Thesis

Antibacterial properties of beeswax food wraps and enhancement with propolis: a novel study

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Abstract

In recent years, wraps made with beeswax, jojoba oil, and tree resin have emerged both in the form of commercial and home-made products as a sustainable alternative to clingfilm. This study evaluated the antimicrobial properties of their components and explored a potential enhancement with propolis. Food grade beeswax and propolis samples were extracted by reflux, and jojoba oil and pine resin by Soxhlet, and solvent extraction respectively. The antimicrobial effects of the extracts against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were evaluated using the agar disc diffusion method. A novel method using extract-impregnated discs in bacterial suspensions was also trialled. Combinations of extracts were tested to detect interaction effects (IE) between components. Beeswax and jojoba oil showed no antimicrobial activity (P>0·05), resin reduced the growth of S. aureus (P<0.001), and propolis inhibited both S. aureus (P=0·011) and E. coli. Synergistic interactions were detected between the wrap components (IE=-59·73%) and between beeswax and propolis (IE=-27·88%), but only against S. aureus. The results showed that beeswax food wraps possess antimicrobial properties, and that propolis may enhance these by additivity or synergy. Overestimation of bacterial concentrations likely occurred due to method flaws, therefore possible improvements were identified to increase method reliability. Further studies including larger number of replicates are required to confirm the described results.

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In this authoritative and comprehensive volume the authors explain the provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) on access and benefit-sharing, the effect of national laws to implement these, and aspects of typical contracts for the transfer of materials. They provide a unique sector-by-sector analysis of how genetic resources are used, the scientific, technological and regulatory trends and the different markets for products using biotechnology.
Article
The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of chronic degenerative diseases and higher life expectancy. These health benefits have been partially attributed to the dietary consumption of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) by Mediterranean populations, and more specifically the phenolic compounds naturally present in EVOO. Studies involving humans and animals (in vivo and in vitro) have demonstrated that olive oil phenolic compounds have potentially beneficial biological effects resulting from their antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the biological activities of specific olive oil phenolic compounds together with information on their concentration in EVOO, bioavailability and stability over time.
Article
Sipponen A, Laitinen K. Antimicrobial properties of natural coniferous rosin in the European Pharmacopoeia challenge test. APMIS 2011; 119: 720–24. Rosins (resins) are natural products of the coniferous trees. Purified rosin from the trunk of Norway spruce (Picea abies) is antibacterial against the gram-positive bacteria, but not against the gram-negative bacteria in agar plate diffusion test. In this study, we examined the antimicrobial properties of the coniferous rosin against bacteria and yeasts using the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) challenge test. The microbes tested were Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans. To prepare challenge media, purified rosin was mixed with a biologically inert salve in varying concentrations. The microbes were inoculated (5 × 105 microbes (bacteria) or 5 × 104 microbes (yeast, C.albicans)) into 10 g of the rosin-containing challenge medium for 14 days at maximum. Samples were taken from the media for re-cultivation of the microbes at time intervals of 1 h, 24 h, 4, 7, and 14 days. The microbicidal efficacy of the challenge media was estimated by reduction of the number of the colony forming units (CFU) of microbes in the test samples. A reduction of more than 103 CFU for bacteria and 102 CFU for fungi in 7 days was considered to indicate a significant microbicidal action. Pure rosin was antimicrobial within 24 h against all microbes tested. The 0.5% rosin-salve medium (w/w) did not differ in microbicidal effects from the rosin-free salve medium (control). A raise of the rosin concentration resulted in increase of the microbicidal effect of the rosin-salve medium against all micro-organisms tested. Rosin concentration of 10% (w/w) in the medium significantly reduced the colonization of S. aureus (including MRSA) within 24 h and significantly reduced the colonization of all other micro-organisms within 4 days. Rosin is strongly microbicidal against a wide range of microbes, against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and against C. albicans, in the EP challenge test. The minimum concentration of rosin is 10% (w/w) to prevent the preservation of the microbes in the rosin-salve media.
Article
The search for antimicrobial agents from plants has been a growing interest in the last few decades. However, results generated from many of these studies cannot be directly compared due to the absence of standardization in particular antimicrobial methods employed. The need for established methods with consistent results for the evaluation of antimicrobial activities from plant extracts has been proposed by many researchers. Nevertheless, there are still many studies reported in the literature describing different methodologies. The aim of this study was to find optimal methods to give consistent quantitative antimicrobial results for studying plant extracts. Three different agar-based assays (pour plate disc diffusion (PPDD), streak plate disc diffusion (SPDD) and well-in agar (WA)) and one broth-based (turbidometric (TB)) assay were used in this study. Extracts from two plant species (Duabanga grandiflora and Acalypha wilkesiana) were tested on two bacterial species, namely Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Amongst the agar-based assays, PPDD produced the most reproducible results. TB was able to show the inhibitory effects of the test samples on the growth kinetic of the bacteria including plant extracts with low polarity. We propose that both agar- (i.e PPDD) and broth-based assays should be employed when assessing the antimicrobial activity of plant crude extracts.
Article
Honey, beeswax and olive oil mixture (1:1:1, v/v) is useful in the treatment of diaper dermatitis, psoriasis and eczema. The study was designed to investigate effects of honey, olive oil, and beeswax and the mixture on growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans isolated from human specimens. The following experiments were performed: 1) honey mixture was poured on holes made on plates seeded with S. aureus or C. albicans, 2) the microorganisms were cultured onto media made of honey mixture alone, nutrient agar-honey mixture and Sabouraud glucose agar-honey mixture. The concentration of honey mixture in nutrient agar or Sabouraud glucose agar was 12.5, 25, 33, 50 and 66% (v/v), and 3) honey, olive oil or beeswax was added onto nutrient agar or Sabouraud glucose agar at a ratio of 1:2 (v/v) and then were seeded with S. aureus or C. albicans. Clear zone of inhibition was observed around holes filled with honey mixture; 3.5 mm on media seeded with C. albicans and 4 mm on media seeded with S. aureus. No growth of either microorganism was obtained on media made of honey mixture alone. The minimum concentration of honey mixture in nutrient agar-honey mixture media required to inhibit S. aureus was 50% and 66% concentration was required to inhibit C. albicans growth onto Sabouraud glucose agar-honey mixture media. No growth of S. aureus or C. albicans was obtained on media containing honey whereas mild to moderate growth was obtained on media containing olive oil or beeswax. Honey and honey mixture apparently could inhibit growth of S. aureus or C. albicans.
Antimicrobial activity and phytochemicals screening of Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) Root extracts and latex
  • F Abu-Salem
ABU-SALEM, F. and IBRAHIM, H., 2014. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemicals screening of Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) Root extracts and latex. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Engineering, 8(5), pp. 517-522.
Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Jordanian Simmondsia Chinesis
  • H Al-Qizwini
AL-QIZWINI, H. et al., 2014. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Jordanian Simmondsia Chinesis. European Scientific Journal, 10(27), pp. 229-241.
A prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial to compare resin salve and medical honey for effectiveness on wound healing after a peripheral vascular intervention
  • T Auvinen
AUVINEN, T. et al., 2016. A prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial to compare resin salve and medical honey for effectiveness on wound healing after a peripheral vascular intervention. [Poster].
Our sustainability policy
BEEBEE, 2020. Our sustainability policy. [online].
Beeswax: history, uses and trade. Bee Product Science
  • S Bogdanov
BOGDANOV, S., 2017. Beeswax: history, uses and trade. Bee Product Science. [online]. Available from: http://www.bee-hexagon.net/wax/beeswax-historyuses-trade/ [Accessed 10 January 2020].
How to make beeswax wraps (Reusable Food Wrap)
  • H Dessigner
DESSIGNER, H., 2014. How to make beeswax wraps (Reusable Food Wrap). [online]. 2 January 2014. Available from: https://mommypotamus.com/diy-reusable-food-wrap/ [Accessed 16 February 2020].
Media preparation for EUCAST disk diffusion testing and for determination of MIC values by the broth microdilution method
  • European Committee
  • Antimicrobial
  • Testing
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE ON ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING (EUCAST), 2020. Media preparation for EUCAST disk diffusion testing and for determination of MIC values by the broth microdilution method. Basel: EUCAST.
Make your own beeswax food wraps! [online
  • L Gummerman
GUMMERMAN, L., 2018. Make your own beeswax food wraps! [online]. 28 August 2018. Available from: https://abeautifulmess.com/2018/08/make-your-ownbeeswax-food-wraps.html [Accessed 9 May 2020].
Food spoilage and contamination by pathogens is a global issue
  • F Pinu
PINU, F., 2016. Food spoilage and contamination by pathogens is a global issue. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 54, pp. 213-215.
Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of resins and essential oil from Pine (Pinus merkusii, Pinuso ocarpa, Pinus insularis) and Agathis (Agathis loranthifolia)
  • M Tillah
  • I Batubara
  • R Sari
TILLAH, M., BATUBARA, I. and KARTIKA SARI, R., 2017. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of resins and essential oil from Pine (Pinus merkusii, Pinuso ocarpa, Pinus insularis) and Agathis (Agathis loranthifolia). Biosaintifika, 9(1), pp. 134-139