PreprintPDF Available

Achtsamkeit, (Selbst)Mitgefühl und der verkörperte phänomenologische Dialog in der Schule – Bericht aus dem NRW-Modellprojekt „AmSel – Achtsamkeits- und mitgefühlsbasierte Suchtprävention in Schulen“

Authors:
  • Kliniken Essen-Mitte/University of Duisburg-Essen
Preprints and early-stage research may not have been peer reviewed yet.

Abstract

Achtsamkeits-und Mitgefühlsübungen finden seit einigen Jahren Einzug in die Schulpraxis. Lehrer:innen und Schüler:innen nehmen sich z.B. strukturiert Zeit für gemeinsame Stille. Sie lenken im Schulalltag ihre Aufmerksamkeit immer wieder wohlwollend auf den Atem, auf ihren Körper, auf Sinneseindrücke, Gefühle, Gedanken und Handlungsimpulse. Die positiven Effekte auf die Selbstregulation, die Stressbewältigung und Beziehungsgestaltung sowie auf die Qualität des Lernens wurden vielfach belegt (Dunning et al. 2018). Ein wesentlicher Bestandteil des achtsamkeits-und selbstmitfühlenden Unterrichtens ist zudem das verkörperte Sprechen über die Erfahrungen, die z.B. während der Stillephasen und Meditationen gemacht werden. Als ein neues Format der qualitativen Bildungsforschung verwendet unsere Arbeitsgruppe es zudem für die Gewinnung von Einsichten in die Wirkungen achtsamkeits-und mitgefühlsbasierter Weiterbildungen für Lehrer:innen und ganze Kollegien. Dieser Artikel stellt die Prinzipien und Schritte dieser Gesprächsform vor. Anhand von Beispielen v.a. aus dem Modellprojekt "AmSel-Achtsamkeits-und mitgefühlsbasierte Suchtprävention in Schulen" und der an der Universität Duisburg-Essen entwickelten MultiplikatorInnen-Weiterbildung "GAMMA-Gesundheit, Achtsamkeit und Mitgefühl im Schulalltag" wird gezeigt, welche Auswirkungen aus der gemeinsamen Praxis von Achtsamkeit, (Selbst) Mitgefühl und verkörpertem Sprechen auf die Beziehungen, die Schulkultur und den Bildungsprozess entstehen können. Stichwörter: Achtsamkeit, Mitgefühl, Suchtprävention, Schule, qualitative Forschung, Phänomenologie, Embodiment, Persönlichkeitsentwicklung, pädagogische Beziehungen, Schulkultur
1
Für Lehren & Lernen 2021/6 Themenheft „Achtsamkeit und Mitgefühl in der Bildung für
das Gemeinwohl“
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„Achtsamkeit ist eine Stärke in mir, die immer da ist, wie ein Pullover,
der mich wärmt und schützt. Achtsamkeit ist immer da und hilft mir,
viel feiner wahrzunehmen und mir eine Freiheit
in Entscheidungen zu geben.“
Lehrer einer AmSel-Schule
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Literatur
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Article
Full-text available
Background Mindfulness based interventions (MBIs) are an increasingly popular way of attempting to improve the behavioural, cognitive and mental health outcomes of children and adolescents, though there is a suggestion that enthusiasm has moved ahead of the evidence base. Most evaluations of MBIs are either uncontrolled or nonrandomized trials. This meta‐analysis aims to establish the efficacy of MBIs for children and adolescents in studies that have adopted a randomized, controlled trial (RCT) design. Methods A systematic literature search of RCTs of MBIs was conducted up to October 2017. Thirty‐three independent studies including 3,666 children and adolescents were included in random effects meta‐analyses with outcome measures categorized into cognitive, behavioural and emotional factors. Separate random effects meta‐analyses were completed for the seventeen studies (n = 1,762) that used an RCT design with an active control condition. Results Across all RCTs we found significant positive effects of MBIs, relative to controls, for the outcome categories of Mindfulness, Executive Functioning, Attention, Depression, Anxiety/Stress and Negative Behaviours, with small effect sizes (Cohen's d), ranging from .16 to .30. However, when considering only those RCTs with active control groups, significant benefits of an MBI were restricted to the outcomes of Mindfulness (d = .42), Depression (d = .47) and Anxiety/Stress (d = .18) only. Conclusions This meta‐analysis reinforces the efficacy of using MBIs for improving the mental health and wellbeing of youth as assessed using the gold standard RCT methodology. Future RCT evaluations should incorporate scaled‐up definitive trial designs to further evaluate the robustness of MBIs in youth, with an embedded focus on mechanisms of action.
Funding und Conflict of Interests Die Arbeit am Manuskript war dem Erstautor möglich dank der Förderung durch das AVE--Institut
  • T Metzinger
  • M Van Maanen
Metzinger, T.: Der Ego--Tunnel. Vom Mythos des Selbst zur Ethik des Bewusstseins. Berlin Verlag, 2009. van Maanen, M.: Pedagogical tact. Routledge, 2016. Funding und Conflict of Interests Die Arbeit am Manuskript war dem Erstautor möglich dank der Förderung durch das AVE--Institut, Darmstadt & Berlin. Beide Autoren erzielen Teile ihrer Einkommens durch Bildungsangebote zur Förderung von Achtsamkeit und Mitgefühl.