Pesticide residues in (treated) wastewater and products of Belgian vegetable- and potato processing companies

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Pesticides are broadly utilized in crop cultivation and could end up in wastewater of vegetable- and potato companies during water-consuming processing steps. To gain insight into the presence of pesticide residues in (waste)water of these industries, water was analysed and monitored from three vegetable- and two potato processing companies in Belgium. Samples were collected during one year of water before and after primary/secondary treatment (i.e. influent and effluent) and after tertiary treatment. Next to water, also (processed) carrot and potato products were analysed. Results show that boscalid (maximum: 18.32 μg/L) and terbuthylazine (maximum: 87.99 μg/L) are predominantly present in the vegetable industry and chlorpropham (maximum: 8.80x10⁶ μg/L) and terbuthylazine (maximum: 3.37x10⁵ μg/L) in the potato industry. The conventional treatment techniques seem to be insufficient for the removal of pesticides. Concentrations were even higher in the effluent than in the influent. Also, tertiary treatment techniques as ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis fail to reduce all pesticides below the European potable water limit of 0.1 μg/L. To meet this standard, the development and validation of new removal techniques are essential. Regarding product samples, almost no pesticide residues exceeded the MRL. Chlorpropham concentrations were statistically confirmed to be higher in potatoes and wastewater sampled when stored potatoes are processed.

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... Up to now, the residues of boscalid and pyraclostrobin have been detected in grapes [13], citrus fruits [14], and carrots [15]. In previous studies, the LC-MS/MS, RRLC-QqQ-MS/MS, and HPLC techniques were usually adopted in the detection of pesticides in fruits for different matrix characteristics. ...
... However, there is still no research that has detected the residues of boscalid and pyraclostrobin at the same time. In addition, the standard Up to now, the residues of boscalid and pyraclostrobin have been detected in grapes [13], citrus fruits [14], and carrots [15]. In previous studies, the LC-MS/MS, RRLC-QqQ-MS/MS, and HPLC techniques were usually adopted in the detection of pesticides in fruits for different matrix characteristics. ...
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Fungicides containing active ingredients of boscalid and pyraclostrobin have been widely applied in watermelon disease control. To provide data for avoiding health hazards caused by fungicides, we investigated its terminal residues and evaluated the dietary risk. In this work, watermelon samples were collected from field sites in six provinces and analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The average recoveries of boscalid and pyraclostrobin in the watermelon matrix were 97–108% and 93–103%, respectively, with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ≤ 9.1%. The limits of quantifications (LOQs) were 0.01 and 0.005 mg/kg for boscalid and pyraclostrobin. Twenty-one days after applying the test pesticide with 270 g a.i./ha, the terminal residues of boscalid and pyraclostrobin were all below 0.05 mg/kg and below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) recommended by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). According to the national estimated daily intake (NEDI), the risk quotients (RQs) of boscalid and pyraclostrobin were 48.4% and 62.6%, respectively. That indicated the pesticide evaluated in watermelon exhibited a low dietary risk to consumers. All data provide a reference for the MRL establishment of boscalid in watermelon for China.
... Metalaxyl is one of the most commonly used fungicides to control fungal diseases in various crops, vegetables, and fruits (Qian et al., 2019, Sayed et al., 2021. By inhibiting the synthesis of mycelium protein in the body, it causes abnormal growth and death of the fungi. ...
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Compound-Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA) is employed to investigate the biodegradation of metalaxyl in soil and plant. By studying the degradation of metalaxyl in unsterilized and sterilized soil with two initial concentrations of metalaxyl, microbial degradation has the most significant effect on the degradation of metalaxyl in soil. In addition, biodegradation and isotope fractionation of metalaxyl in water spinach with root application and leaf application are investigation by CSIA. It is shown that both absorption and degradation of metalaxyl in the roots and leaves of water spinach can cause the shift of δ¹³C values. Specifically, the δ¹³C values decreased during absorption while increased in degradation of metalaxyl in the roots and leaves of water spinach, indicating that the lighter isotope is absorbed in the absorption process at first and then degraded. Furthermore, the relationship between carbon isotope ratios and residual concentration of metalaxyl can be described by the Rayleigh equation, and the biodegradation rate of metalaxyl could be calculated by using CSIA without measuring the concentration of metalaxyl both in soil and plant. Therefore, the use of CSIA can quantitatively assess the degradation behavior of pesticide pollution in the environment and provide a certain scientific evidence and technical support in the process of environmental remediation.
... Nevertheless, for concentrations at 1.0 µg/Kg, the recovery is slightly higher (125%); however, this value is within the analytical error allowed (120 ± 5%). Moreover, the developed analytical method was compared with other liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) methods reported in the literature for the quantification of chlorpropham in vegetables and water samples (Table 2) [15,16,20,21]. The low sample amount (g), LODs, LOQs, and recovery were assessed to prove the benefits of the µQuEChERS-dSPE/UHPLC-PDA method. ...
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Pesticides are chemicals used in agriculture to prevent insects, fungi, weeds, and other pests, from damaging crops. In addition, some types of pesticides are used after harvest as sprout suppressant agents help keeping the quality parameters of crops during storage. Nonetheless, its presence, even at trace levels, in food products is becoming a big challenge regarding human health. The current work aimed to develop and validate a sensitive and high-throughput analytical approach, based on a state-of-the-art microextraction technique—µQuEChERS, combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a photodiode array detection system (UHPLC-PDA) to quantify isopropyl-N-(3-chlorophenyl) carbamate (chlorpropham), commonly used as efficient sprout suppressant stored potatoes, in raw and cooked potatoes cultivated in different geographical regions of Madeira Island (Portugal). Good results were obtained in terms of figures of the merit of the method, with correlation coefficients (R2) higher than 0.999 and recoveries between 94.5% to 125%. Method limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.14 μg/Kg and 0.43 μg/Kg, respectively, which are much lower than the accepted and legislated requirements by the European Union, which is 20 μg/Kg for chlorpropham. The concentration of chlorpropham in raw potatoes is significantly higher when compared to cooked samples, which revealed that the thermic treatment during cooking had a significant effect on its degradation. A significant decrease (90%, on average) was observed on chlorpropham levels.
... The excessive use of pesticides is a crucial factor of pesticides' non-point source pollution, and it is also the main cause of excessive pesticide residues in vegetables. As a result, the research and development of efficient crop protection machinery and technology has become an urgent demand in order to ensure the quality and safety of vegetables [13][14][15][16][17][18]. Knapsack manual or electric sprayers are the most widely used pesticide application equipment because of the heave weight, loud noise, and inconvenience of operation of motor knapsack sprayers. ...
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Diseases and pests are important factors in vegetable cultivation; they not only affect the growth and appearance of vegetables but also affect the yield and quality. The disease and pest control of vegetables is dominated by chemical sprays, for now. As a result, the excessive use of pesticides has been a crucial factor of pesticides’ non-point source pollution, and it is also the main cause of excessive pesticide residues in vegetables. Therefore, the design of efficient plant protection machinery and technology has become an urgent demand in order to ensure the quality and safety of vegetables. In this review, the machinery and technologies for vegetable protection are introduced from the aspects of chemical control and physical control. In the aspect of chemical control, handheld sprayers, self-propelled or track sprayers, fixed-pipe spray systems, vertical and horizontal boom sprayers, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and vegetable seed treatment techniques are introduced. In the aspect of physical control, soil physical disinfection, pest trapping technologies and ozone sterilizers are introduced. Finally, the existing problems and perspectives of pesticide application sprayers and physical control equipment for vegetables are summarized. This paper can provide references for vegetable growers and researchers.
As the pesticide and its metabolite residues in processed fruits could become a significant route of human exposure. The work presented herein focuses on developing a feasible quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method with improved extraction and cleanup system for the determination of imidacloprid, acetamiprid, thiamethoxam and clothianidin (metabolite of thiamethoxam) in canned fruits. The low toxic solvent ethanol was used to extract the analytes, and ammonium sulfate was used to promote the phase separation. Moreover, the carboxylated multi walled carbon nanotube was acted as the clean‐up sorbent for removal of high solubility impurities. The proposed method was validated with fortified real samples at different concentration levels (20∼200 μg kg−1). Recoveries obtained from three spiked levels (20, 50, 200 μg kg−1) were ranged from 74.9% to 86.4% with relative standard deviations of the intra‐day and inter‐day in the range of 0.8 to 5.5% and 2.0 to 7.1%, respectively. Limit of detections were ranged from 0.2 to 0.5 μg kg−1 and 0.2 to 0.6 μg kg−1 for orange and peach, respectively. The results demonstrated that the proposed method could be considered appropriate, comparatively lower toxic for the analysis of neonicotinoid pesticide residues in canned fruit. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Process wastewaters from food, beverage, and feedstock facilities, although regulated, are an under-investigated environmental contaminant source. Food process wastewaters (FPWWs) from 23 facilities in 17 U.S. states were sampled and documented for a plethora of chemical and microbial contaminants. Of the 576 analyzed organics, 184 (32%) were detected at least once, with concentrations as large as 143 μg L-1 (6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid), and as many as 47 were detected in a single FPWW sample. Cumulative per/polyfluoroalkyl substance concentrations up to 185 μg L-1 and large pesticide transformation product concentrations (e.g., methomyl oxime, 40 μg L-1; clothianidin TMG, 2.02 μg L-1) were observed. Despite 48% of FPWW undergoing disinfection treatment prior to discharge, bacteria resistant to third-generation antibiotics were found in each facility type, and multiple bacterial groups were detected in all samples, including total coliforms. The exposure-activity ratios and toxicity quotients exceeded 1.0 in 13 and 22% of samples, respectively, indicating potential biological effects and toxicity to vertebrates and invertebrates associated with the discharge of FPWW. Organic contaminant profiles of FPWW differed from previously reported contaminant profiles of municipal effluents and urban storm water, indicating that FPWW is another important source of chemical and microbial contaminant mixtures discharged into receiving surface waters.
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Food safety is an area of growing worldwide concern on account of its direct bearing on human health. The presence of harmful pesticide residues in food has caused a great concern among the consumers. Hence, world over to tackle food safety issues, organic farming is being propagated. However, due to several reasons, diffusion and acceptance of this approach in developing countries has been very slow. Therefore, it is important in the transient phase that some pragmatic solution should be developed to tackle this situation of food safety. Food processing treatments such as washing, peeling, canning or cooking lead to a significant reduction of pesticide residues. In this background this paper reviews the common food processing operations along with the degree of residue removal in each process. The processes reviewed include: baking, bread making, dairy product manufacture, drying, thermal processing, fermentation, freezing, infusion, juicing, malting, milling, parboiling, peeling, peeling and cooking, storage, storage and milling, washing, washing and cooking, washing and drying, washing and peeling, washing peeling and juicing and wine making. Extensive literature review demonstrates that in most cases processing leads to large reductions in residue levels in the prepared food, particularly through washing, peeling and cooking operations.
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The next challenge of wastewater treatment is to reliably remove micro-pollutants at the microgram per litre range in order to meet reuse applications and contribute to reach the good status of the water bodies. A hundred priority and relevant emerging substances were measured to evaluate at full-scale the removal efficiencies of seven advanced treatment lines (one membrane bioreactor process and six tertiary treatment lines) that were designed for reuse applications. To reliably compare the processes, specific procedures for micro-pollutants were applied for sampling, analysis and calculation of removal efficiencies. The membrane bioreactor process allowed to upgrade the removal efficiencies of about 20% of the substances measured, especially those that were partially degraded during conventional processes. Conventional tertiary processes like high rate clarification, sand filtration and polishing pond achieved significant removal for some micro-pollutants, especially for adsorbable substances. Advanced tertiary processes, like ozonation, activated carbon and reverse osmosis were all very efficient to complete the removal of polar pesticides and pharmaceuticals; metals and less polar substances were better retained by reverse osmosis.
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Monitoring and analysis of trace contaminants such as pharmaceuticals and pesticides require the preservation of the samples before they can be quantified using the appropriate analytical methods. Our objective is to determine the sample shelf life to insure proper quantification of ultratrace contaminants. To this end, we tested the stability of a variety of pharmaceutical products including caffeine, natural steroids, and selected pesticides under refrigerated storage conditions. The analysis was performed using multi-residue methods using an on-line solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) in the selected reaction monitoring mode. After 21 days of storage, no significant difference in the recoveries was observed compared to day 0 for pharmaceutical products, while for pesticides, significant losses occurred for DIA and simazine after 10 days (14% and 17% reduction respectively) and a statistically significant decrease in the recovery was noted for cyanazine (78% disappearance). However, the estrogen and progestogen steroids were unstable during storage. The disappearance rates obtained after 21 days of storage vary from 63 to 72% for the feminizing hormones. Overall, pharmaceuticals and pesticides seem to be stable for refrigerated storage for up to about 10 days (except cyanazine) and steroidal hormones can be quite sensitive to degradation and should not be stored for more than a few days.
Agriculture is considered as the main source of water contamination by pesticides. However, food packaging or processing industries are also recognised as relevant point sources of contamination by these compounds, not yet investigated in depth. The objective of this work has been to improve current knowledge about the presence and concentration of pesticides in the effluent of a food processing industry, as well as to investigate their main transformation products (TPs). An analytical strategy combining target and suspect analysis has been applied to provide an evaluation of the effluents. The methodology involves solid-phase extraction (SPE) of wastewater samples followed by (i) liquid chromatography quadrupole-linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT-MS/MS) for quantitative target analysis and (ii) liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-HRMS) to identify non-target pesticides and possible TPs. The results revealed the presence of 17 of the target pesticides analysed and 3 additional ones as a result of the suspect screening performed by HRMS. The TPs were investigated for the pesticides found at the highest concentrations: imazalil (7038-19802 ng/L), pyrimethanil (744-9591 ng/L) and thiabendazole (341-926 ng/L). Up to 14 TPs could be tentatively identified, demonstrating the relevance of this type of studies. These data provide a better understanding of the occurrence of pesticides and their TPs in agro-food industrial effluents.
This study investigated the presence of a variety of pesticides (herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides) in effluent of three wastewater treatment plants as well as their endocrine activities using yeast-based in vitro assays. Although the presence of these contaminants of emerging concern is frequently reported to be present throughout the environment, their presence in wastewater treatment plants has been seldom studied. Of the 18 compounds investigated in this study, imidacloprid was the only compound not detected in all three WWTPs. Concentrations measured ranged from 3ng/L to 27μg/L for fluconazole. The yeast estrogenic and yeast androgenic screen assays were performed on target compounds in order to investigate their endocrine disruption and potential environmental risks to receiving waters. It was found that of the 14 compounds investigated 12 showed either antiestrogenic or antiandrogenic activity and seven compounds showed pleiotropic effects. In addition to confirming endocrine activities of pesticides using the yeast-based assays this study is one of the first to report activities for novel compounds including three neonicotinoids.
In the year 2010, effluents from 90 European wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were analyzed for 156 polar organic chemical contaminants. The analyses were complemented by effect-based monitoring approaches aiming at estrogenicity and dioxin-like toxicity analyzed by in vitro reporter gene bioassays, and yeast and diatom culture acute toxicity optical bioassays. Analyses of organic substances were performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) or liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) or gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Target microcontaminants were pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), veterinary (antibiotic) drugs, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), organophosphate ester flame retardants, pesticides (and some metabolites), industrial chemicals such as benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), iodinated x-ray contrast agents, and gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging agents; in addition biological endpoints were measured. The obtained results show the presence of 125 substances (80% of the target compounds) in European wastewater effluents, in concentrations ranging from low nanograms to milligrams per liter. These results allow for an estimation to be made of a European median level for the chemicals investigated in WWTP effluents. The most relevant compounds in the effluent waters with the highest median concentration levels were the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and sucralose, benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), several organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers (e.g. tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate; TCPP), pharmaceutical compounds such as carbamazepine, tramadol, telmisartan, venlafaxine, irbesartan, fluconazole, oxazepam, fexofenadine, diclofenac, citalopram, codeine, bisoprolol, eprosartan, the antibiotics trimethoprim, ciprofloxacine, sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycine, the insect repellent N,N'-diethyltoluamide (DEET), the pesticides MCPA and mecoprop, perfluoroalkyl substances (such as PFOS and PFOA), caffeine, and gadolinium.
The article introduces the European Union (EU)-wide monitoring concept as run by the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC) and specifically addresses the issue of stability tests for environmental specimen and samples using the so-called isochronous stability-test design. We briefly describe the underlying statistical concept and apply it to water samples being collected in the context of the JRC’s EU-wide environmental monitoring activities.The stability of spiked tap-water and river-water samples and their containers was assessed at 4°C, 20°C and 40°C using ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, ketoprofen, diclofenac, bezafibrate, naproxen, perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), carbamzepine, sulfamethoxazole, terbutylazine and triclosan as test substances in two different stability-testing schemes.The stability of the samples decreased as expected with an increase in the storage temperature. Uncertainty contributions were calculated and it was concluded that this type of sample remains stable for ca. 6 weeks if stored at 4°C.
Sample storage is a necessary and critical step in water analysis. During the storage, many changes in the sample may occur; namely chemical and physical reactions, microbiological degradation and the nature of sample-container may produce analyte losses. To minimize changes between collection and analysis, standard methods contain a part within which preservation techniques are described, e.g. chemical addition, temperature control, choice of sampling container and holding times.A review of some results published in recent studies show there are no absolute rules to prevent all the analyte modifications and to define a holding time optimized for each preservative technique. We have to take into account the character of the samples and the properties of the analytes to validate the preservation techniques. Generally, if immediate analysis is not possible, rapid addition of the extraction solvent and storage of sample extracts at 4°C is recommended. For the future, field extraction using SPE disks may be a way to improve the storage stability of organic compounds.
Reports on pesticides elimination during wastewater treatment are rare since these substances are typically considered of agricultural rather than of urban origin. In this context, the aim of this work was to evaluate the presence, removal and environmental relevance of 22 selected pesticides in three different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), paying attention not only to their occurrence and elimination but also to the toxicity of each pesticide against three aquatic micro organisms (algae, daphnia and fish) through the calculation of the so-named Environmental Relevance of Pesticides from Wastewater treatment plants Index (ERPWI). For this purpose, an analytical method based on isotope dilution on-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) was optimized, allowing the determination of the 22 target pesticides in wastewater with satisfactory sensitivity (limits of detection below 30ng/L), accuracy and precision. Concerning the results, total pesticide levels were in most instances below 1μg/L but removal in the WWTPs was variable and often poor, with concentrations in the effluent sometimes higher than in the corresponding influent. Possible explanations for these poor or negative removal rates are, among many others considered (e.g. sampling, sample preservation, method biases, atmospheric deposition), deconjugation of metabolites and/or transformation products of the pesticides, hydrolysis, and desorption from particulate matter during wastewater treatment. The most significant pesticides in terms of concentration and frequency of detection were diazinon and diuron. These two pesticides, followed by atrazine, simazine and malathion, were also the most relevant from the environmental point of view, according to the calculated ERPWI.
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of various stages of French fries processing on the contents of glycoalkaloids and nitrates in potatoes. The material for the study comprised samples of two potato varieties, Santana and Innowator, collected from nine stages of a French fries production line. Based on the results of the research carried out, it was found that the processes applied during French fries production had a significant influence on the decrease in glycoalkaloid (chaconine and solanine) and nitrate contents in both intermediate products and the final product in comparison with the raw material. The highest amounts of glycoalkaloids and nitrates were removed during peeling, blanching and frying. In the processed potatoes the ratio of chaconine to solanine decreased. French fries ready for consumption contained only 3–8% of the glycoalkaloids and 5–6% of the nitrates found in the raw material. Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry
Samples of tomatoes, peppers, asparagus, spinach and peaches were exposed to three insecticides (acephate, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin), three ethylenebisdithiocarbamate fungicides (mancozeb, maneb, propineb) and the tetramethyldithiocarbamate fungicide thiram to study the effect of commercial processing on the residues. In most cases, canning operations led to a gradual decrease in residue levels in the finished products, particularly through washing, blanching, peeling and cooking processes. The results indicated that washing plus blanching led to more than 50% loss in pesticide residues, except for in peaches. Ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDCs) were completely removed from tomatoes and spinach by washing followed by hot water blanching. The total amount of pesticide removed by all of the combined canning operations ranged from 90 to 100% in most products. Pepper retained 61% of chlorpyrifos but these residues disappeared during 3-month storage of finished cans. Acephate showed a surprising tenacity in peaches, as 11% of the original residues were still present in 2-year stored cans.
This study focused on the input of hydrophilic biocides into the aquatic environment and on the efficiency of their removal in conventional wastewater treatment by a mass flux analysis. A fully automated method consisting of on-line solid phase extraction coupled to LC-ESI-MS/MS was developed and validated for the simultaneous trace determination of different biocidal compounds (1,2-benzisothiazoline-3-one (BIT), 3-Iodo-2-propynylbutyl-carbamate (IPBC), irgarol 1051 and 2-N-octyl-4-isothiazolinone (octhilinone, OIT), carbendazim, diazinon, diuron, isoproturon, mecoprop, terbutryn and terbutylazine) and pharmaceuticals (diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole) in wastewater and surface water. In the tertiary effluent, the highest average concentrations were determined for mecoprop (1010 ng/L) which was at comparable levels as the pharmaceuticals diclofenac (690 ng/L) and sulfamethoxazole (140 ng/L) but 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the other biocidal compounds. Average eliminations for all compounds were usually below 50%. During rain events, increased residual amounts of biocidal contaminants are discharged to receiving surface waters.
The presence of 170 pharmaceuticals, personal care products, priority substances according to the 2008/105EU Directive and four metals (Cd, Ni, Hg, Pb) have been investigated at the Llobregat delta, south of Barcelona (Spain). In the area, reclaimed water is destined to satisfy environmental uses, irrigation and the construction of a hydraulic barrier against seawater intrusion in the deep aquifer of the delta. A monitoring survey was undertaken of water samples from a tertiary wastewater treatment plant (Depurbaix), treated waste water with an additional treatment of ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, and UV disinfection (WWATP, for the hydraulic barrier injection). Groundwater samples from the aquifer receiving recharge were also investigated. The pharmaceutical group of substances was detected in sampled waters at concentrations rarely exceeding a few mug/L, among the compounds Caffeine, Nicotine and Galaxolide (musk fragrance) were found to be present in more than 60% of the samples. Diuron was the only priority substance detected. The four metals were always present in a variable concentration. After the WWATP treatment the majority of analytes are removed from tertiary treated wastewater or their concentration is reduced below 0.1mug/L. Monitoring revealed a widespread occurrence of analysed compounds in groundwater. Among them Codeine (analgesic), Ibuprofen (anti-inflammatory), Iopamidol, Iopromide (contrast agent) and Paraxanthine (metabolite of caffeine) have only been detected in groundwater, and are not present in water currently being injected in the deep aquifer.
In the past 15-20 years major discoveries have been concluded on potato biology and biotechnology. Important new tools have been developed in the area of molecular genetics, and our understanding of potato physiology has been revolutionized due to amenability of the potato to genetic transformation. This technology has impacted our understanding of the molecular basis of plant-pathogen interaction and has also opened new opportunities for the use of the potato in a variety of non-food biotechnological purposes. This book covers the potato world market as it expands further into the new millennium. Authors stress the overriding need for stable yields to eliminate human hunger and poverty, while considering solutions to enhance global production and distribution. It comprehensively describes genetics and genetic resources, plant growth and development, response to the environment, tuber quality, pests and diseases, biotechnology and crop management. Potato Biology is the most valuable reference available for all professionals involved in the potato industry, plant biologists and agronomists. Offers an understanding of the social, economic and market factors that influence production and distribution Discusses developments and useful traits in transgenic biology and genetic engineering The first reference entirely devoted to understanding new advances in potato biology and biotechnology.
Commercial food processing operations such as washing, blanching, and cooking remove major portions of the pesticide residues that are currently permitted on the raw agricultural crop. These unit operations are reviewed for selected products, along with degree of residue removal at each step. For example, washing plus peeling removes 99% of carbaryl and malathion residues from tomatoes. Washing removes 83% of benomyl residue from tomatoes and further processing reduces the residue by 98% in tomato puree and catsup. Even in the most concentrated fraction from tomatoes (tomato paste), residues were below the initial level in the raw product.
Monitoring of pesticide residues in potato tubers and their prepared products ("pommes frites" and chips) was undertaken. Experiments were carried out to determine changes in concentration due to the washing, peeling and cooking process (blanching and frying) to assess the stability of pesticides in potatoes and their products. Pesticide residues were quantified by using gas chromatography. Results show that malathion, HCB, lindane and p,p-DDD were predominant in potatoes and their products. The highest mean was detected in potatoes, followed by pommes frites, while the lowest mean was recorded in chips. On the other hand, potato skin samples were found to contain the highest levels of DDT and its derivatives, lindane and HCB. Peeling was necessary to remove the greatest amount of pesticides in the skin. Washing with water and/or other solutions as well as the cooking process (blanching and frying) helped to eliminate most of the pesticide residues from the potato tubers.
Toelatingen van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen raadplegen
FPS Health Food Chain Safety and Environment, 2015b. Toelatingen van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen raadplegen [WWW Document].
Alle MRLs voor linuron en iprodion worden geschrapt
FPS Health Food Chain Safety and Environment, 2018. Alle MRLs voor linuron en iprodion worden geschrapt [WWW Document].
Handbook of Vegetable Preservation and Processing
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Evaluation of Analytical Methods for EDCs and PPCPs via Interlaboratory Comparision
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