Article

Pesticide residues in (treated) wastewater and products of Belgian vegetable- and potato processing companies

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Abstract

Pesticides are broadly utilized in crop cultivation and could end up in wastewater of vegetable- and potato companies during water-consuming processing steps. To gain insight into the presence of pesticide residues in (waste)water of these industries, water was analysed and monitored from three vegetable- and two potato processing companies in Belgium. Samples were collected during one year of water before and after primary/secondary treatment (i.e. influent and effluent) and after tertiary treatment. Next to water, also (processed) carrot and potato products were analysed. Results show that boscalid (maximum: 18.32 μg/L) and terbuthylazine (maximum: 87.99 μg/L) are predominantly present in the vegetable industry and chlorpropham (maximum: 8.80x10⁶ μg/L) and terbuthylazine (maximum: 3.37x10⁵ μg/L) in the potato industry. The conventional treatment techniques seem to be insufficient for the removal of pesticides. Concentrations were even higher in the effluent than in the influent. Also, tertiary treatment techniques as ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis fail to reduce all pesticides below the European potable water limit of 0.1 μg/L. To meet this standard, the development and validation of new removal techniques are essential. Regarding product samples, almost no pesticide residues exceeded the MRL. Chlorpropham concentrations were statistically confirmed to be higher in potatoes and wastewater sampled when stored potatoes are processed.

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... Up to now, the residues of boscalid and pyraclostrobin have been detected in grapes [13], citrus fruits [14], and carrots [15]. In previous studies, the LC-MS/MS, RRLC-QqQ-MS/MS, and HPLC techniques were usually adopted in the detection of pesticides in fruits for different matrix characteristics. ...
... However, there is still no research that has detected the residues of boscalid and pyraclostrobin at the same time. In addition, the standard Up to now, the residues of boscalid and pyraclostrobin have been detected in grapes [13], citrus fruits [14], and carrots [15]. In previous studies, the LC-MS/MS, RRLC-QqQ-MS/MS, and HPLC techniques were usually adopted in the detection of pesticides in fruits for different matrix characteristics. ...
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Fungicides containing active ingredients of boscalid and pyraclostrobin have been widely applied in watermelon disease control. To provide data for avoiding health hazards caused by fungicides, we investigated its terminal residues and evaluated the dietary risk. In this work, watermelon samples were collected from field sites in six provinces and analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The average recoveries of boscalid and pyraclostrobin in the watermelon matrix were 97–108% and 93–103%, respectively, with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ≤ 9.1%. The limits of quantifications (LOQs) were 0.01 and 0.005 mg/kg for boscalid and pyraclostrobin. Twenty-one days after applying the test pesticide with 270 g a.i./ha, the terminal residues of boscalid and pyraclostrobin were all below 0.05 mg/kg and below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) recommended by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). According to the national estimated daily intake (NEDI), the risk quotients (RQs) of boscalid and pyraclostrobin were 48.4% and 62.6%, respectively. That indicated the pesticide evaluated in watermelon exhibited a low dietary risk to consumers. All data provide a reference for the MRL establishment of boscalid in watermelon for China.
... Metalaxyl is one of the most commonly used fungicides to control fungal diseases in various crops, vegetables, and fruits (Qian et al., 2019, Sayed et al., 2021. By inhibiting the synthesis of mycelium protein in the body, it causes abnormal growth and death of the fungi. ...
Article
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Compound-Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA) is employed to investigate the biodegradation of metalaxyl in soil and plant. By studying the degradation of metalaxyl in unsterilized and sterilized soil with two initial concentrations of metalaxyl, microbial degradation has the most significant effect on the degradation of metalaxyl in soil. In addition, biodegradation and isotope fractionation of metalaxyl in water spinach with root application and leaf application are investigation by CSIA. It is shown that both absorption and degradation of metalaxyl in the roots and leaves of water spinach can cause the shift of δ¹³C values. Specifically, the δ¹³C values decreased during absorption while increased in degradation of metalaxyl in the roots and leaves of water spinach, indicating that the lighter isotope is absorbed in the absorption process at first and then degraded. Furthermore, the relationship between carbon isotope ratios and residual concentration of metalaxyl can be described by the Rayleigh equation, and the biodegradation rate of metalaxyl could be calculated by using CSIA without measuring the concentration of metalaxyl both in soil and plant. Therefore, the use of CSIA can quantitatively assess the degradation behavior of pesticide pollution in the environment and provide a certain scientific evidence and technical support in the process of environmental remediation.
... Nevertheless, for concentrations at 1.0 µg/Kg, the recovery is slightly higher (125%); however, this value is within the analytical error allowed (120 ± 5%). Moreover, the developed analytical method was compared with other liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) methods reported in the literature for the quantification of chlorpropham in vegetables and water samples (Table 2) [15,16,20,21]. The low sample amount (g), LODs, LOQs, and recovery were assessed to prove the benefits of the µQuEChERS-dSPE/UHPLC-PDA method. ...
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Pesticides are chemicals used in agriculture to prevent insects, fungi, weeds, and other pests, from damaging crops. In addition, some types of pesticides are used after harvest as sprout suppressant agents help keeping the quality parameters of crops during storage. Nonetheless, its presence, even at trace levels, in food products is becoming a big challenge regarding human health. The current work aimed to develop and validate a sensitive and high-throughput analytical approach, based on a state-of-the-art microextraction technique—µQuEChERS, combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a photodiode array detection system (UHPLC-PDA) to quantify isopropyl-N-(3-chlorophenyl) carbamate (chlorpropham), commonly used as efficient sprout suppressant stored potatoes, in raw and cooked potatoes cultivated in different geographical regions of Madeira Island (Portugal). Good results were obtained in terms of figures of the merit of the method, with correlation coefficients (R2) higher than 0.999 and recoveries between 94.5% to 125%. Method limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.14 μg/Kg and 0.43 μg/Kg, respectively, which are much lower than the accepted and legislated requirements by the European Union, which is 20 μg/Kg for chlorpropham. The concentration of chlorpropham in raw potatoes is significantly higher when compared to cooked samples, which revealed that the thermic treatment during cooking had a significant effect on its degradation. A significant decrease (90%, on average) was observed on chlorpropham levels.
... The excessive use of pesticides is a crucial factor of pesticides' non-point source pollution, and it is also the main cause of excessive pesticide residues in vegetables. As a result, the research and development of efficient crop protection machinery and technology has become an urgent demand in order to ensure the quality and safety of vegetables [13][14][15][16][17][18]. Knapsack manual or electric sprayers are the most widely used pesticide application equipment because of the heave weight, loud noise, and inconvenience of operation of motor knapsack sprayers. ...
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Monitoring of pesticide residues in potato tubers and their prepared products ("pommes frites" and chips) was undertaken. Experiments were carried out to determine changes in concentration due to the washing, peeling and cooking process (blanching and frying) to assess the stability of pesticides in potatoes and their products. Pesticide residues were quantified by using gas chromatography. Results show that malathion, HCB, lindane and p,p-DDD were predominant in potatoes and their products. The highest mean was detected in potatoes, followed by pommes frites, while the lowest mean was recorded in chips. On the other hand, potato skin samples were found to contain the highest levels of DDT and its derivatives, lindane and HCB. Peeling was necessary to remove the greatest amount of pesticides in the skin. Washing with water and/or other solutions as well as the cooking process (blanching and frying) helped to eliminate most of the pesticide residues from the potato tubers.
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FPS Health Food Chain Safety and Environment, 2015b. Toelatingen van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen raadplegen [WWW Document].
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FPS Health Food Chain Safety and Environment, 2018. Alle MRLs voor linuron en iprodion worden geschrapt [WWW Document].
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