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Broccoli microgreens juice reduces body weight by enhancing insulin sensitivity and modulating gut microbiota in high-fat diet-induced C57BL/6J obese mice

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PurposeThis study aimed to explore the protective effect of broccoli microgreens juice (BMJ) during C57BL/6J mice obesity development. Methods The obese model mice, induced by feeding high-fat diet (HFD), were treated with BMJ by gavage for 10 weeks. Melbine was gavaged at 300 mg/(kg bw)/d, as a positive control group.ResultsBMJ supplementation significantly reduced white adipose tissues (WAT) mass, the body weight and adipocyte size, and increased water intake in HFD-fed mice. Moreover, it improved glucose tolerance, reduced insulin level and HOMA-IR value, and alleviated insulin resistance. Compared with the HFD group, BMJ supplementation significantly increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes at the phylum level, and enriched Bacteroides_acidifaciens at the species level. These changes in the composition of gut microbiota are associated with the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and reduced LPS levels, and had an obvious anti-inflammatory effect.Conclusions These findings suggested that the protective effects of BMJ on diet-induced obesity may be involved in gut microbiota–SCFAs–LPS–inflammatory axis. In addition, BMJ can enhance liver antioxidant capacity and reduce liver fat accumulation. Consequently, these results sustain BMJ as a novel functional food for obesity, on the basis of its opposing effects on HFD-induced obesity in mice.
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European Journal of Nutrition (2021) 60:3829–3839
Broccoli microgreens juice reduces body weight byenhancing insulin
sensitivity andmodulating gut microbiota inhigh‑fat diet‑induced
C57BL/6J obese mice
XiangfeiLi1,2· ShuhuaTian1· YunfanWang1· JieLiu3· JingWang3· YingjianLu1
Received: 9 November 2020 / Accepted: 1 April 2021 / Published online: 17 April 2021
© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2021
Purpose This study aimed to explore the protective effect of broccoli microgreens juice (BMJ) during C57BL/6J mice
obesity development.
Methods The obese model mice, induced by feeding high-fat diet (HFD), were treated with BMJ by gavage for 10weeks.
Melbine was gavaged at 300mg/(kg bw)/d, as a positive control group.
Results BMJ supplementation significantly reduced white adipose tissues (WAT) mass, the body weight and adipocyte size,
and increased water intake in HFD-fed mice. Moreover, it improved glucose tolerance, reduced insulin level and HOMA-IR
value, and alleviated insulin resistance. Compared with the HFD group, BMJ supplementation significantly increased the
relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes at the phylum level, and enriched
Bacteroides_acidifaciens at the species level. These changes in the composition of gut microbiota are associated with the
production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and reduced LPS levels, and had an obvious anti-inflammatory effect.
Conclusions These findings suggested that the protective effects of BMJ on diet-induced obesity may be involved in gut
microbiota–SCFAs–LPS–inflammatory axis. In addition, BMJ can enhance liver antioxidant capacity and reduce liver fat
accumulation. Consequently, these results sustain BMJ as a novel functional food for obesity, on the basis of its opposing
effects on HFD-induced obesity in mice.
Keywords Insulin sensitivity· Adipocyte· Oxidative stress· Short-chain fatty acids· Obesity
As one of the metabolic diseases, obesity has reached epi-
demic proportions worldwide [1]. It is estimated that 3.3 bil-
lion people will be overweight or obese by 2030 [2]. Obesity
mainly results from energy-balance dysregulation between
energy input and energy consumption [3]. Excessive energy
input promotes the expansion of adipose tissue [4]. Anatomi-
cally, white adipose tissue is mainly divided into visceral
adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue [5]. Visceral
adipose tissue was mainly distributed in the abdominal cav-
ity, with a concomitant increase in the visceral adipose tis-
sue, which eventually increased the risk of metabolic dis-
eases [6, 7]. Besides, obesity is also closely linked to insulin
resistance, type 2 diabetes, inflammation, hypertension, and
atherosclerosis [8]. Therefore, inhibition of adipogenesis and
adipocyte differentiation is an important target for the pre-
vention or treatment of obesity.
Currently, the main drugs for alleviating obesity are orl-
istat, lorcaserin, phentermine, liraglutide. However, long-
term use of anti-obesity drugs can bring serious side effects,
including diarrhea, increased stool frequency, oily stool, gas-
trointestinal flatulence, acute pancreatitis [911]. Therefore,
dietary intervention with efficient, safe, nontoxic, and nature
new products has been considered to provide suitable substi-
tutes for weight loss. Natural botanical ingredients have been
* Yingjian Lu
1 College ofFood Science andEngineering, Nanjing
University ofFinance andEconomics, Nanjing210023,
2 College ofFood Science andTechnology,
Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing210095,
3 China–Canada Joint Lab ofFood Nutrition andHealth
(Beijing), Beijing Technology andBusiness University,
Beijing100048, China
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... In mice, the increased body, liver and adipose tissue weights induced by HFD were reduced by oral treatment with 18.77 g/kg body weight broccoli powder or 150 μmol/kg body weight glucoraphanin (equivalent to 2.64 g/kg body weight broccoli seed extract powder) for 8 weeks; however, the reduction in adipose tissue was only significant with glucoraphanin treatment (36). Moreover, the oral administration of broccoli microgreens juice, at a dose of 20 g/kg/day, reduced body weight, white fat mass and liver fat in HFD-fed mice (37). Conversely, the ingestion of broccoli florets (10%) or stalks (10%) for 17 weeks, by mice fed with HFD did not affect final body weight, fat accumulation or liver weight (38). ...
... In our study, the number of adipocytes was not affected in any group. On the contrary, a study reported a significant decrease in the number of adipocytes in the HFD-fed group, which was reversed with the supplementation of broccoli microgreens juice (37). In the present study, the increase in adipocyte volume observed in the WD group was reversed by BF supplementation. ...
... In the present study, the increase in adipocyte volume observed in the WD group was reversed by BF supplementation. Similarly, an increase in the volume and size of adipocytes was also reported in HFD-fed rodents, a trend that was reversed by the administration of sulforaphane, broccoli microgreens juice or broccoli extracts (20,34,37). ...
Background/aim: Obesity currently affects the whole world, with greater incidence in high-income countries, with vast economic and social costs. Broccoli harvest generates many by-products equally rich in bioactive compounds with potential anti-obesity effects. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-obesity effects of broccoli by-products flour (BF) in obese mice. Materials and methods: A commercial high-fat diet formulation (representing a Western diet) was used to induce obesity in mice. BF (0.67% or 1.34% weight/weight) was incorporated as a chemoprevention compound into a control and a hypercholesterolemic diet, at two different concentrations, and fed for 14 weeks to C57BL/6J mice. For a therapeutic approach, two groups were fed with the hypercholesterolemic diet for 10 weeks, and then fed with BF-supplemented diets in the last 4 weeks of the study. Results: BF supplementation helped to maintain a lower body weight, reduced adipose tissue accumulation, and enhanced the basal activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase. Although BF supplementation tended to reduce the relative liver weight increased by the Western diet, the differences were not significant. Conclusion: BF appears to have a beneficial effect in preventing weight gain and fat accumulation induced by hypercholesterolemic diets.
... Activated hydrolytic enzymes break down high molecular weight polymers to form biofunctional molecules during germination [67]. In recent research, germinated soy, broccoli, and purple rice all had anti-obesity benefits through the action of GM [68][69][70]. Although one study showed that germinated soy germ treatment could be a potential technique for obesity prevention by increasing weight reduction and treating obesityrelated metabolic abnormalities, the authors did not analyze obesity-related gut-microbiota changes. ...
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