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Broccoli microgreens juice reduces body weight by enhancing insulin sensitivity and modulating gut microbiota in high-fat diet-induced C57BL/6J obese mice

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PurposeThis study aimed to explore the protective effect of broccoli microgreens juice (BMJ) during C57BL/6J mice obesity development. Methods The obese model mice, induced by feeding high-fat diet (HFD), were treated with BMJ by gavage for 10 weeks. Melbine was gavaged at 300 mg/(kg bw)/d, as a positive control group.ResultsBMJ supplementation significantly reduced white adipose tissues (WAT) mass, the body weight and adipocyte size, and increased water intake in HFD-fed mice. Moreover, it improved glucose tolerance, reduced insulin level and HOMA-IR value, and alleviated insulin resistance. Compared with the HFD group, BMJ supplementation significantly increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes at the phylum level, and enriched Bacteroides_acidifaciens at the species level. These changes in the composition of gut microbiota are associated with the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and reduced LPS levels, and had an obvious anti-inflammatory effect.Conclusions These findings suggested that the protective effects of BMJ on diet-induced obesity may be involved in gut microbiota–SCFAs–LPS–inflammatory axis. In addition, BMJ can enhance liver antioxidant capacity and reduce liver fat accumulation. Consequently, these results sustain BMJ as a novel functional food for obesity, on the basis of its opposing effects on HFD-induced obesity in mice.
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European Journal of Nutrition (2021) 60:3829–3839
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-021-02553-9
ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION
Broccoli microgreens juice reduces body weight byenhancing insulin
sensitivity andmodulating gut microbiota inhigh‑fat diet‑induced
C57BL/6J obese mice
XiangfeiLi1,2· ShuhuaTian1· YunfanWang1· JieLiu3· JingWang3· YingjianLu1
Received: 9 November 2020 / Accepted: 1 April 2021 / Published online: 17 April 2021
© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2021
Abstract
Purpose This study aimed to explore the protective effect of broccoli microgreens juice (BMJ) during C57BL/6J mice
obesity development.
Methods The obese model mice, induced by feeding high-fat diet (HFD), were treated with BMJ by gavage for 10weeks.
Melbine was gavaged at 300mg/(kg bw)/d, as a positive control group.
Results BMJ supplementation significantly reduced white adipose tissues (WAT) mass, the body weight and adipocyte size,
and increased water intake in HFD-fed mice. Moreover, it improved glucose tolerance, reduced insulin level and HOMA-IR
value, and alleviated insulin resistance. Compared with the HFD group, BMJ supplementation significantly increased the
relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes at the phylum level, and enriched
Bacteroides_acidifaciens at the species level. These changes in the composition of gut microbiota are associated with the
production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and reduced LPS levels, and had an obvious anti-inflammatory effect.
Conclusions These findings suggested that the protective effects of BMJ on diet-induced obesity may be involved in gut
microbiota–SCFAs–LPS–inflammatory axis. In addition, BMJ can enhance liver antioxidant capacity and reduce liver fat
accumulation. Consequently, these results sustain BMJ as a novel functional food for obesity, on the basis of its opposing
effects on HFD-induced obesity in mice.
Keywords Insulin sensitivity· Adipocyte· Oxidative stress· Short-chain fatty acids· Obesity
Introduction
As one of the metabolic diseases, obesity has reached epi-
demic proportions worldwide [1]. It is estimated that 3.3 bil-
lion people will be overweight or obese by 2030 [2]. Obesity
mainly results from energy-balance dysregulation between
energy input and energy consumption [3]. Excessive energy
input promotes the expansion of adipose tissue [4]. Anatomi-
cally, white adipose tissue is mainly divided into visceral
adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue [5]. Visceral
adipose tissue was mainly distributed in the abdominal cav-
ity, with a concomitant increase in the visceral adipose tis-
sue, which eventually increased the risk of metabolic dis-
eases [6, 7]. Besides, obesity is also closely linked to insulin
resistance, type 2 diabetes, inflammation, hypertension, and
atherosclerosis [8]. Therefore, inhibition of adipogenesis and
adipocyte differentiation is an important target for the pre-
vention or treatment of obesity.
Currently, the main drugs for alleviating obesity are orl-
istat, lorcaserin, phentermine, liraglutide. However, long-
term use of anti-obesity drugs can bring serious side effects,
including diarrhea, increased stool frequency, oily stool, gas-
trointestinal flatulence, acute pancreatitis [911]. Therefore,
dietary intervention with efficient, safe, nontoxic, and nature
new products has been considered to provide suitable substi-
tutes for weight loss. Natural botanical ingredients have been
* Yingjian Lu
yingjianlu@nufe.edu.cn
1 College ofFood Science andEngineering, Nanjing
University ofFinance andEconomics, Nanjing210023,
People’sRepublicofChina
2 College ofFood Science andTechnology,
Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing210095,
People’sRepublicofChina
3 China–Canada Joint Lab ofFood Nutrition andHealth
(Beijing), Beijing Technology andBusiness University,
Beijing100048, China
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
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