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The Impact of Coronavirus (COVID-19) Related Public-Health Measures on Training Behaviours of Individuals Previously Participating in Resistance Training: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study

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IntroductionUnderstanding the impact of lockdown upon resistance training (RT), and how people adapted their RT behaviours, has implications for strategies to maintain engagement in similar positive health behaviours. Further, doing so will provide a baseline for investigation of the long-term effects of these public health measures upon behaviours and perceptions, and facilitate future follow-up study.Objectives To determine how the onset of coronavirus (COVID-19), and associated ‘lockdown’, affected RT behaviours, in addition to motivation, perceived effectiveness, enjoyment, and intent to continue, in those who regularly performed RT prior to the pandemic.Methods We conducted an observational, cross-sectional study using online surveys in multiple languages (English, Danish, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Slovakian, Swedish, and Japanese) distributed across social media platforms and through authors’ professional and personal networks. Adults (n = 5389; median age = 31 years [interquartile range (IQR) = 25, 38]), previously engaged in RT prior to lockdown (median prior RT experience = 7 years [IQR = 4, 12]) participated. Outcomes were self-reported RT behaviours including: continuation of RT during lockdown, location of RT, purchase of specific equipment for RT, method of training, full-body or split routine, types of training, repetition ranges, exercise number, set volumes (per exercise and muscle group), weekly frequency of training, perception of effort, whether training was planned/recorded, time of day, and training goals. Secondary outcomes included motivation, perceived effectiveness, enjoyment, and intent to continue RT.ResultsA majority of individuals (82.8%) maintained participation in RT during-lockdown. Marginal probabilities from generalised linear models and generalised estimating equations for RT behaviours were largely similar from pre- to during-lockdown. There was reduced probability of training in privately owned gyms (~ 59% to ~ 7%) and increased probability of training at home (~ 18% to ~ 89%); greater probability of training using a full-body routine (~ 38% to ~ 51%); reduced probability of resistance machines (~ 66% to ~ 13%) and free weight use (~ 96% to ~ 81%), and increased probability of bodyweight training (~ 62% to ~ 82%); reduced probability of moderate repetition ranges (~ 62–82% to ~ 55–66%) and greater probability of higher repetition ranges (~ 27% to ~ 49%); and moderate reduction in the perception of effort experienced during-training (r = 0.31). Further, individuals were slightly less likely to plan or record training during lockdown and many changed their training goals. Additionally, perceived effectiveness, enjoyment, and likelihood of continuing current training were all lower during-lockdown.Conclusions Those engaged in RT prior to lockdown these behaviours with only slight adaptations in both location and types of training performed. However, people employed less effort, had lower motivation, and perceived training as less effective and enjoyable, reporting their likelihood of continuing current training was similar or lower than pre-lockdown. These results have implications for strategies to maintain engagement in positive health behaviours such as RT during-restrictive pandemic-related public health measures.Pre-registrationhttps://osf.io/qcmpf.PreprintThe preprint version of this work is available on SportRχiv: https://osf.io/preprints/sportrxiv/b8s7e/.
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Vol.:(0123456789)
Sports Medicine (2021) 51:1561–1580
https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-021-01438-5
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE
The Impact ofCoronavirus (COVID‑19) Related Public‑Health Measures
onTraining Behaviours ofIndividuals Previously Participating
inResistance Training: ACross‑Sectional Survey Study
JamesSteele1,2 · PatroklosAndroulakis‑Korakakis1· LukeCarlson3· DavidWilliams4· StuartPhillips5·
DaveSmith6· BradJ.Schoenfeld7· JeremyP.Loenneke8· RichardWinett9· TakashiAbe8· StéphaneDufour10·
MartinoV.Franchi11· FabioSarto11· TommyR.Lundberg12· PauloGentil13· ThueKvorning14· JürgenGiessing15·
MilanSedliak16· AntonioPaoli11· FionaSpotswood17· AlexLucas2· JamesP.Fisher1
Accepted: 12 February 2021 / Published online: 19 April 2021
© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG part of Springer Nature 2021
Abstract
Introduction Understanding the impact of lockdown upon resistance training (RT), and how people adapted their RT behav-
iours, has implications for strategies to maintain engagement in similar positive health behaviours. Further, doing so will
provide a baseline for investigation of the long-term effects of these public health measures upon behaviours and perceptions,
and facilitate future follow-up study.
Objectives To determine how the onset of coronavirus (COVID-19), and associated ‘lockdown’, affected RT behaviours,
in addition to motivation, perceived effectiveness, enjoyment, and intent to continue, in those who regularly performed RT
prior to the pandemic.
Methods We conducted an observational, cross-sectional study using online surveys in multiple languages (English, Dan-
ish, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Slovakian, Swedish, and Japanese) distributed across social media platforms and
through authors’ professional and personal networks. Adults (n = 5389; median age = 31years [interquartile range (IQR) = 25,
38]), previously engaged in RT prior to lockdown (median prior RT experience = 7years [IQR = 4, 12]) participated. Out-
comes were self-reported RT behaviours including: continuation of RT during lockdown, location of RT, purchase of specific
equipment for RT, method of training, full-body or split routine, types of training, repetition ranges, exercise number, set
volumes (per exercise and muscle group), weekly frequency of training, perception of effort, whether training was planned/
recorded, time of day, and training goals. Secondary outcomes included motivation, perceived effectiveness, enjoyment,
and intent to continue RT.
Results A majority of individuals (82.8%) maintained participation in RT during-lockdown. Marginal probabilities from
generalised linear models and generalised estimating equations for RT behaviours were largely similar from pre- to during-
lockdown. There was reduced probability of training in privately owned gyms (~ 59% to ~ 7%) and increased probability of
training at home (~ 18% to ~ 89%); greater probability of training using a full-body routine (~ 38% to ~ 51%); reduced prob-
ability of resistance machines (~ 66% to ~ 13%) and free weight use (~ 96% to ~ 81%), and increased probability of bodyweight
training (~ 62% to ~ 82%); reduced probability of moderate repetition ranges (~ 62–82% to ~ 55–66%) and greater probability
of higher repetition ranges (~ 27% to ~ 49%); and moderate reduction in the perception of effort experienced during-training
(r = 0.31). Further, individuals were slightly less likely to plan or record training during lockdown and many changed their
training goals. Additionally, perceived effectiveness, enjoyment, and likelihood of continuing current training were all lower
during-lockdown.
Conclusions Those engaged in RT prior to lockdown these behaviours with only slight adaptations in both location and types
of training performed. However, people employed less effort, had lower motivation, and perceived training as less effec-
tive and enjoyable, reporting their likelihood of continuing current training was similar or lower than pre-lockdown. These
results have implications for strategies to maintain engagement in positive health behaviours such as RT during-restrictive
pandemic-related public health measures.
Extended author information available on the last page of the article
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... Evidently, some athletes were already in possession of, or were able to prepare/buy/borrow the necessary equipment (specialized or otherwise) prior to lockdown. 25 Concerning training facility access, elite athletes were less affected by lockdowns than their lower-level counterparts. 21 In contrast, Combat sport athletes had to change their training focus and methods to a larger extent given the higher probability of virus transmission during close contact interactions. ...
... During lockdown, resistance training can be performed in different ways to achieve specific objectives, albeit necessitating some creativity using different types of training, dependent on location. 25 Nevertheless, despite being able to maintain elements of routine practices, some key variables such as training intensity were likely compromised during lockdown. 25 Clearly, athletes wishing to elicit specific adaptive responses in terms of training goals must manipulate or modify the key training variables accordingly, including training duration, intensity, type of exercise, and frequency. ...
... 25 Nevertheless, despite being able to maintain elements of routine practices, some key variables such as training intensity were likely compromised during lockdown. 25 Clearly, athletes wishing to elicit specific adaptive responses in terms of training goals must manipulate or modify the key training variables accordingly, including training duration, intensity, type of exercise, and frequency. These adaptations may lack efficacy regarding maintenance or development of physical and/or technical attributes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To investigate differences in athletes' knowledge, beliefs, and training practices during COVID-19 lockdowns with reference to sport classification and sex. This work extends an initial descriptive evaluation focusing on athlete classification. Methods: Athletes (12,526; 66% male; 142 countries) completed an online survey (May-July 2020) assessing knowledge, beliefs, and practices toward training. Sports were classified as team sports (45%), endurance (20%), power/technical (10%), combat (9%), aquatic (6%), recreational (4%), racquet (3%), precision (2%), parasports (1%), and others (1%). Further analysis by sex was performed. Results: During lockdown, athletes practiced bodyweight based exercises routinely (67% females and 64% males), ranging from 50% (precision) to 78% (parasports). More sport-specific technical skills were performed in combat, parasports, and precision (∼50%) than other sports (∼35%). Most athletes (range: 50% [parasports] to 75% [endurance]) performed cardiorespiratory training (trivial sex differences). Compared to prelockdown, perceived training intensity was reduced by 29% to 41%, depending on sport (largest decline: ∼38% in team sports, unaffected by sex). Some athletes (range: 7%-49%) maintained their training intensity for strength, endurance, speed, plyometric, change-of-direction, and technical training. Athletes who previously trained ≥5 sessions per week reduced their volume (range: 18%-28%) during lockdown. The proportion of athletes (81%) training ≥60 min/session reduced by 31% to 43% during lockdown. Males and females had comparable moderate levels of training knowledge (56% vs 58%) and beliefs/attitudes (54% vs 56%). Conclusions: Changes in athletes' training practices were sport-specific, with few or no sex differences. Team-based sports were generally more susceptible to changes than individual sports. Policy makers should provide athletes with specific training arrangements and educational resources to facilitate remote and/or home-based training during lockdown-type events. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the resulting COVID-19 pandemic transformed day-today life globally. 1 National and/or local authorities adopted (and read-opted) varying restrictive measures to curb virus spread, including closure of borders and educational institutions, alongside restriction of commercial activities. 2 Global sporting calendars were severely disrupted at all levels, notably the postponement of the Tokyo 2020 Summer Olympics. Sport-specific training and recovery facilities Washif (jad@isn.gov.my) is corresponding author.
... Evidently, some athletes were already in possession of, or were able to prepare/buy/borrow the necessary equipment (specialized or otherwise) prior to lockdown. 25 Concerning training facility access, elite athletes were less affected by lockdowns than their lower-level counterparts. 21 In contrast, Combat sport athletes had to change their training focus and methods to a larger extent given the higher probability of virus transmission during close contact interactions. ...
... During lockdown, resistance training can be performed in different ways to achieve specific objectives, albeit necessitating some creativity using different types of training, dependent on location. 25 Nevertheless, despite being able to maintain elements of routine practices, some key variables such as training intensity were likely compromised during lockdown. 25 Clearly, athletes wishing to elicit specific adaptive responses in terms of training goals must manipulate or modify the key training variables accordingly, including training duration, intensity, type of exercise, and frequency. ...
... 25 Nevertheless, despite being able to maintain elements of routine practices, some key variables such as training intensity were likely compromised during lockdown. 25 Clearly, athletes wishing to elicit specific adaptive responses in terms of training goals must manipulate or modify the key training variables accordingly, including training duration, intensity, type of exercise, and frequency. These adaptations may lack efficacy regarding maintenance or development of physical and/or technical attributes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To investigate differences in athletes' knowledge, beliefs, and training practices during COVID-19 lockdowns with reference to sport classification and sex. This work extends an initial descriptive evaluation focusing on athlete classification. Methods: Athletes (12,526; 66% male; 142 countries) completed an online survey (May-July 2020) assessing knowledge, beliefs, and practices toward training. Sports were classified as team sports (45%), endurance (20%), power/technical (10%), combat (9%), aquatic (6%), recreational (4%), racquet (3%), precision (2%), parasports (1%), and others (1%). Further analysis by sex was performed. Results: During lockdown, athletes practiced body-weight-based exercises routinely (67% females and 64% males), ranging from 50% (precision) to 78% (parasports). More sport-specific technical skills were performed in combat, parasports, and precision (∼50%) than other sports (∼35%). Most athletes (range: 50% [parasports] to 75% [endurance]) performed cardiorespiratory training (trivial sex differences). Compared to prelockdown, perceived training intensity was reduced by 29% to 41%, depending on sport (largest decline: ∼38% in team sports, unaffected by sex). Some athletes (range: 7%-49%) maintained their training intensity for strength, endurance, speed, plyometric, change-of-direction, and technical training. Athletes who previously trained ≥5 sessions per week reduced their volume (range: 18%-28%) during lockdown. The proportion of athletes (81%) training ≥60 min/session reduced by 31% to 43% during lockdown. Males and females had comparable moderate levels of training knowledge (56% vs 58%) and beliefs/attitudes (54% vs 56%). Conclusions: Changes in athletes' training practices were sport-specific, with few or no sex differences. Team-based sports were generally more susceptible to changes than individual sports. Policy makers should provide athletes with specific training arrangements and educational resources to facilitate remote and/or home-based training during lockdown-type events.
... In addition, changes in physical activity, nutrient intake, and body weight during lockdowns or the COVID-19 pandemic did not accurately reflect real nationwide changes because they used mobile devices or self-questionnaires. In addition, there were controversial study findings regarding whether physical activity or nutrient intake really had deteriorated during the COVID-19 pandemic (10,11). ...
... We inferred that the frequency and duration of movement may have decreased due to fear of COVID-19 or policies such as social distancing, while the frequency of performing resistance exercises increased to compensate for the lack of daily activities. Although there is no clear evidence to support this inference, it was reported that motivation or perceived effort decreased compared to those before the lockdown, but most people maintained the practice of performing resistance training in the multinational survey (11). In addition, the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) study also reported that although vigorous physical activity decreased in 2020 compared to 2019 in Korean adolescents, the frequency of strength exercise increased in 2020 (29). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background This study aimed to examine changes in obesity rates and obesity-related factors during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to a previous period. Methods An ecological time-series study was designed using the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES) database from 2014 to 2020. The expected values of obesity rate, physical activity rate, and nutrient intake for 2020 were estimated. The differences between the predicted and actual values for 2020 were also examined. In addition, a multiple logistic regression model was used to examine the changes in obesity and physical activity rates in 2020 compared to 2019. Results The actual obesity rates in 2020 were higher, and the walking and aerobic physical activity rates were lower than the predicted values for the same year. However, the actual resistance training rates in 2020 were higher and the total energy intake was lower than the predicted values for 2020. In the multiple logistic regression model, the odds ratios for obesity, aerobic physical activity, and walking among men in 2020 were 1.29 (95% CI: 1.08 to 1.55), 0.86 (0.74 to 1.01), and 0.84 (0.73 to 0.97), respectively, compared to those in 2019. However, there were no significant differences between the values for women in 2020 and 2019. Conclusions This study suggests that the male obesity rate in Korea has significantly increased during the COVID-19 epidemic, mainly due to a decrease in physical activity.
... By contrast, some studies have shown a decrease in physical activity behaviors, particularly in countries with stricter confinement guidelines meant to reduce the spread of COVID-19 [63]. Other research examining COVID-19 and physical activity has noted substantial changes in resistance training routines with individuals reporting resistance training being less enjoyable despite similar or lower engagement in resistance training routines [64]. Adequate levels of physical activity may promote resilience against COVID-19 symptoms through exercise-induced immunomodulation [65], thus, strategies to maintain activity levels in the event of such disruptions in the future is important both for acute disease prevention, as well as the well-established impact of physical activity on chronic disease risk. ...
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Purpose This study determined fluid intake and physical activity behaviors among college students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods College students (n = 1014; females, 75.6%) completed an online survey during the Spring 2020 academic semester following the initial global response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Academic standing, habitation situation, and University/College responses to COVID-19 were collected. Participants completed the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire and a 15-item Beverage Questionnaire (BEVQ-15) to determine physical activity level and fluid intake behaviors, respectively. Results Females (1920 ± 960 mL) consumed significantly less fluid than males (2400 ± 1270 mL, p < 0.001). Living off-campus (p < 0.01) and living with a spouse/partner (p < 0.01) was associated with increased consumption of alcoholic beverages. 88.7% of participants reported being at least moderately active; however, Black/African American and Asian participants were more likely to be less active than their Caucasian/White counterparts (p < 0.05). Participants reporting no change in habitation in response to COVID-19 had a higher fluid intake (p = 0.002); however, the plain water consumption remained consistent (p = 0.116). While there was no effect of habitation or suspension of classes on physical activity levels (p > 0.05), greater self-reported physical activity was associated with greater fluid intake (std. β = 0.091, p = 0.003). Conclusions Fluid intake among college students during the initial response to the COVID-19 pandemic approximated current daily fluid intake recommendations. Associations between COVID-19-related disruptions (i.e., suspension of classes and changes in habitation) and increased alcohol intake are concerning and may suggest the need for the development of targeted strategies and programming to attenuate the execution of negative health-related behaviors in college students.
... Physical inactivity is a consistent part of many people's daily life [1], as well as the possibility for prolonged phases of immobilization [2][3][4], which can have significant negative influences on metabolic and musculoskeletal health [5,6] in sports performance. In addition to injuries and frequent sitting, evidence highlights significantly decreased physical activity and motivation to train [7] in the majority of people due to the COVID-19 lockdown(s) [8][9][10]. As a consequence, reduced physical fitness, including strength capacity and maximal strength (MSt), were reported. ...
Article
Full-text available
There are many reasons for reduced physical activity leading to reduced maximal strength and sport-specific performance, such as jumping performance. These include pandemic lockdowns, serious injury, or prolonged sitting in daily work life. Consequently, such circumstances can contribute to increased morbidity and reduced physical performance. Therefore, a demand for space-saving and home-based training routines to counteract decreases in physical performance is suggested in the literature. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of using daily static stretching using a stretching board to counteract inactivity-related decreases in performance. Thirty-five (35) participants were either allocated to an intervention group (IG), performing a daily ten-minute stretch training combined with reduced physical activity or a reduced physical activity-only group (rPA). The effects on maximal voluntary contraction, range of motion using the knee-to-wall test, countermovement jump height (CMJheight), squat jump height (SJheight), drop jump height (DJheight), contact time (DJct) and the reactive strength index (DJRSI) were evaluated using a pre-test-post-test design. The rPA group reported reduced physical activity because of lockdown. Results showed significant decreases in flexibility and jump performance (d = −0.11–−0.36, p = 0.004–0.046) within the six weeks intervention period with the rPA group. In contrast, the IG showed significant increases in MVC90 (d = 0.3, p < 0.001) and ROM (d = 0.44, p < 0.001) with significant improvements in SJheight (d = 0.14, p = 0.002), while no change was measured for CMJheight and DJ performance. Hence, 10 min of daily stretching seems to be sufficient to counteract inactivity-related performance decreases in young and healthy participants.
... 3 In a resistance training study, limited access and storage of large amounts of free weights prompted more body weight-based exercises performed at higher repetition ranges. 23 Moreover, more Professional (55%) than Amateur (45%) players had the necessary equipment to perform strength training (as well as plyometrics) at home. A generally low percentage, but a relatively larger proportion of Professional players received/borrowed equipment from sports bodies or institutes for home training (19%), which was likely helpful for certain fitness aspects of these athletes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Unlabelled: The COVID-19 lockdown challenged the training options of athletes worldwide, including players from the most popular sport globally, football/soccer. Purpose: The authors explored the training practices of football players worldwide during the COVID-19 lockdown. Methods: Football players (N = 2482, 30% professional, 22% semipro, and 48% amateur) completed an online survey (May-July 2020) on their training practices before versus during lockdown (March-June 2020). Questions were related to training frequency and session duration, as well as training knowledge and attitudes. Results: Before lockdown, more professional (87%) than semipro (67%) and amateur (65%) players trained ≥5 sessions/wk, but this proportion decreased during the lockdown to 55%, 35%, and 42%, respectively. Players (80%-87%) trained ≥60 minutes before lockdown, but this proportion decreased to 45% in professionals, 43% in amateurs, and 36% in semipros during lockdown. At home, more than two-thirds of players had training space (73%) and equipment (66%) for cardiorespiratory training, while availability of equipment for technical and strength training was <50% during lockdown. Interactions between coach/trainer and player were more frequent (ie, daily) among professional (27%) than amateur (11%) and semipro (17%) players. Training load monitoring, albeit limited, was mostly performed by fitness coaches, more so with professionals (35%) than amateurs (13%) and semipros (17%). The players' training knowledge and attitudes/beliefs toward training were relatively modest (50%-59%). Conclusion: COVID-19 lockdown negatively affected training practices of football players worldwide, especially amateurs and semipros, for example, in training frequency, duration, intensity, technical, recovery, and other fitness training and coaching-related aspects. During lockdown-like situations, players should be monitored closely and provided appropriate support to facilitate their training.
... The analysis was based on an F test in the linear multiple regression (R 2 increase) that included the highest number of predictors (six tested predictors including two interaction effects and a total of eleven predictors) estimated that a minimum sample size of n=123 was required. We expected that 14% of the participants would fail the attention check questions (Steele et al., 2021). Therefore, we planned to recruit at least 144 participants. ...
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Using computerized reaction-time tasks assessing automatic attitudes, studies have shown that healthy young adults have faster reaction times when approaching physical activity stimuli than when avoiding them. The opposite has been observed for sedentary stimuli. However, it is unclear whether these results hold across the lifespan and when error rates and a possible generic approach-avoidance tendency are accounted for. Here, reaction times and errors in online approach-avoidance tasks of 130 participants aged 21 to 77 years were analyzed using mixed-effects models. Automatic approach-avoidance tendencies were tested using physical activity, sedentary, and neutral stimuli. Explicit attitudes toward physical activity and intention to be physically active were self-reported. Results showed faster reaction times and fewer errors when approaching compared to avoiding physical activity stimuli before 45 years of age and faster reactions to avoiding compared to approaching sedentary stimuli after this age. These results suggest a tendency to approach physical activity stimuli in younger adults and a tendency to avoid sedentary stimuli older adults. However, reaction time and error results revealed a generic approach tendency in early adulthood and a generic avoidance tendency in late adulthood. When accounting for these generic tendencies, results no longer showed evidence of an effect of age on approach-avoidance tendencies toward physical activity stimuli but kept suggesting a greater tendency (i.e., fewer errors) to avoid sedentary stimuli in older adults. Both reaction-time and error results supported a tendency to approach physical activity stimuli and to avoid sedentary stimuli across age, when further accounting for sex-gender, level of physical activity, body mass index, and chronic health condition. Finally, exploratory analyses showed that approach-avoidance tendencies toward physical activity and sedentary stimuli were associated with explicit attitudes toward physical activity but showed no evidence of an association with the intention to be physically active.
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Bartolomei, S, Zaniboni, F, Verzieri, N, and Hoffman, JR. New perspectives in resistance training periodization: mixed session vs. block periodized programs in trained men. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2022-The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effects of 2 different periodized resistance training programs on maximal strength, power, and muscle architecture, in trained individuals. Twenty-two resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either a mixed session training group (MSP; n 5 11; age 5 23.7 6 2.6 years; body mass 5 80.5 6 9.8 kg; height 5 175.5 6 6.1 cm) or a block periodization group (BP; n 5 11; age 5 25.7 6 4.6 years; body mass 5 81.1 6 10.7 kg; height 5 176.8 6 8.4 cm). Both training programs were 10 weeks in duration and were equated in volume. Each training session of the MSP focused on power, maximal strength, and hypertrophy, whereas each mesocycle within the BP focused on one of these components. Subjects were assessed for body composition, muscle architecture , maximal strength, and power. In addition, perceived training load, and training volume were calculated. Subjects in MSP experienced greater improvements in fat free mass (p 5 0.021), muscle thickness of the pectoralis and vastus lateralis (p , 0.05), and a greater improvement in 1RM bench press (p , 0.001; +8.6% in MSP and +2% in BP) than in BP. By contrast, BP resulted in greater improvements in vertical jump (p 5 0.022; +7.2%) compared with MSP (+1.2%). No significant differences were noted between the groups for perceived training load (p 5 0.362) nor training volume (p 5 0.169). Results of this study indicated that in a 10-week training study, MSP may enhance muscle hypertrophy and maximal strength to a greater extent than BP, with the same training volume and perceived training load. However, BP may be more effective for vertical jump improvement.
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Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected our nation's health further than the infection it causes. Physical activity levels and dietary intake have suffered while individuals grapple with the changes in behavior to reduce viral transmission. With unique nuances regarding the access to physical activity and nutrition during the pandemic, the constructs of Health Belief Model (HBM) may present themselves differently in nutrition and exercise behaviors compared to precautions implemented to reduce viral transmission studied in previous research. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent of exercise and nutritional behavior change during the COVID-19 pandemic and explain the reason for and extent of this change using HBM constructs (perceived susceptibility, severity, benefit of action, and barriers to action). Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design to collect 206 surveys. This survey collected information on self-reported exercise and nutrition changes during the pandemic and self-reported levels of the HBM constructs. Results: Findings showed individuals with medium or high exercise behavior change had greater odds of increased HBM score than individuals with little to no exercise behavior change (OR = 1.117, 95% CI: 1.020-1.223, SE: 0.0464, p = 0.0175). There was no association between nutritional behavior change and HBM score (OR = 1.011, 95% CI: 0.895-1.142, p = 08646). Conclusion: Individuals who reported a more drastic change in either exercise had greater odds of increased feelings of perceived susceptibility and severity related to COVID-19 and decreased perceived benefits and increased barriers to exercise. This relationship was not found regarding nutrition behavior change. These results encourage public health practitioners to understand how an individual's perceived feelings about a threat may affect exercise and nutritional behaviors.
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The spread of COVID-19 has altered sport in Spain, forcing athletes to train at home. The objectives of the study were: (i) to compare training and recovery conditions before and during the isolation period in handball players according to gender and competitive level, and (ii) to analyse the impact of psychological factors during the isolation period. A total of 187 participants (66 women and 121 men) answered a Google Forms questionnaire about demographics, training, moods, emotional intelligence, and resilience sent using the snowball sampling technique. T-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to compare sport level and gender differences. Linear regressions were used to analyse the psychological influence on training. Handball players reduced training intensity (in the whole sample; p = 0.44), training volume (especially in professional female handball players; p < 0.001), and sleep quality (especially in professional male handball players; p = 0.21) and increased sleep hours (especially in non-professional female players; p = 0.006) during the isolation period. Furthermore, psychological factors affected all evaluated training and recovery conditions during the quarantine, except for sleep quantity. Mood, emotional intelligence, and resilience have an influence on physical activity levels and recovery conditions. In addition, training components were modified under isolation conditions at p < 0.001. We conclude that the COVID-19 isolation period caused reductions in training volume and intensity and decreased sleep quality. Furthermore, psychological components have a significant impact on training and recovery conditions.
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Objectives: To assess how the early stages of National governments Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) containment strategies impacted upon the physical activity, mental health and well-being of adults in the UK, Ireland, New Zealand and Australia Design: Observational, cross-sectional Setting: Online survey disseminated in the UK, Ireland, New Zealand and Australia within the first 2-6 weeks of government mandated COVID-19 restrictions Participants: Adults (n = 8,425; 44.5 [14.8] y), ≥ 18 y who were residing in the surveyed countries Main outcome measures: Stages of Change scale for exercise behaviour change, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (short-form), World Health Organisation-5 Well-being Index and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-9 Results: Participants who reported a negative change in exercise behaviour between pre- and during the early COVID-19 restrictions demonstrated poorer mental health and well-being compared to those who had either a positive change- or no change in their exercise behaviour (p<0.001). Whilst women reported more positive changes in exercise behaviour, young people (18-29y) reported more negative changes (both p<0.001). Individuals who engaged in more physical activity reported better mental health and well-being (p<0.001). Although there were no differences in physical activity between countries, individuals in New Zealand reported better mental health and well-being (p<0.001). Conclusion: The COVID-19 restrictions have differentially impacted upon the physical activity habits of individuals based upon their age and sex, and therefore have important implications for international policy and guideline recommendations. Public health interventions that encourage physical activity should target specific groups (e.g., men, young adults) who are most vulnerable to the negative effects of physical distancing and/or self-isolation.
Article
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Enacted measures to control the spread of COVID-19 disease such as compulsory confinement may influence health behaviors. The present study investigated changes in physical activity (PA) levels during the first days of confinement. Using an online survey, the Spanish population (n = 2042, 54% women, age 35.9 (SD 13.6) years) replied to questions concerning sociodemographic characteristics as well as PA behavior before and during the first week of enacted isolation. Physical activity vital sign (PAVS) short form was used to estimate weekly minutes of PA before and during the isolation period. Statistical analysis used the following tests: Mc Nemar Chi-squared tests, independent and paired samples t-test, and effect size (Cohen's d). During the first week of confinement, participants reduced their weekly PA levels by 20% (~45.2 weekly minutes (95% CI: 37.4−53.0)). This led to a decrease from 60.6% to 48.9% (difference: 11.7%) (p < 0.0001) in the number of participants meeting the recommended World Health Organization (WHO) PA levels. Subgroups including men, participants aged 43 or over, and those not holding a university degree had the greatest reductions in both weekly minutes of PA and adherence to guidelines. The PA levels of the Spanish population generally declined during the first days of COVID-19 confinement.
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The ongoing global pandemic brought about by Coronavirus II (SARS-Cov-2 or COVID-19) has caused an ongoing cessation of sporting competitions and training facility closures. This is a fundamental challenge for amateur and elite sporting professionals. Although recommendations have been provided for team-sport athletes to maintain general and sport-specific conditioning, these methods are often not optimal for strength athletes (i.e., powerlifting (PL) and weightlifting (WL)) due to the unique and narrow set of performance requirements posed by these sports. The purpose of this review is to provide evidence-based information and recommendations and highlight potential strategies and approaches that may be used by strength (PL and WL) athletes during the current global crisis. Collectively, we provide evidence from resistance training literature regarding the loss of muscle strength, power and mass, minimum training frequencies required to attenuate such losses and training re-adaptation. Additionally, we suggest that time off training and competition caused by ongoing restrictions may be used for other purposes, such as overcoming injury and improving movement quality and/or mobility, goal setting, psychological development and emphasizing strength sports for health. These suggestions are intended to be useful for coaches, strength athletes and organizations where existing training strategies and recommendations are not suitable or no longer feasible.
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Resistance training (RT) is a popular exercise mode and is considered an essential part of an exercise program. In current pandemic times due to the coronavirus (i.e. COVID-19) outbreak, RT practice has been strongly threatened. However, such threat might not be an inherent problem to RT, but rather to misconceptions related to RT. In the current opinion article, we provide insights to better understand RT. When analyzing current scientific evidence, it seems that RT can be performed in a safe, time-efficient and uncomplicated manner, in many different places and with few resources, which makes it fully feasible within measures adopted to control coronavirus dissemination. RT should not be sacrificed due to consequences of the coronavirus pandemic. However, it might be necessary to sacrifice some old-fashioned thoughts, rooted in beliefs that have already been overturned by science. It would be counter-productive for population health (and countries economy) to avoid RT due to the misconception that specialized equipment, fashioned programs, or resources are needed for effective programs implementation. Therefore, RT can be easily adapted to the new time and logistical challenges brought by the coronavirus outbreak. From a practical standpoint, RT could be performed using body weight, accessible materials (e.g. elastic bands, lights dumbbells and barbell) or even without external load at home or at public spaces and still result in important health benefits.
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Objective To investigate the levels and correlates of physical activity during COVID-19 social distancing in a sample of the UK public. Methods This paper presents analyses of data from a cross-sectional study. Levels of physical activity during COVID-19 social distancing were self-reported. Participants also reported on sociodemographic and clinical data. The association between several factors and physical activity was studied using regression models. Results Nine hundred and eleven adults were included (64.0% were women and 50.4% of the participants were aged 35–64 years). 75.0% of the participants met the physical activity guidelines during social distancing. Meeting these guidelines during social distancing was significantly associated with sex (reference: male; female: OR=1.60, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.33), age (reference: 18–34 years; ≥65 years: OR=4.11, 95% CI 2.01 to 8.92), annual household income (reference: <£15 000; £15 000–<£25 000: OR=2.03, 95% CI 1.11 to 3.76; £25 000–<£40 000: OR=3.16, 95% CI 1.68 to 6.04; £40 000–<£60 000: OR=2.27, 95% CI 1.19 to 4.34; ≥£60 000: OR=2.11, 95% CI 1.09 to 4.09), level of physical activity per day when not observing social distancing (OR=1.00 (per 1 min increase), 95% CI 1.00 to 1.01), and any physical symptom experienced during social distancing (reference: no; yes: OR=0.31, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.46). Conclusion During COVID-19, social distancing interventions should focus on increasing physical activity levels among younger adults, men and those with low annual household income. It should be noted in the present sample that women and younger adults are over-represented.
Article
Objectives: To assess physical activity (PA), mental health and well-being of adults in the UK, Ireland, New Zealand and Australia during the initial stages of National governments’ Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) containment responses. Design: Observational, cross-sectional Methods: An online survey was disseminated to adults (n = 8,425; 44.5 ± 14.8y) residing in the UK, Ireland, New Zealand and Australia within the first 2-6 weeks of government-mandated COVID-19 restrictions. Main outcome measures included: Stages of Change scale for exercise behaviour change; International Physical Activity Questionnaire (short-form); World Health Organisation-5 Well-being Index; and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-9. Results: Participants who reported a negative change in exercise behaviour between pre-initial COVID-19 restrictions and during initial COVID-19 restrictions demonstrated poorer mental health and well-being compared to those demonstrating either a positive-or no change in their exercise behaviour (p<0.001). Whilst women reported more positive changes in exercise behaviour, young people (18-29y) reported more negative changes (both p<0.001). Individuals who had more positive exercise behaviours reported better mental health and well-being (p<0.001). Although there were no differences in PA between countries, individuals in New Zealand reported better mental health and well-being (p<0.001). Conclusion: The initial COVID-19 restrictions have differentially impacted upon PA habits of individuals based upon their age and sex, and therefore have important implications for international policy and guideline recommendations. Public health interventions that encourage PA should target specific groups (e.g., men, young adults) who are most vulnerable to the negative effects of physical distancing and/or self-isolation.
Article
Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has restricted freedom of movement with several countries ‘locked down’ worldwide. During this isolation period or quarantine, habits have been modified. This might have had negative effects on physiological variables but also influenced numerous emotional aspects, especially in elite athletes, which can have a negative impact on training and sleep quality, affecting their performance. Methods 175 Spanish professional and non-professional association football players answered an online survey about demographic and training habits, as well as two validated questionnaires to assess psychological variables (POMS and WLEIS-S). Results The results showed that the confinement period reduced the load of training (p < 0.01), and modified the sleeping behaviour (both, sleep time (p < 0.05) and quality (p < 0.001)) across soccer players. Higher emotional intelligence (EI) values were positively related to training variables and strongly correlated with the mood. Interestingly, athletes’ mood was affected differently depending on gender. Conclusion We found that confinement period affects both, training load and recovery process and that mood states and EI could predict the training variables and performance of top-level football players.