustuberregium !I.@E><I@E;<M<CFG@E>KIFG@:8C:FLEKI@<J(LJ?IFFD"IFN<IJ
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tuberregium !I.@E><IFE8>I@:LCKLI8CN8JK<J$E%-FPJ<<;+IF:<<;@E>JF=K?<
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8E;G?PCF><F>I8G?P@E Pleurotustuberregium(P:FCF>@:8C-<J<8I:?
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Lentinus !I <K Pleurotus !I&I8D<I8L8D<IFLE98JZ<JLIC8DFIG?FCF>@<<KC<J
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F= Pleurotustuberregium !I.@E><IFEJFD<?<8MPD<K8CJLGGC<D<EK<;
JL9JKI8K<J =I@:8E%FLIE8C(@:IF9@FCF>P-<J<8I:?a
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 *B?LFP8% KL>F% .KL;@<JFEK?<:LCK@M8K@FEF= Pleurotus tuber-regium !I
.@E>8E<;@9C<DLJ?IFFD@FI<JFLI:</<:?EFCF>P
 *B?LFP8%*BF>9F!*$E;L:K@FEF=<;@9C<J:C<IFK@8F= Pleurotus tuber-regium
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M8I@FLJ=8IDN8JK<J+IF:<<;@E>JF=*BC8?FD8:8;<DPF=.:@<E:<
 *B?LFP8%$J@B?L<D?<E*. ML<" Pleurotustuberregium!I.@E>
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 *JF Pleurotus tuber-regium=IFD)@><I@8(P:FCF>@8
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C@K<I8KLI<JLIM<P.:I@GK8FK8E@:8<C>@:8
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Tropicultura  Volume 39 (2021) )LDZIF 
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... On the other hand, the results obtained (42.25%), after the harvest of three seedlings by Mwinyi et al. [18], on a substrate made from rice straw enriched with sawdust and rice bran with a different strain (on the two treatments of the substrate made from maize stalks (14.95 ± 3.12% and 15.65 ± 1.06% respectively) after the harvest of two seedlings. This difference in yield is due to the difference in weight of the substrates (600 g for Mwinyi et al. [18] and 500 g for this study) and the number of emergences (3 emergences for Mwinyi et al. [18] and 2 emergences for this study). ...
... On the other hand, the results obtained (42.25%), after the harvest of three seedlings by Mwinyi et al. [18], on a substrate made from rice straw enriched with sawdust and rice bran with a different strain (on the two treatments of the substrate made from maize stalks (14.95 ± 3.12% and 15.65 ± 1.06% respectively) after the harvest of two seedlings. This difference in yield is due to the difference in weight of the substrates (600 g for Mwinyi et al. [18] and 500 g for this study) and the number of emergences (3 emergences for Mwinyi et al. [18] and 2 emergences for this study). Therefore, we think that the substrates made of male inflorescences of the palm tree as we composed it did not have a suitable structure and/or adapted to the development of the strain 190212 of Pleurotus tuber-regium species that we tested. ...
... On the other hand, the results obtained (42.25%), after the harvest of three seedlings by Mwinyi et al. [18], on a substrate made from rice straw enriched with sawdust and rice bran with a different strain (on the two treatments of the substrate made from maize stalks (14.95 ± 3.12% and 15.65 ± 1.06% respectively) after the harvest of two seedlings. This difference in yield is due to the difference in weight of the substrates (600 g for Mwinyi et al. [18] and 500 g for this study) and the number of emergences (3 emergences for Mwinyi et al. [18] and 2 emergences for this study). Therefore, we think that the substrates made of male inflorescences of the palm tree as we composed it did not have a suitable structure and/or adapted to the development of the strain 190212 of Pleurotus tuber-regium species that we tested. ...
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