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Human resource management and the COVID-19 crisis: implications, challenges, opportunities, and future organizational directions



The COVID-19 has grandly shaken all organizations, creating a complex and challenging environment for managers and human resource management (HRM) practitioners, who need to find ingenious solutions to ensure the continuity of their companies and to help their employees to cope with this extraordinary crisis. Studies addressing the impact of this crisis on HRM are sparse. This paper is a general literature review, which aims at broadening the scope of management research, by exploring the impact of the COVID-19 on HRM. It identifies the main challenges and opportunities that have arisen from this new pandemic and it offers insights for managers and HRM practitioners into possible future organizational directions that might arise from these opportunities.
This is an Accepted Manuscript for the Journal of Management & Organization as part of the
Cambridge Coronavirus Collection. Subject to change during the editing and production process.
DOI: 10.1017/jmo.2021.15
Human resource management and the COVID-19 crisis: implications,
challenges, opportunities, and future organizational directions.
Salima Hamouchea*
aFaculty of Management, Canadian University Dubai, Dubai, UAE
Salima Hamouche ORCID :
The author declares no conflict of interest.
Dr. Salima Hamouche is an assistant professor, corporate trainer, and consultant at Canadian
University Dubai. She graduated from Industrial Relations School, University of Montreal
(Canada), with a Ph.D. and a master’s degree in Industrial Relations with a major in human
resource management. Dr. Salima Hamouche has strong academic background and practical
experience in human resources management. She has been practicing human resource
management for more than 12 years, as an HR consultant, human resource director, general
director, human resource manager, and talent acquisition specialist in small and large
organizations, in different sectors of activities (industrial, services, education) and multinational
companies. She made several presentations at scientific conferences and she led corporate
training and workshops in different public and private companies. Dr. Salima Hamouche was
sitting for several years on boards of directors in Canada, as administrator and vice president.
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Human resource management and the COVID-19 crisis: implications,
challenges, opportunities, and future organizational directions.
The COVID-19 has grandly shaken all organizations, creating a complex and challenging
environment for managers and human resource management (HRM) practitioners, who need to
find ingenious solutions to ensure the continuity of their companies and to help their employees
to cope with this extraordinary crisis.
Studies addressing the impact of this crisis on HRM are sparse. This paper is a general literature
review, which aims at broadening the scope of management research, by exploring the impact of
the COVID-19 on HRM. It identifies the main challenges and opportunities that have arisen from
this new pandemic and it offers insights for managers and HRM practitioners into possible future
organizational directions that might arise from these opportunities.
Keywords COVID-19, Human resource management (HRM), Remote work, Work from
home, Crisis.
COVID-19 is an unprecedented health crisis that has strongly shaken the whole world,
plunging it into great fear and uncertainty. It has heavily impacted economies, societies,
employees, and organizations. This crisis has started first in the city of Wuhan (China) which has
witnessed in December 2019 the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
(SARS- CoV-2) that has known a fast spread propelling its status to a global pandemic on March
11, 2020, by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2020b).
Given the rapid spread of the COVID-19 virus, these countries have implemented several
non-pharmaceutical measures intended to reduce its spread, like social distancing. Lockdown
measures have been imposed; people were quarantined; schools, universities, nonessential
businesses, and non-governmental organizations have been temporarily closed; travels were
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restricted; flights were canceled; mass public gathering and social events have been prohibited
(Brodeur, Gray, Islam, & Bhuiyan, 2020; Gourinchas, 2020).
Coupled with these measures, the COVID-19 outbreak had led to a significant slowdown
in the world economic activities (Brodeur et al., 2020; Gourinchas, 2020), triggering furloughs
and layoffs (World Economic Forum, 2020), that led to the increase in the unemployment rate in
many countries. The Current G7 jobless totals vary widely, from 30 million in the United States
to 1.76 million in Japan (Kretchmer, 2020). According to Gourinchas (2020), the COVID-19
has generated a situation where in a short period 50 percent or more of the workforce might not
be able to work.
Trying to recover from this economic shock, companies have started reopening (Major &
Machin, 2020), in the mid of this ongoing pandemic, under extraordinary rules and a new
functioning (e.g. physical distancing in the workplace) (Shaw et al., 2020) that no one can
predict when it will end. Therefore, this pandemic has obviously led to the emergence of a
complex and challenging environment for managers and human resource management (HRM)
practitioners who needed to find ingenious solutions to sustain their company’s business and to
help their employees to cope with the challenges of this unprecedented situation. In this context,
there are very few studies on the impact of COVID-19 on HRM, its challenges, and its potential
opportunities for HRM in organizations, while managers and HRM practitioners need relevant
information that will help them to go through this crisis effectively and efficiently, to be able to
support their employees and to sustain their company’s business. In fact, organizations are
generally not sufficiently prepared to deal with crises when they occur (Wang, Hutchins, &
Garavan, 2009). Whence the importance, for the scientific community, to support organizations
by providing relevant information related to this new pandemic. Therefore, the principal goal of
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this research is to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on HRM, to identify the main challenges
and opportunities, and to provide insights into future directions in HRM. From a scientific
perspective, this paper aims at broadening the scope of management research, considering the
scarcity of papers on this topic.
This paper is a general literature review, with an informative purpose, that aims to
examine recent and relevant literature which investigated the impact of COVID-19 on HRM.
There are very few studies that have investigated this impact. Thus, we have started to search for
articles which examines generally the relationship between COVID-19 and HRM, then we
searched for articles that examined the impact of this pandemic specifically on each HRM
functions and practice, e.g. staffing (recruitment), compensation. We searched for articles in
Google scholar, Ebsco, and Semantic scholar using a combination of terms related to coronavirus
OR COVID-19; Human resource management; HRM; pandemic and HRM functions ( e.g.
Compensation, staffing). The search for articles was performed manually. We searched for
articles published between December 2019 and February 2021. We have excluded
epidemiological articles. The articles analyzed in this paper are all listed in the section
Literature review
Human resource management facing the COVID-19: implications and challenges
Human resource management is about how people are employed, managed and
developed in organizations (Armstrong & Taylor, 2020, p. 3). It has been grandly impacted by
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the COVID-19, generating significant challenges for managers and HRM practitioners. This
impact and these challenges are explored in this section, in relation to strategic HRM, working
conditions, as well HRM functions, specifically: staffing, performance management, training and
development, compensation management, safety and health management, and employees’
relations. Each HRM function is discussed individually, however, they are interrelated. This
suggests that any change in one HRM function will affect the other function (Mondy &
Martocchio, 2016).
COVID-19 and strategic human resource management
Strategic human resource management refers to the vertical connection between HRM
functions and the organizational strategy as well as the horizontal consistency between HRM
functions (Wright & McMahan, 1992). Its main purpose is to effectively utilize the human
resources to serve the strategic needs of the organization (Chapman, Sisk, Schatten, & Miles,
2018; Navío-Marco, Solórzano-García, & Palencia-González, 2019; Schuler, 1992).
In order to ensure the achievement of the organizational goals in a time of crisis, strategic
agility is required (Liu, Lee, & Lee, 2020). Organizations need to be able to prepare and allocate
their resources; to coordinate the needed mechanism; and to properly use the organizational
resources and knowledge (Liu et al., 2020). In this context, the novelty and the complexity of the
COVID-19 represent a significant challenge that might compromise the achievement of
organizational goals. According to Baert, Lippens, Moens, Sterkens, and Weytjens (2020),
standard economic models in organizations are mainly trained to use data from normal times
perspective. Thus, it is challenging to make predictions related to abnormal times. This might
suggest that making predictions related to the company’s business, e.g. the preparation and the
allocation of resources might be a complex exercise. In fact, the COVID-19 has generated
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uncertainty. Some authors go so far as to predict the COVID-19 endemic (Regmi & Lwin, 2020)
while many economists predict the outcomes of this pandemic will remain till 2021 (Akkermans,
Richardson, & Kraimer, 2020). Currently, no one knows when this virus will end and if its
consequences on the work patterns in organizations will be temporary or permanent (Bartik,
Cullen, Glaeser, Luca, & Stanton, 2020), even after the recent development of different types of
vaccines (Yu et al., 2021). Thus, performing strategic planning or implementing the initial one
can be challenging for managers and HRM practitioners. In this case, most organizations were
not able to provide their employees enough information about their management plan or their
intended reactions toward the pandemic (Elsafty & Ragheb, 2020), while having clear workplace
guidelines during hard times helps to reduce employees’ stress and to increase their motivation
and confidence (Wong, Ho, Wong, Cheung, & Yeoh, 2020). The study of Elsafty and Ragheb
(2020) showed that access to information and the update related to the pandemic is associated
significantly with employees' retention. Nonetheless, it might be difficult to achieve it if
organizations are not able to get this information, especially when they are in a reactive and
survival mode, due to the novelty of this pandemic. Although challenging, enhancing
organizational resilience is crucial to ensure the sustainability of the organization in COVID-19
era (Ngoc Su, Luc Tra, Thi Huynh, Nguyen, & O’Mahony, 2021). In fact, despite the
uncertainty generated by this pandemic, organizations need to develop ingenious practices that
can help to absorb and face disturbance that threatens their survival (Ngoc Su et al., 2021)
Working conditions
Working conditions represent the core of paid work and employment relationships
(ILO, 2020). They cover a broad range of topics and issues, from working time (hours of work,
rest periods, and work schedules) to remuneration, as well as the physical conditions and mental
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demands that exist in the workplace(ILO, 2020). The COVID-19 crisis has drastically altered
working conditions in organizations. Indeed, to ensure their business continuity, most
organizations have moved to remote working, requiring their employees to work from home
(Aitken-Fox et al., 2020a, 2020b; Gourinchas, 2020; Koirala & Acharya, 2020). For example,
Google announced that its employees will continue working remotely until at least Summer 2021
while Twitter’s employees were given the opportunity to work remotely indefinitely (Leonardi,
2020). Notwithstanding, the category of employees working from home represents a small
fraction of the overall workforce (Gourinchas, 2020), mainly because remote working is not
suitable for manufacturing industries (Koirala & Acharya, 2020) and it cannot be applied to all
job positions (Bartik et al., 2020). In this context, there were two possible scenarios for
companies whose nature of their business does not allow them to adhere to this type of working
conditions. Either to require their employees to be physically present while respecting the
measures of physical distancing (i.e. allow an interval of 2 minutes between individuals) and
wearing personal protective equipment or to lay them off (Blustein et al., 2020). The study of
Adams-Prassl, Boneva, Golin, and Rauh (2020) showed that employees whose job tasks cannot
be performed from home are more likely to lose their jobs. In these circumstances, HRM
practitioners are urged to identify the job positions that can be performed remotely, those which
can be performed in the physical workplace, and those positions that need lay off due to the
situation provoked by the pandemic. Therefore, these unexpected and drastic organizational
changes represent significant challenges for managers and HRM practitioners. In addition, they
might have significant implications on employees mental health (Hamouche, 2020) and person-
environment fit perceived by employees (Carnevale & Hatak, 2020) as well as the employee
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experience related to the job design, the workspace and interactions with their peers and
managers (Aitken-Fox et al., 2020a).
Physical presence in workplaces has been maintained with rigorous protection measures
(e.g. physical distancing, wearing protection masks) with the implementation of work schedules
for different groups of employees (Akbarpour et al., 2020). The principal challenge, in this case,
is to ensure the respect of these protection measures and to plan work schedules that consider
employees' context.
As for remote working, it seems that managers and HR practitioners have faced major
challenges. Firstly, to ensure that employees working from home have the necessary tools to
perform their job (Aitken-Fox et al., 2020b; Hamouche, 2020). Actually, remote working
requires the availability of technological tools which will facilitate communication between
employees and managers, like Zoom, Microsoft remote desktop, team viewer, Microsoft team
(Prasad & Vaidya, 2020), that cannot be afforded by all organizations, considering that the
financial capacity varies from one organization to another. Secondly, to ensure for the employees
working from home effective communication, supervision, support, performance management,
and a realignment of their compensation (Aitken-Fox et al., 2020b). Moreover, HRM
practitioners need to support managers who are leading remote teams for the first time (Caligiuri,
De Cieri, Minbaeva, Verbeke, & Zimmermann, 2020). Finally, HR practitioners need to take into
consideration the fact that remote working might lead to employees’ isolation due to the absence
of interaction between employees, lack of peer advice, lack of one-to-one communication which
can be sources of stress that might undermine employees mental health (Prasad & Vaidya,
2020). It can also be psychologically demanding for these employees considering the
possibilities of family distractions and the multiple roles that they have to assume while working
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from home (Prasad & Vaidya, 2020). In addition, the increased use of information and
communication technology (ICT) can lead to the perception of an everlasting urgency,
generating possible expectations about the constant availability of employees (Molino et al.,
2020). Working from home can lead, as well, to an increase in the volume of information treated
by employees, considering that they regularly use their emails (Leonardi, 2020). Some authors
refer to a technostress related to the use of ICT, which has increased among employees working
remotely (Molino et al., 2020). This can undermine the psychological health of employees,
especially those who isolate themselves by choosing only emails as a means of communication.
Many HRM practitioners have implemented some activities to support their employees,
like creating virtual socialization activities, e.g. virtual lunch or coffee breaks (Carnevale &
Hatak, 2020; Maurer, 2020). Undoubtedly, these practices help to support employees in this
tough crisis while they are far from each other, and from their workplace (Hamouche, 2020).
However, they also represent a great challenge for organizations, considering that besides being
applied in a context of unexpected changes, these practices are new for employees and managers,
who have not been previously trained or psychologically prepared for such changes, which may
lead to an increase in their perceptions of person-environment misfit and dissatisfaction if they
prefer the face-to-face interactions that they used to have prior to this pandemic outbreak
(Carnevale & Hatak, 2020). Moreover, virtual interactions might affect the socialization process
recognized for its importance to help employees acquire the tacit knowledge related to the
organizational culture, and contributing to its development (Asatiani, Hämäläinen, Penttinen, &
Rossi, 2021)
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Staffing refers to the process of attracting, selecting, and retaining competent
individuals to achieve organizational goals (Ployhart, 2006, p. 868, p.868). It had been greatly
impacted by the COVID-19, which has reshaped its dynamic in organizations (Campello,
Kankanhalli, & Muthukrishnan, 2020).
The COVID-19 had mostly asymmetric impacts on industries (Aitken-Fox et al., 2020b;
Giupponi & Landais, 2020). Some industries were experiencing a sharp decline in their business
(Giupponi & Landais, 2020) leading some of them to temporarily close their shops (Bartik et al.,
2020), while other industries have seen their business flourishing during this pandemic (Giupponi
& Landais, 2020). Therefore, the repercussions of COVID-19 on staffing differ from one
organization to another.
In this context, organizations that were facing financial difficulties due to this pandemic
have adopted downskilling by cutting back on recruitment of high-skill jobs more than low-skill
jobs, to reduce their costs and try to sustain their business (Campello et al., 2020); they have
frozen or cut back all their recruitment; or they have laid off their employees (Campello et al.,
2020; Giupponi & Landais, 2020). Indeed, millions of people found themselves unemployed due
to the COVID-19 outbreak (Blustein et al., 2020; Elsafty & Ragheb, 2020). Cheng et al. (2020)
pointed out that the employment activities have increased after the companies' reopening in some
US states mainly due to the return to work of employees, after lockdown, to their physical
workplace. Nevertheless, the reemployment probabilities diminish significatively for employees
who stayed longer away from their workplace.
Laying off employees is not an easy decision for organizations, but it might be inevitable
in times of crisis such as COVID-19. The main challenge of HRM practitioners, in this case, is to
support managers and employees during this process and to offer proper information. However,
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it might not be easy in the context of uncertainty. Actually, all over the world, no one knows
when this pandemic will end and if its consequences on organizations will be temporary or
permanent (Bartik et al., 2020)
On the other hand, organizations that have expanded their business during the pandemic
have faced other types of staffing challenges. Many of them have opted out for more flexible
employment relationships and subcontracted work, such as temporary agency work, freelancers,
and the gig economy (Spurk & Straub, 2020), due to uncertainty generated by the COVID-19.
Indeed, these organizations have increased their recruitment (Akkermans et al., 2020;
Giupponi & Landais, 2020), nonetheless, they found themselves facing the pressure of workforce
shortage (Giupponi & Landais, 2020). In fact, how to recruit employees when people are afraid
of contagion? How to select employees when it is not allowed to meet them face to face, due to
the physical distancing measures? In these circumstances, these organizations had no other
choice than to orient their practices toward virtual recruitment and selection methods (Carnevale
& Hatak, 2020; Maurer, 2020), which might represent another significant challenge for HRM
practitioners as well as job applicants. Not all individuals are comfortable using information
communications technologies (ICT) tools. Also, HRM practitioners were not prepared for this
type of unexpected change. Moreover, virtual selection methods might affect the ability of
potential employees and employers to assess person-environment fit, which can have a negative
impact on employees' productivity and retention (Carnevale & Hatak, 2020). Besides, the
temporary character of flexible employment relationship posed the challenge of employees’
According to some authors, employee retention might represent another major challenge for
organizations in the current context of this pandemic (Elsafty & Ragheb, 2020; Ngoc Su et al.,
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2021). Elsafty and Ragheb (2020) pointed out that during these hard times characterized by
drastic and sudden changes, employment relationships might be damaged, leading to the possible
dramatic decrease of employees morale and an increase in turnover. Furthermore, according to
Ngoc Su et al. (2021) retaining and attracting qualified individuals represents a challenge for
companies in the COVID-19 era, mainly because these individuals are often looking for job
opportunities in sectors that were not negatively affected by this pandemic. In the same vein,
Przytuła, Strzelec, and Krysińska-Kościańska (2020) highlighted the importance to increase the
engagement and the sense of belonging among employees, mainly the remote workforce during
this period and beyond, to ensure organizational success, and prevent recruitment costs (Lund et
al., 2021).
Performance management
Performance management is a continuous process of identifying, measuring, and
developing the performance of individuals and workgroups and aligning performance with the
strategic goals of the organization (Aguinis, 2019, p. 8). It is crucial to ensure that employees
performance is aligned with the company’s strategic goals (Ismail & Gali, 2017).
To sustain the company amid a crisis like COVID-19, employees are still required to
maintain their good performance (Sembiring, Fatihudin, Mochklas, & Holisin, 2020). However,
it seems that the COVID-19 outbreak has also altered performance management in organizations.
According to some authors, most organizations were overwhelmed by the challenges resulting
from the COVID-19, like measuring employees’ performance and the disruption in performance-
based pay, that they have reduced or even abandoned performance management, due to the
complexity and the novelty of this pandemic (Aguinis & Burgi-Tian, 2020). In fact, measuring
employeesperformance during this crisis can be challenging, considering the modification of
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the working conditions. Furthermore, there are many factors related to the COVID-19 outbreak
that may influence employees’ performance. In this context, the study of Prasad and Vaidya
(2020) reported that workplace isolation, lack of communication, family distractions, role
overload, and occupational stress factors (role ambiguity, role conflict, career, job-control),
which have emerged due to the COVID-19, mainly among employees working from home are
significant predictors of employees’ performance. Furthermore, employees performance during
remote working is also dependent on managers' understanding of how and what is required to
manage a remote team (Aitken-Fox et al., 2020b). Some authors argued that managers might not
accept remote working because they might consider that it affects employees’ performance
negatively, which can lead to the adoption of micromanagement that can be perceived by
employees as a lack of trust toward them (Aitken-Fox et al., 2020b), which can create tension
between them and their supervisor.
According to Aguinis and Burgi-Tian (2020), it is crucial for organizations during this
health crisis to maintain and strengthen their performance management process. They should
communicate relevant information related to the company’s strategic direction to their
employees, to collect useful business data, and to provide feedback to them, which will help
these organizations to retain their talents and to avoid legal suits. Ngoc Su et al. (2021) added
that the frequent appraising of employees’ performance fosters their learning and sharing that
can help organizations to win back their business. Considering the interrelation between HRM
functions, the study of Sembiring et al. (2020) showed that compensation might have a
significant impact on employees performance in the COVID-19 era. Hence, the authors
suggested that organizations should be more concerned about employees' total compensation (
financial and non-financial), and its fairness to sustain and improve their performance during
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crises (Sembiring et al., 2020). The main challenge, in this context, might be related to the
financial capacity of the organization during this ongoing pandemic.
Training and career development
Training plays an important role in a period of crisis, such as pandemics (Devyania,
Jewanc, Bansal, & Denge, 2020; Hamouche, 2020). It helps to develop the needed skills for
employees (Akkermans et al., 2020); to increase the COVID-19 awareness, to reduce the risk of
the virus spread, and to prevent mental health issues (Quaedackers et al., 2020). It also helps to
support employees in the process of transition toward remote working. In fact, not all employees
have the proper digital skills to cope with these changes generated by the use of information and
communication technology ( ICT), whence the necessity to train them on the utilization of ICT,
which will help to facilitate their work and communication with their manager and peers while
they are away from their workplace (Greer & Payne, 2014). According to Przytuła et al. (2020),
organizations face the challenge of reskilling and upskilling their workforce to be able to deal
with the requirement new context of distance economy”. In this case, the main challenge for
HRM practitioners might be related to the development of a training program adapted to the new
reality of the organization and the employees and to choose the proper training methods,
considering physical distancing measures coupled with the necessity to have employees quickly
operational to sustain the company business. This suggests that managers and HRM practitioners
need to go beyond the traditional training methods. Devyania et al. (2020) recommended, in this
case, to change employees' training programs in a way that ensures a long-term transition toward
the new working practices.
The success of remote working is also dependent on managers' understanding of the
virtual supervision of employees (Aitken-Fox et al., 2020b). In this context, the HRM
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practitioners should play a strategic role by supporting and training these managers on how to
manage a virtual team, to help them to overcome these difficulties and to cope with remote
working challenges in order to be able to support their team members (Hamouche, 2020).
Besides training, COVID-19 has posed significant challenges related to career
development in organizations. According to some authors, the COVID-19 has led to a grand
career shock (Akkermans et al., 2020; Baert et al., 2020). The study of Baert et al. (2020) based
on the analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on career outcomes and aspiration among a panel of
3,821 employees, showed that due to the COVID-19 crisis, employees were afraid of losing their
job in the near future. In addition, some of them expected to miss out on a promotion that they
should have received if this crisis has not happened.
Compensation management
Compensation management refers to the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards that employees
receive for performing their job. It encompasses monetary ( base pay/bonuses) and non-monetary
rewards (employee benefits) (Martocchio, 2017). Compensation can influence employees'
motivation, performance (Safuan & Kurnia, 2021; Sembiring et al., 2020), and retention (Elsafty
& Ragheb, 2020). The study of Elsafty and Ragheb (2020) showed that financial benefits like
bonuses during COVID-19 are associated significantly with employees' retention.
As a reaction to the COVID-19 outbreak, some countries have implemented
governmental policies to provide financial support for employees and organizations during this
health crisis and to encourage them to comply with the stay-at-home orders. For instance, in the
US, the federal government has enacted the temporary paid sick leave, allowing private and
public sectors employees two weeks of paid sick leave for isolation, treatment related to the
COVID-19, taking care of a member of their family infected by COVID-19, childcare caused by
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the school or daycare closure (Andersen, Maclean, Pesko, & Simon, 2020). Short-time
compensation, also known as part-time jobs, has also been adopted to sustain the economy while
protecting business and employees’ jobs. It consists of offering employees a temporary reduction
in the number of their working hours which will help organizations that are experiencing a
decrease in the level of demand, to retain their employees and to avoid layoffs (Giupponi &
Landais, 2020). These measures alter compensation strategies and policies within organizations.
Furthermore, they might create a complex and challenging environment for managers and HRM
practitioners. According to some authors paid sick leave might lead to an increase in employees'
absence in the workplace (Maclean, Pichler, & Ziebarth, 2020). But at the same time, it helps to
prevent employees' presenteeism when they are sick (Schneider, 2020). Additionally, this type of
government's policies, such as paid sick leave, help to increase their implementation in industries
where employees have never got such benefits (Maclean et al., 2020), which suggest that
managers and HRM practitioners need to think about the way to sustain them to avoid losing
employees motivation after the pandemic. In this context, Przytuła et al. (2020) referred to the
importance of intrinsic motivation to retain employees, e.g. increasing employee autonomy.
Furthermore, compensation management can be particularly challenging in workplaces
where the risk of contamination is very high, for example in hospitals. In this context, the level
of compensation offered to employees may be questioned, to know if it is high enough
considering the level of risk that these employees encounter daily (Hecker, 2020). According to
Hecker (2020), individuals use to select jobs based on their risk tolerance in return for more
compensation for higher risks. Generally, the employer’s intervention is oriented toward the
necessary control of hazards to be able to recruit individuals for job positions with higher risks.
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Hence, in case of a high level of risk associated with the job position without sufficient
compensation, many employees might decide to leave the organization (Hecker, 2020).
Safety and health management
Employers are responsible for the protection of their employees while they are working.
They must ensure that the workplace is free from any hazard that may psychologically or
physically harm them or cause their death. The COVID-19 has generated a new workplace
hazard (Hecker, 2020) that represents a significant source of stress for employees (Shaw et al.,
2020) and a significant challenge for managers and HRM practitioners (Hamouche, 2020). The
impact on employees’ health varies based on the working environment and the employee’s
occupational role (S. K. Brooks, Dunn, Amlôt, Rubin, & Greenberg, 2018). Two main
challenges can be identified in this context: how to control the spread of the virus and to protect
employees from contagion and how to develop the employees’ awareness about the importance
to respect the prevention measures implemented in the workplace. The WHO has provided
guidelines for organizations to ensure the protection of their employees (WHO, 2020a),
nonetheless, controlling employees' behavior might be challenging, considering that some people
may ignore self-isolation instructions (Gourinchas, 2020).
The recent development of vaccines against COVID-19 has brought the light of hope all
over the world, but it has also generated two additional new challenges for organizations,
specifically the management of the vaccination campaign in the workplace as well as their
capacity to sponsor it and cover its costs (Rothstein, Parmet, & Reiss, 2021), considering the
financial difficulties that they have witnessed due to this pandemic.
COVID-19 is not only a physical health risk, but it also represents a significant risk for
individuals mental health (Samantha K Brooks et al., 2020; Chen et al., 2020; Hamouche, 2020;
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Qiu et al., 2020). It might be psychologically demanding for employees who work from home,
who can feel isolated and torn between their work and their private life (Prasad & Vaidya, 2020).
Moreover, employees who are required to be physically present in the workplace might return to
work with the fear of contracting the virus or transmitting it to their family (Tan et al., 2020),
which might increase their level of stress as well as the risk of mental health issues (Hamouche,
2020), especially for employees who were facing high psychological demands at work, prior to
the pandemic (Quaedackers et al., 2020), or those who have a high-risk job position, e.g.
healthcare workers (Hamouche, 2020). The main challenge for managers and HRM practitioners,
in this context, is to identify the risk factors and to implement the proper prevention measures in
the workplace, including for employees working from home (Hamouche, 2020).
Employment relationship
Employment relationship refers to the connection between employees and employers
through which individuals sell their labor (Budd & Bhave, 2010). From a labor law perspective,
the COVID-19 has created important challenges for employees and employers (Biasi, 2020;
Sagan & Schüller, 2020). Due to the lockdown and mandatory closure of business both were not
able to accomplish their contractual obligations (Biasi, 2020). In fact, the challenges resulting
from the COVD-19 have transformed the traditional relationship between the employee and his
employer (Leighton & McKeown, 2020; Spurk & Straub, 2020). Work from home has been
implemented in different countries and companies (Spurk & Straub, 2020). Hence, the traditional
boundaries of the world of work have disappeared (Leighton & McKeown, 2020). In this
context, the COVID-19 has positioned the government as a planner more than a regulator (Sachs,
2020), which is challenging for organizations that need to adapt government plans and
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regulations to their organizational context, while taking into consideration the needs of their
employees (Sachs, 2020).
Considering the novelty of this pandemic, most countries do not only rely on existing
regulations. They have amended, over a short and a prompt period, several labor laws (Sagan &
Schüller, 2020), to support employers and to protect employees (Alhambra, 2020; Mangan,
2020; Sachs, 2020; Sagan & Schüller, 2020). The main challenge was how to protect employees
while ensuring the continuity of the economy (Sachs, 2020). Some countries have adopted laws
to structure and temporarily prohibit collective lay off in organizations (Biasi, 2020). For
example, in Italy, a decree law has been issued to prohibit organizations from initiating a
collective layoff procedure for a period of 60 days (Biasi, 2020). Furthermore, various legal
measures and laws have been adopted to support employees during the lockdown and closure of
schools, e.g. employees were given paid leave to take care of their children. The main challenge
is the fact that it is still unclear when countries can declare the end of this pandemic (Spurk &
Straub, 2020). This represents a critical challenge for determining the proper period of protection
needed by employees, which might undermine the relationship between organizations,
employees, and their representatives (union) (Biasi, 2020). COVID-19 is an exceptional crisis
that has generated extraordinary measures. In some countries, e.g. in France, remote working is
voluntary and cannot be imposed by employers (Sachs, 2020), however, as in many other
countries the current situation has led employers to impose this mode of working on employees
whose job position can be performed from home (Sachs, 2020). The main challenge, in this
case, is the fact that disputes might arise between employers and the employees who had not
been offered the possibility to work from home or have contracted the COVID-19 at the
workplace (Sachs, 2020). In fact, in case of a lack of contractual agreement, it is possible,
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according to Sagan and Schüller (2020) to question the consistency of the employers with the
labor laws.
Currently, with the recent development of COVID-19 vaccines, the main challenge for
organizations from an employment relationship perspective is the management of the vaccination
campaign in terms of costs and application, while ensuring compliance with the country
regulations (Rothstein et al., 2021). This development also raises the question about the ability
of the employer to impose it on their employees. According to Rothstein et al. (2021), the
adoption of a rigid, coercive approach could intensifier the reluctance of the individuals who are
not sure yet about the vaccine. These authors suggested that organizations should educate their
employees about the benefits of vaccination and should facilitate it, for example by offering time
off for employees for vaccination purposes, rather than imposing it (Rothstein et al., 2021).
Opportunities, future organizational directions, and insights into HRM interventions
The COVID-19 has posed grand challenges for managers and HRM practitioners, but it
has also opened the door to opportunities worth knowing and understanding, that can help
organizations to direct their future actions. Indeed, according to Demirkaya and Aydın (2006), a
crisis might create unexpected opportunities for organizations. In this section, we will discuss
these opportunities while linking them to the potential future directions in HRM.
The COVID-19 has challenged organizations’ creativity and innovation and has urged
discussions about the future of work (Hite & McDonald, 2020). It has accelerated the disruption
of HRM as well as the implementation of scenarios expected for the future (Hite & McDonald,
2020). Moreover, it has pushed organizations to rethink their HRM strategies and to go beyond
the traditional models of managing human resources, by positioning new information technology
as an essential partner to survive and to ensure the sustainability of their business. In this context,
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new legislation has been adopted in different countries to support organizations in this sudden
and unexpected transformation. For example, Germany has adopted new legislation to introduce
the possibility of video conferencing in two areas (Sagan & Schüller, 2020), to support the
implementation of remote working in organizations.
Therefore, the normality that seems to be emerging for the moment in workplaces is the
implementation of remote working. However, it is earlier, according to some authors to confirm
that all organizations which have adopted remote working will continue to adopt it in the future,
beyond the COVID-19 (Aitken-Fox et al., 2020b). They are probably reviewing the effectiveness
of this work organization before taking their decision, considering that they have implemented it
for the first time. So, they do not know yet how it can affect employees performance and
productivity (Aitken-Fox et al., 2020b). However, it seems according to a recent report published
by McKinsey Global Institute which assessed the lasting impact of COVID-19 on labor
demands, occupations, and workforce skills in eight countries ( China, France, Germany, India,
Japan, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States) that remote work, as well as virtual
meetings, will continue but less intensely than at the peak of COVID-19 (Lund et al., 2021).
Despite its challenges, remote working offers employees the opportunity to have flexible
working hours, save commuting time, foster job control, and experience the use of new
information and communication technology (Prasad & Vaidya, 2020). In addition, it offers
companies the opportunity to optimize the use and save the costs of their resources, e.g. office
space. Actually, business sectors in some countries, for example in Korea, see growth
opportunities in non-contact industries which encompasses telecommunication, remote support
solutions, and online education (Liu et al., 2020).
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Moreover, COVID-19 offers opportunities for organizations to develop the autonomy of
their employees, upgrade their digital competencies, and broaden the perspective of their
competencies development. Besides, this pandemic has positioned new technology as a strategic
partner for organizations. It has helped to sustain businesses and to shorten the distance between
employees and their employers while ensuring their safety. It has fostered the creativity of
managers and HRM practitioners and it has facilitated the transition from traditional face-to-face
socialization methods to virtual ones, e.g. virtual meetings, lunches, and coffee breaks
(Carnevale & Hatak, 2020). It has also helped to sustain staffing in organizations while
respecting physical distancing measures.
The new technology has also supported the management of safety and health in
workplaces. It has helped to implement the decision to keep the employees at home and to
protect them from the risk of infection, while they keep on working for the organization. It has
also supported healthcare professionals, e.g. psychologists who have continued to help the
population through telehealth systems while respecting physical distancing measures. In China,
for instance, mental health services have been provided, during the pandemic, using various
channels like hotlines, online consultations, online courses (Gao et al., 2020), and telemental
health services (Zhou et al., 2020). According to Lund et al. (2021), COVID-19 may accelerate
the adoption of automation and artificial intelligence in sectors with high levels of human
interaction, such as medical care, personal care (e.g. gyms, hair salons). Hence, it is crucial for
organizations to get to grips with information and communication technology and to make it
accessible to all its members, in order to be able to sustain their business during extraordinary
crises. Some authors insisted on the importance of using artificial intelligence (AI) for HRM
during a period of a health crisis and recommended using it as an effective tool to prevent
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disruptions in operations and management practices while ensuring physical distancing and the
protection of employees (Devyania et al., 2020). In the same vein, Liu et al. (2020)
recommended the development of predictive models, which takes into account the risk factors
and the uncertainties in the proactive scheduling and planning of supply, which might help
decision makers to create various dynamic scenarios that can be automatized with the use of
artificial intelligence (AI). The use of new technology also supports data analytics that can help
HRM practitioners to optimize and improve HRM functions and practices in organizations, such
as workforce planning, recruitment, and talent management (AM, Affandi, Udobong, & Sarwani,
2020), during this pandemic and beyond.
Identifying the opportunities generated by COVID-19 can help HRM practitioners to
develop the proper HRM interventions and future actions. Nevertheless, it is important to take
into account the fact that organizations all over the world are still witnessing the pervasive effect
of this pandemic that does not seem to end quickly. Undoubtedly the enhancement of
organizational resilience is required. In this context, organizations need to be able to develop
innovative responses to effectively absorb and face disturbance that threatens their survival
(Ngoc Su et al., 2021). HRM practitioners should work in collaboration with managers and
employees to transform the challenges brought on by the COVID-19 into opportunities, to
rethink their HRM functions and practices, e.g. compensation and performance management, and
to adapt them to the employees' new working conditions generated by the COVID-19 crisis.
According to Przytuła et al. (2020), organizations need to lay new foundations, by redefining the
new trends in HRM practices. In fact, after almost more than one year of new functioning based
mostly on remote work, organizations need to re-evaluate their context, compare the new trends
in HRM generated by this unexpected crisis, and assess their applicability.
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Considering the unpredictability of the current situation and the high level of doubt
surrounding its end, organizations should opt out to move towards a hybrid workplace model
(AM et al., 2020; Kaufman et al., 2020; Przytuła et al., 2020), flexible enough to allow a quick
and efficient adaptation of the organization to the requirements of this new situation and beyond.
HRM practitioners need to adapt job positions and focus on job redesign within the organization.
Lund et al. (2021) suggested, in this case, emphasizing necessary tasks and activities related to a
job rather than the whole job to increase the organizations’ operational flexibility as well as
agility. Employees should receive the necessary organizational support to acquire the skills
needed during this pandemic and beyond, coupled with the development of career pathways
offering possibilities of upward mobility (Ngoc Su et al., 2021) and enhancing their
employability. Such interventions should have a positive impact on employees' motivation and
retention as well as the reduction of the costs related to recruitment (Lund et al., 2021). Some
authors go so far as to suggest that organizations should reinvent themselves by the integration of
entrepreneurship competencies among their employees, to help them to learn how to adjust
themselves to the uncertainty that can be generated by an unexpected crisis and to thrive in a
dynamic environment (Carnevale & Hatak, 2020; Liu et al., 2020). The field of entrepreneurship
might help employees to explore, to evaluate, and to exploit opportunities that occur in a
dynamic and unstable environment, considering that this field is based on exploration,
evaluation, discovery, and the capacity to transform challenges brought on by an ambiguous
context into opportunities (Carnevale & Hatak, 2020).
Besides, the pivotal role of the new information technology during the pandemic should
urge managers and HRM practitioners to explore effective ways to integrate it into HRM and
adapt it to the context of their organization. Moreover, they need to identify the specific training
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needs, as not all employees, including managers, have the proper technological competencies.
The involvement of employees is required to ensure the success of this organizational change.
Additionally, sustaining communication with them should help to reduce their stress and increase
their trust in the organization (Hamouche, 2020).
Furthermore, employees should be given the possibility to work remotely with the
flexibility to choose when and where to work (Kaufman et al., 2020; Przytuła et al., 2020),
without limiting the workspace to their home. However, organizations should provide the
possibility to schedule a flexible presence in the office to keep the employees connected to their
workplace, by ensuring the presence of efficient health and safety measures and facilitating
access to vaccination. Considering the blur surrounding private and professional life boundaries,
managers should communicate and discuss with their employees the expectations of the
organizations in terms of performance. In this regard, managers, supported by HRM
practitioners, should review and realign the performance management system in order to adapt
the performance objectives to the new reality of organizations and employees (AM et al., 2020).
They should provide continuous feedback that will enhance learning and sharing among
employees and foster organizational flexibility, agility as well as employees motivation and
retention (Ngoc Su et al., 2021). They should also develop wellbeing programs that aim at
protecting employees' mental health, and providing solutions adapted to the needs of every
employee, in terms of resources and social support (Hamouche, 2020). Managers should discuss
with their employees the different scenarios of work schedules adapted to the requirements of the
current situation. Also, with the support of HRM practitioners, managers should increase
employees' awareness about the necessity to disconnect from work when it is required to prevent
mental health issues.
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In this context, rebuilding the organizational culture is needed to facilitate the adoption of
flexible work arrangements and the transition towards a hybrid working model (AM et al., 2020;
Ngoc Su et al., 2021). Moreover, developing and maintaining a cohesive culture that supports
employees’ connections and interactions is required (Lund et al., 2021), to encourage social
support and collaboration among employees, particularly those working remotely. In fact, virtual
interactions might affect the socialization process, the acquisition of tacit knowledge related to
the organizational culture (Asatiani et al., 2021). This led some authors to recommend the
development and implementation of a digital organizational culture handbook, which should be
made available to employees working remotely through the organization’s intranet, to provide
toolkits that support and vehicles symbolic aspects of the organizational culture, such as values
(Asatiani et al., 2021).
Contribution and practical implications for organizations
In the business world, crises are inevitable. However, no one can predict a crisis with the
magnitude of the COVID-19, which has accelerated the disruption of traditional methods of
HRM and has created significant challenges for managers and HRM practitioners, who were not
fully equipped in terms of information, resources, and competencies to cope with the complexity
and the novelty of this pandemic.
Besides these challenges, COVID-19 has opened the door to opportunities that
organizations should know to be able to properly direct their future actions in HRM. This paper
is a general literature review that provides relevant and useful information which can help
managers and HRM practitioners to understand the main challenges and opportunities related to
the COVID-19. The insights provided in this paper into the future directions in HRM should help
them to develop an intervention plan adapted to the needs of their organizations and employees.
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Conclusion and future research
The contribution of this paper should, however, be considered in light of some
limitations. First, our research is a general literature review with an informative purpose, which
might suggest that there is a possibility of a subjective selection of literature. Notwithstanding,
the databases that we have used (Google scholar, Ebsco, and Semantic scholar) provide the most
cited articles. Besides, the purpose and the informative character of this paper do not require a
systematic review of the literature. Second, while writing this paper, the COVID-19 is still
present. So, it is not possible to identify accurately the long-term challenges and opportunities.
Future research should be directed toward longitudinal analysis to identify these challenges and
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... A novidade do trabalho remoto somada as medidas tomadas para ampliar o distanciamento social gerou um cenário de incerteza, representando uma crise organizacional significativa e intratável (Madero et al., 2020;Nava, 2022). O impacto das crises depende da eficácia de seu manejo: quando gerenciadas com proficiência, podem levar a ótimos resultado e, caso contrário, têm potencial de gerar consequências nefastas (Hamouche, 2021;Milburn et al., 1983;Riggio & Newstead, 2023). Portanto, um exame abrangente da crise representada pela Covid-19 é fundamental para obter valiosos insights. ...
... Portanto, um exame abrangente da crise representada pela Covid-19 é fundamental para obter valiosos insights. Pesquisas anteriores mostraram como emoções recorrentes e inabaláveis surgem durante as crises organizacionais e afetam significativamente o desempenho, o engajamento, a criatividade, o comprometimento e a tomada de decisão assertiva dos funcionários de forma consistente em todos os setores e níveis organizacionais (Caligiuri et al., 2020;Cénat et al., 2020 ;Hamouche, 2021;He et al., 2023;Hughes & Donelly, 2022;Kim & Niederdeppe, 2013;Kirk & Rifkin, 2020;Sorensen et al., 2022). As emoções moldam os comportamentos dos trabalhadores e devem ser consideradas como dados que devem ser coletados. ...
... A crise originada pela pandemia da COVID-19 pode ser um marco para os diretores de RH, assim como a crise financeira de 2008 foi para os diretores financeiros, e a liderança é particularmente crítica em tempos de crise, não havendo circunstâncias em que o seu envolvimento ativo seja mais essencial (Riggio & Newstead, 2023). Mais do que nunca, os líderes têm uma enorme responsabilidade e oportunidade de fornecer a orientação e a segurança necessárias para lidar com situações incertas (Aguinis & Burgi-Tian, 2021;Hamouche, 2021;Meister & Brown, 2020). Liderando pelo exemplo, devem permitir a expressão, mensuração e gestão das emoções no local de trabalho (Barsade & O'Neill, 2016), com particular enfoque no cultivo daquelas que impactam diretamente os resultados organizacionais. ...
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The development of organizational strategies to face crises should identify, analyze, and use employee emotions. This study provides a comparative perspective between the emotions of non-frontline employees in essential and non-essential companies during the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic – an event that caused major organizational crises. Content analysis identified the same emotions in both industries, albeit to different extents. Employees in the essential industry expressed more interest, less sympathy, and less anxiety, which may have occurred due to a more significant sense of purpose and security in this industry. Hopefulness, gratitude, and love appeared similarly in both essential and non-essential industries. Work-related variables and demographics have no significant contribution toward the prevalence of emotions. As a contribution, this study uncovered similarities and differences between industries, providing a relevant and profound understanding of how the COVID-19 pandemic shaped the emotional state of non-frontline employees. Keywords: Organizational crisis; employee well-being; essential industry; non-essential industry; content analysis
... Traditionally, the stakeholders in the 'people management process' were limited to HR practitioners, management, and to some extent, employees (Bolander et al., 2017). The recent COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent declaration of a global state of disaster expanded pressure on organisations to consider the mandates and needs of external stakeholders such as national governments and other shareholders (Hamouche, 2021). Therefore, talent stakeholdership can be viewed from three perspectives: Firstly, internal investments into talented individuals to meet the organisations' strategic objectives. ...
... Consequently, many companies were left without an effective people management strategy to sustain business practices and continuity when the pandemic emerged (Adikaram et al., 2021). This further resulted in significant challenges for HR regarding people management practices such as staffing, compensation, performance management, training and development, and general employee well-being (Hamouche, 2021). The changing workplace requires HR to adopt a much more vital role as a change agent to prepare talent and the broader workplace for a more rapidly transforming world of work (Palmer et al., 2020). ...
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Orientation: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, concurrent with Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR), introduces a new work environment and vocabulary that challenges traditional talent management (TM) thought processes, taxonomies, and practices. As a result, we must reconstruct the meanings of workplace talent and TM to ensure business continuity in a disrupted workplace.Research purpose: The main objective of this research was to investigate the current thought processes and meanings associated with the concepts of talent and TM as catalysts for enhancing meaningful work experiences in a volatile workplace.Motivation for the study: Research exploring the meaning of talent and TM as a two-way approach in the new world of work is yet forthcoming.Research approach/design and method: A literature review was conducted to synthesise a shared comprehension of the meaning of talent and TM in the new work environment and their practical applications.Main findings: The findings reveal that the current definitions of talent and TM are ambiguous and contradictory. Consequently, there are numerous dichotomies regarding the most practical method of implementing TM during a crisis. From a multi-value perspective, talent provides valuable insights into how talent and TM practices can be optimised in a world of work characterised by disruption.Practical/managerial implications: Leaders and talent practitioners must reimagine and transform TM practices for sustainable and meaningful individual and organisational impact.Contribution/value-add: This paper provides novel and unique insights into how talent can best be optimised in the new world of work.
... The problem of crisis detection in the literature can be classified as two major research trends: 1. detection and monitoring of natural disasters, such as floods, fires, or tsunamis (Burel et al. (2017); Pohl et al. (2015)), and in recent years as a global pandemic (Wodak (2021); Hamouche (2021); Yu et al. (2021); Malecki et al. (2021)), and 2. detection of reputation crises of brands and products, such as the Volkswagen's diesel crisis ; Mukkamala et al. (2015a)), possibly also rooted in misinformation Meißner and Diers-Lawson (2022). ...
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In this work, we try to bridge the gap between predominantly single-method, single-source scientific studies and real-life brand and product reputation crisis scenarios, emerging and proliferating across various Internet channels. To this aim, we offer our own quantitative analysis of 15 reputation crises, as well as an overview of popular quantitative and qualitative methods of reputation crisis detection; build a dataset of crisis-related emotions and a tagset encompassing both explicit and implicit emotions, contrary to certain scientific works; build a rule-based language to elaborate domain-specific and domain-independent crisis detection models, predefined by brand owners based on domain-specific risks. In reaching our objective, we selected (1) heuristic crisis detection models for product-harm and brand reputation crises, both branch-specific and branch-independent, alongside a metadata-based scoring technique evaluating the company’s crisis vulnerability at a given time, (2) an emotion detection ML-based algorithm using hierarchical neural networks (HAN), (3) a statistical mention peak analysis tool, backed by an ML-based algorithm summarizing the mentions in the corpus. Having devised and tested the aforementioned approaches, we finally analyze their suitability for detecting early signs of crisis in real-life reputation crisis scenarios. We argue that a complete brand image monitoring system should go beyond sentiment or emotion detection and feature a hybrid design. We understand hybrid as covering different types of crises and various internet sources and monitoring possible warning signs in near real-time, adjusted for the specific problems of a given business branch. We contend that a reputation crisis should be defined as one ante- and not post-factum, and thus coin a definition of a reputation crisis based on the linguistic theory of computer-mediated communication as asynchronous online debates. The above allowed us to conclude that if a reputation crisis is a polylogue in linguistics, and its subtopics are based on a schema of affliction, detecting vocabulary related to the crisis schema gives a greater guarantee of crisis detection with its early signs than with emotion- or sentiment-based models. The statistical models detect the growing number of contributions or participants in the discussion; the topic detection models indicate the topics related to the discussion; the anomaly detection models capture their outbursts; the heuristic domain-related models ensure the topics and subtopics of the discussion are crisis-related, and the emotion detection models confirm whether the emotions expressed toward the topics and subtopics are negative. Therefore, heuristic models are good cause-indicators and early crisis detectors, while the statistical and emotion detection-based methods—effect and scale analyzers. Crises differ with respect to their domains or branches. Thus, the evolution of the reputation crisis is a function of three key factors: the domain, the crisis type, and the popularity of the given brand.
... Meanwhile, in the existing literature, concerns about employee mental health have risen sharply because of the magnitude of work uncertainty (Hamouche, 2021;Liu et al., 2021). To better explain the changes in employees' psychological resources in the workplace, we draw on a crucial job resource for employees: job security (Sender et al., 2017). ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic, as a typical crisis event, has disrupted employees’ lives and organizations’ workplaces, creating significant uncertainty and stress. Although existing research has emphasized the crucial role of individual impression management in managing uncertainty, no researchers have yet examined the potential link between uncertainty related to the COVID-19 pandemic and employee impression management. Therefore, drawing upon the conservation of resources theory and regulatory focus theory, we investigated when and how COVID-19-induced work uncertainty affects employee impression management (i.e., assertive and defensive impression management). Furthermore, we explored how regulatory focus plays a crucial role in connecting decreased job security to impression management behavior. To examine the proposed model, we gathered data from a sample of 571 employees working in China. The results showed COVID-19-induced work uncertainty can positively impact employee impression management, and job security mediates this relationship. Additionally, the results demonstrated a positive correlation between the interaction of regulatory focus and job security and the adoption of assertive or defensive impression management. These findings make a valuable contribution to the research on work uncertainty and impression management, further deepening our insights into the application of impression management strategies within crisis contexts.
Human resource management (HRM) is frequently considered an academic concept that is predominantly concerned with the employees of an organization. HRM generally provides personnel management for the organization by conducting a strategic decision-making function that can make or break the organization’s performance. However, today, Human Resources (HR) in modern organizations are constantly changing due to emerging technologies and the economy, which changed conventional HR practices. This study will thus assess the disparities between strategic and conventional HR management to assure the long-term viability of organizational performance based on the current literature. It is specifically based on current literature on strategic HRM practices and the evolution of strategic HR practices from conventional HR activities that impact organizational performance. The literature search was conducted based on articles published from 2014 to 2021. The findings emphasize the importance of integrating strategic HR practices into corporate settings because strategic HR practices allow us to move standard HRM practices in the face of rapid technological and economic developments. Keywords: Human Resource Management (HRM), strategic HRM, conventional HRM
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At the beginning of 2020, the world as we knew it changed and it is quite certain that no one could have predicted the extent of those changes and how long they would last. The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed ad-hoc operations on business organizations in a challenging environment in all fields. The tasks of human resource management were to adapt and respond to radical changes that occurred both in the workplace and on the social level. On the other hand, the employees were worried about the uncertainty that was omnipresent. The aim of the conducted research and the results presented in the paper refer to the importance of flexibility in the choice and manner of working hours, as well as the willingness of employees to change jobs after the pandemic. An overview of the situation on the market in Serbia is given, all with the aim of adapting and benefiting employees in the current working environment.
There is insufficient empirical evidence to support the critical role of employee’s belief restoration during significant crises. The aim of this study is to derive a model of how servant leadership affects employees’ belief restoration during a crisis, using workplace spirituality and proactive personalities as mediators. For the purposes of this research, partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was conducted on a sample of 315 employees of aviation service providers during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results revealed positive nexuses between servant leadership and workplace spirituality as well as proactive personality. However, the direct effect of servant leadership on employees’ belief restoration was not supported. The findings further demonstrated positive relationships between workplace spirituality and employees’ belief restoration, as well as between employees’ proactive personalities and their belief restoration. The study also found that the link between servant leadership and belief restoration is significantly and positively mediated by workplace spirituality and employee proactivity.
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The current HRM environment emphasizes the issues of workplace dynamics, organizational psychology, and employee wellbeing due to the uncertainty and ambiguity of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study adopts a descriptive and exploratory design in providing a plethora of knowledge on the psycho-social impact of the COVID-19 crisis on employees and managers of various sectors. It explores HR interventions to address the issues. The fundamental proposition of this exploratory study is a vibrant culture that would enable organizations to manage human resources during a crisis sustainably. The analysis is based on secondary and primary data collected through the Delphi technique and focus group interviews of Industry experts and HR managers. The chapter follows a case-based approach and highlights some Indian companies that have successfully transcended the crisis with a robust emotional culture. It purports to provide interesting revelations regarding building sustainable emotional culture and its practical implications on business organizations, managers, and employees. The study concludes that managing people requires meeting the psychosocial demands of employees irrespective of the context. More specifically, this chapter provides significant
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This qualitative study scrutinizes the profound dynamics and implications of remote work during and post the COVID-19 pandemic. Using the lived experiences of seven practitioners and researchers across diverse industries, the research unearths the multifaceted advantages, challenges, and peculiarities linked with remote work. Furthermore, the study investigates the interplay of various personality types with remote work and explores potential optimization methods for a post-pandemic world. This research, therefore, offers context-specific perspectives on remote work, thereby enriching academic discourse and providing guidance for future policy-making and successful remote work strategy implementation. The central aim of this research is to highlight the variations in remote work adoption across sectors, to investigate the relationship between diverse personality types and remote work, and to disclose the inherent benefits and drawbacks through practitioners' and researchers' experiences. To achieve these objectives, a qualitative methodology, featuring in-depth interviews with participants who have transitioned to remote work during and after the pandemic, is utilized. This study is anticipated to result in a comprehensive understanding of the complexities of remote work. This understanding could assist organizations and individuals in making informed decisions about remote work arrangements. The research also strives to contribute to academic conversations surrounding work formats during and beyond the pandemic, proposing innovative strategies to foster creativity and self-improvement amid challenging circumstances. In conclusion, this research aims to guide organizational decision-making and policy formulation through its detailed exploration of the realities and prospective future scenarios of remote work. It also seeks to provide individuals with a comprehensive understanding of remote work dynamics, supplemented with effective navigation strategies.
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The goal of this piece is to survey the developing and rapidly growing literature on the economic consequences of COVID‐19 and the governmental responses, and to synthetize the insights emerging from a very large number of studies. This survey: (i) provides an overview of the data sets and the techniques employed to measure social distancing and COVID‐19 cases and deaths; (ii) reviews the literature on the determinants of compliance with and the effectiveness of social distancing; (iii) mentions the macroeconomic and financial impacts including the modelling of plausible mechanisms; (iv) summarizes the literature on the socioeconomic consequences of COVID‐19, focusing on those aspects related to labor, health, gender, discrimination, and the environment; and (v) summarizes the literature on public policy responses.
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This article aims to determine the development of research on compensation during the Covid 19 pandemic in Indonesia. The method used is a qualitative method by conducting a literature study or literature review. The application used for the literature study is google scholar with the keyword "Covid 19 pandemic compensation". The results of the survey found nine articles regarding compensation. The results of this article's analysis indicate that studies regarding payment during the Covid 19 pandemic are studies of the effect of compensation on employee motivation, employee satisfaction, and employee performance variables. Financial compensation has a dominant variable in influencing employee motivation. During the Covid 19 pandemic, companies asked to maintain employee motivation by providing monetary compensation according to their workload.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the global economy and business, and Human Resources (HR) is at its heart. With the organization now on the cusp of recovery, the role of HR has become even more important. The question is not limited in terms of imagining the impact and role of human resources in the future post-COVID-19. One thing is certain - the pandemic and its inherent effects on business have highlighted the need for adaptability and resilience in today's workforce, accelerated the shift towards a new digital economy, and emphasized the importance of HR in the new normal. This study tries to describe the role of human resource management in an effort to restore organizational performance. This study is a qualitative research using descriptive methods to describe the object under study. The results showed that the role of HRM during the COVID-19 pandemic was very strategic, especially in terms of maintaining the health and safety of workers when returning to work by implementing strict health protocols and also providing guidance and assistance for employees affected by COVID-19 such as downsizing and restructurisation. This research also presents HR transformation in terms of employee performance appraisal using results-based performance methods and the use of technology as a support in job optimization
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Objective: The article is an attempt to make a diagnosis about the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on HR practices including recruitment and selection, remote working, motivating employees, re-skilling and communicating. This theoretical study is a kind of revision and discussion with the “future trends in HR” predicted a few years ago before pandemic. Methodology: The research method was a review of the most recent research findings from business practice and from scientific literature concerning the impact of the pandemic on various fields of human resource management. Due to the growing flood of media information, the authors wanted to select the most updated HR practices implemented in organizations from the reliable and acknowledgeable sources. Findings: The biggest challenges for HR after COVID-19 will be: restructuring the place of work and the content of work, applying more advanced technology to recruitment, selection and performance; more interests, appreciation and motivation from managers will be needed as well as building trust, a sense of belonging among team members. The list of benefits will be revised towards enhancing mental health and well-being. The reality after the pandemic will require new competencies from managers and employees so re-skilling and re-training are the most expected approaches. Value Added: This article is becoming an important voice on the impact of a pandemic on the HR practices. The emerging and current results of research on HR trends will allow targeting education systems and equipping employees with the most predictable competences which will be useful in the era after the pandemic. Recommendations: The COVID-19 turmoil has changed the prepared strategic plans for development of many organizations. This external factor hardened all continents and built new reality where some tips and recommendation are highly welcome. Thus, we proposed few revisited personnel solutions which HR professionals may implement. We also invite other scholars to research the pandemic impact on many multidimensional levels: economic, political, social, technological, ethical ones.
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While countries are in a hurry to obtain SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, we are concerned with the availability of vaccine and whether a vaccine will be available to all in need. We predicted three possible scenarios for vaccine distributions and urge an international united action on the worldwide equitable access. In case the international community does not reach a consensus on how to distribute the vaccine to achieve worldwide equitable access, we call for a distribution plan that includes the employees in international transportation industries and international travelers to halt the disease transmission and promote the recovery of the global economy.
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This study establishes how tourism and hospitality businesses in Vietnam developed organizational resilience to survive the first wave of the Covid-19 crises. With employees acknowledged as a critical dimension in tourism and hospitality services, the study focused on how human resources (HR) practices were adopted to develop organizational resilience during the crisis. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 tourism and hospitality managers during Vietnam's lockdown. The findings reveal valuable HR resilience-building practices that these businesses implemented before, during and after the lockdown. The results contribute to our understanding of how HR practices can sustain the tourism workforce and enhance organizational resilience in the face of a global pandemic.
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Many organizations are curtailing or even abandoning performance management because of difficulties measuring performance and disruptions in performance-based pay due to the COVID-19 crisis. Contrary to this growing and troubling trend, we argue that it is especially important during the crisis to not only continue but also strengthen performance management to communicate a firm's strategic direction, collect valuable business data, provide critical feedback to individuals and workgroups, protect organizations from legal risks, and retain top talent. To do so, we offer a solution to overcome the challenges associated with measuring performance during a crisis. Specifically, we extend and expand upon the well-established Net Promoter Score measure in marketing and introduce the Performance Promoter Score (PPS) to measure performance. We offer evidence-based recommendations for collecting PPS information for individuals, workgroups, and other collectives, computing a Net Performance Promoter Score (NPPS); using multiple sources of performance data, and using PPS for administrative and developmental purposes as well as to provide more frequent performance check-ins. PPS is a convenient, practical, relevant, and useful performance measure during a crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic, but it is also an innovation that will be useful long after the pandemic is over.
When the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) decided to grant emergency use authorization (EUA) for the first two vaccines for COVID-19, the United States’ response to the pandemic entered a new phase. Initially, the greatest challenge is having enough doses of vaccine and administering them to all who want it. Yet even while many wait expectantly for their turn to be vaccinated, a significant minority of Americans are hesitant. Lack of information or misinformation about the vaccine, a long-standing and well-entrenched antivaccination movement, distrust of public health officials, and political polarization have left many people ambivalent or opposed to vaccination. According to a poll by the Kaiser Family Foundation taken in late November and early December 2020, 27% of respondents surveyed stated that they would “probably” or “definitely” not be willing to be vaccinated. ¹ Reflecting the sharp partisan divide that has characterized views about the pandemic, Democrats (86%) were far more likely than Republicans (56%) to be vaccinated. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print February 4, 2021: e1–e4. )