Technical ReportPDF Available
THE IMPACTS OF
C O V I D - 1 9 L O C K D O W N S
O N C O A S T A L F I S H E R I E S
I N S R I L A N K A
A P R I L 2 0 2 1
Nadiya Azmy
Arpana Giritharan
Hafsa Jamel
Sangeeta Mangubhai, Ph.D.
Asha de Vos, Ph.D.
Acknowledgments
© 2021 Oceanswell
All rights reserved. This publication may not be reproduced in whole or in part
and in any form without the permission of the copyright holders. To obtain
permission, contact Oceanswell at info@oceanswell.org.
Cover photo: Asha de Vos
This document should be cited as: Azmy, N., Giritharan, A., Jamel, H.,
Mangubhai, S., & de Vos, A. (2021). The impacts of COVID-19 lockdowns on
coastal fisheries in Sri Lanka. Oceanswell, Colombo.
Printed by Intermart Printers (Pvt) Ltd.
ISBN 978-624-5751-00-6
We wish to thank the Marine Conservation Action Fund at the New England Aquarium
for funding this project. We acknowledge the respondents for their participation,
cooperation, and contribution to this research. Furthermore, we wish to extend our
gratitude to Mrs. Jegatheeswary Ehamparam Gunasingham for coordinating our
research assistants in the North and East coasts and assisting with the quality checking
process of the surveys. In addition, we acknowledge the work of our research
assistants who conducted the interviews: Kaushalya Balasooriya, Dilini Gamage,
Manuja Hendawitharana, Iflal Ilyas, Thamiliny Kaneshalingam, Mohammed Mujas,
Kajanthini Rajanalendran, Shalanka Ranjula, Rifdha Riswan, Antony Santhosh, Saranya
Sinnathurai, Sathiavakeesparan Sivanthan, Abilagini Vickraman and Muththulingam
Yuhinthan. We acknowledge the support received by Isha and Naduni Mallika Arachchi
when writing this report. We also acknowledge Dr. Nelly Kadagi for her guidance
during the data analysis phase of the project.
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Contents
Executive summary .......................................................................................................................... 4
Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 5
Methods ........................................................................................................................................... 6
Experimental procedure ............................................................................................................... 6
Data collection .............................................................................................................................. 7
Data analysis ................................................................................................................................. 7
Results .............................................................................................................................................. 7
Coastal distribution ...................................................................................................................... 7
Demographic ................................................................................................................................ 8
Livelihoods .................................................................................................................................... 8
Support and adaptation ............................................................................................................. 11
Assistance ................................................................................................................................... 12
Discussion ...................................................................................................................................... 13
Recommendations ......................................................................................................................... 16
References ...................................................................................................................................... 19
List of tables ................................................................................................................................... 21
List of figures .................................................................................................................................. 21
Annexure ........................................................................................................................................ 22
Summary ........................................................................................................................................ 23
Sinhala translation ....................................................................................................................... 24
Tamil translation ......................................................................................................................... 26
The team ........................................................................................................................................ 29
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Executive summary
Small-scale fisheries remain a cornerstone of economic activity in Sri Lanka generating income and providing
subsistence. The surge in COVID-19 cases around the world led to the Sri Lankan government imposing an island-wide
curfew on 20 March 2020, followed by lockdowns and travel restrictions of varying nature. Through structured
interviews across 13 study sites around the Sri Lankan coastline, we explored different dimensions of the impact of
COVID-19 on small-scale fisheries between 29 July to 29 August 2020. We particularly focused on 1) the impacts on
livelihood; 2) support provided by different entities; and 3) the adaptive capacity of small-scale fisheries actors, namely
fishers, processors and sellers/traders. The main impacts of COVID-19 on fisheries in Sri Lanka, prior and during this
study were due to the island-wide curfew, cross border mobility restrictions and trade regulations. The inaccessibility
to the ocean, and thereby fishing, negatively impacted the entire fisheries community due to limited coping strategies
and lack of alternative income. Conversely, fewer processors reported an adverse impact which could be due to the
longer shelf-life of their product, dry fish, which renders more control over their stocks during similar market shocks.
We reflect on the implications of unprecedented events on small-scale fisheries and the paradigm shift necessary to
predict, plan and prepare for such market shocks. The consequences of overfishing, climate change and climate change-
induced factors such as storm surges, sea level rise and coastal flooding are examples of potential future shocks that
could threaten seafood stocks. These compounding effects, along with pre-existing vulnerabilities related to structural,
social and economic inequality, in turn exacerbates the effect of COVID-19 and similar shocks on well-being in fisheries
communities.
Antony interviews a coastal fisher in Pallikuda, Poonakary located off the northern coast of Sri Lanka.
Photo: Anthony Santhosh/ Oceanswell
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Introduction
The World Health Organization (WHO) announced the
emergence and rapid spread of the novel coronavirus
SARS-CoV-2, as a public health emergency of
international concern on 30 January 2020, and declared
it a pandemic on 11 March 2020 (World Health
Organization, 2020). As of 31 December 2020, there
were over 82,398,927 million cases globally, 42,702 of
which were reported in Sri Lanka (World Health
Organization, 2020). The first case of coronavirus in Sri
Lanka was reported on 27 January 2020 (World Health
Organization, 2020). With a surge in COVID-19 cases
across the globe, the Sri Lankan government imposed
an island-wide police curfew on 20 March 2020
(Foreign Ministry - Sri Lanka, 2020), followed by a
number of different lockdowns and travel restrictions
(Figure 1). All curfews and restrictions were lifted on
28 June 2020, and all economic activities were set to
resume (President of Sri Lanka, 2020). However, a
second wave resulted in various lockdowns and inter-
city travel restrictions being imposed from the 4
October 2020, amidst a surge in the number of COVID-
19 cases (Sunday Observer, 2020).
The marine fisheries sector in Sri Lanka provides direct
and indirect employment for approximately 583,000
individuals and has a supporting workforce comprising
2.7 million from coastal communities, accounting for
1.2% of the 2018 GDP (NARA, 2019). Furthermore, the
marine sector accounts for 83% of total fish production
in Sri Lanka (NARA, 2019), and provides more than
60% of the animal protein requirement to the people of
Sri Lanka. The fisheries industry is divided into three
subsectors: inland fisheries, coastal fisheries, and
offshore/deep-sea fisheries. Coastal fisheries involve
individuals whose fisheries activities are limited to the
continental shelf (average 22 km from the shore, rarely
exceeding 40 km), while offshore/deep-sea fisheries go
beyond the coastal waters up to the EEZ (Exclusive
Economic Zone, up to 250 nm) boundary (Department
of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, n.d). This report
will focus on these two subsectors.
Supporting roles are crucial to the fisheries supply
chain: processors prepare raw fish by washing, gutting,
salting, fermenting, drying, and smoking, in order to
produce a final or intermediate fishery product, or a by-
product such as fishmeal; and sellers take part in the
wholesale and retail sale of seafood.
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The social and economic contributions of the coastal
fisheries sector are complex and comprise multiple
actors and market influencers (Hirimuthugodage,
2017). The sector uses smaller vessels and engines,
simpler or more traditional gear, occurs near the coast,
consists of smaller crews with family or local ownership
and is important for locals and livelihood subsistence
(Kittinger, 2013; Smith & Basurto, 2019).
While men in fishing communities are typically
involved in fisheries for income generation, women
oversee subsistence fishing, post-harvest preparation
and processing (Feka et al., 2011). Women are involved
in fisheries throughout the coastal regions of Sri Lanka,
participating in activities that range from gleaning in
lagoons, shallow waters, mangroves, and inland
fisheries (Lokuge & Hilhorst, 2017). The lack of official
recognition of women’s contribution by the state has
limited the active involvement of women in the fisheries
sector (Lokuge & Hilhorst, 2017).
The COVID-19 pandemic led to negative consumption
and production consequences to the economy due to the
need to practice social distancing and minimise in-
person interactions to curb the spread of the disease
(World Health Organization, 2020). The main known
impacts of COVID-19 on fisheries in Sri Lanka, prior
and during this study were due to the island-wide
curfew, cross border mobility restrictions and trade
regulations (Figure 1). This report explores the ways in
which the curfew in Sri Lanka impacted coastal fishing
communities just prior to the survey period (29 July
2020 - 29 August 2020).
Methods
Experimental procedure
This socioeconomic study was carried out using pre-
tested questionnaires targeted at three groups of
fisheries actors in the fisheries value chain: fishers,
processors, and sellers/traders (Figure 2). The survey
was designed to collect information on the livelihood
impacts, support provided by entities, and adaptation
abilities of fisheries actors across Sri Lanka. A
purposive sampling approach was used and the number
of surveys to be conducted in the respective coasts were
predetermined. The surveys were conducted between 29
July to 29 August 2020 (Figure 1).
Figure 2: The relationship between the different fisheries actors and
the consumer. The three fisheries actors interviewed in this study are
represented in blue: fishers, processors, and sellers/traders.
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Data collection
One-on-one interviews, approximately 20 minutes in
length were conducted in the native language of the
respondents (Sinhalese or Tamil) and all responses were
translated into English for data analysis. The surveys
were anonymised to protect the respondents’ identity.
Interviews were carried out by 14 trained interviewers.
The interviewers visited the field in pairs and followed
COVID-19 safety protocols (Official Website for Sri
Lanka’s Response to Covid-19, 2020; World Health
Organization, 2020). Their existing relationships with
the fisheries actors helped eliminate strategic bias due
to social barriers. In a sector dominated by males,
female fisheries actors are often considered a ‘hard to
reach’ population. Therefore, the snowball sampling
technique was used to identify female fisheries actors
by requesting respondents to provide contact details of
female fisheries actors.
Data analysis
The responses were transcribed electronically, and
quantitative data were analysed using Microsoft Excel
and R using descriptive statistics. The qualitative data
were extracted using text analysis, categorised further
and themes were developed. The information collected
through the surveys delve into the following themes: 1)
the distribution of work in fisheries and the impacts on
livelihoods 2) support networks and access to benefits,
and 3) adaptation strategies.
Results
Coastal distribution
The sample included data from 13 study sites around the
coastline of Sri Lanka (Figure 3) comprising 415
structured surveys. A complete breakdown of the
number of surveys conducted per coast can be found in
Annexure 1. The main survey sites in the north
included Mannar, Mulativu, Kilinochchi and Jaffna,
and the surveys in the east were conducted in
Trincomalee, Valachchenai, Batticaloa and Ampara. On
the south coast, surveys were conducted in Tangalle and
Galle, while on the west coast surveys were conducted
in Beruwala, Negombo and Kalpitiya (Figure 3).
Figure 3: The number of surveys conducted in the thirteen study sites around the coast of Sri Lanka: Mannar, Mullaitivu, Kilinochchi, Jaffna,
Trincomalee, Valaichchenai, Batticaloa, Ampara, Tangalle, Galle, Beruwala, Negombo and Kalpitiya
8
Demographic
Out of the 415 respondents, 50% were fishers (36%
coastal fishers and 14% offshore/deep-sea fishers), 25%
were processors and 25% were sellers/traders (Figure
4). Overall, 25% of respondents were women; 47%
processors, 28% sellers/traders and 26% fishers (Figure
5).
The numbers of each type of fisheries actor categorised
by coast can be found in Annexure 2. The average age
of respondents was 44 years, ranging from 17 to 73
years. Among the respondents, 84% (n=348) reported
that they were solely dependent on fisheries for their
income.
Livelihoods
Out of those surveyed, 91% (n=95) of sellers/traders
and 90% (n=186) of fishers reported that COVID-19
and the resulting restrictions had an impact on their
work. Comparatively, 66% (n=66) of processors
surveyed reported that their work was impacted.
However, among the processors interviewed in the
North, 81% (n=17) reported an adverse impact on their
work in contrast to only 59-65% of the processors on
the other coasts (Figure 6).
Figure 5: The total number of female respondents categorised
by fisheries actor
Figure 4: The total number of respondents categorised by
fisheries actor
Figure 6: Distribution of respondents who reported that COVID-19
impacted their work categorised by coast and fisheries actor
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Table 1: The three common themes that impacted the respondents’ work
Limited accessibility
The respondents had to limit their
agency/ability with regards to their fisheries
related activities due to the restrictions
imposed by the government.
Limited resources
The respondents were unable to
buy/access the raw materials they
needed for their respective fisheries
related activity.
Impact on income
The market forces that had a direct
effect on respondents’ income.
Restricted/no access to fisheries related
activity.
Restricted/no access to customers and
market.
Limited access to other fisheries actors’
services.
Processors and sellers reported a lack
in seafood supply.
Fishers reported difficulties in
accessing resources such as ice and
fuel due to unaffordability and/or price
fluctuations.
Restrictions/fall in exports.
Change in consumer demand due to
movement restrictions.
The responses relating to how fisheries related activities
were impacted by COVID-19, were divided into three
general categories for analysis: limited accessibility,
limited resources, and impact on income (Table 1).
Most respondents attributed their work being
interrupted, to limited access to fisheries due to the
curfew.
The impacts highlighted in Table 1 were common
among all fisheries actors. However, within each group
there were some factors that were more influential than
others. Fishers reported that restrictions in going to sea
impacted their work the most (“There were very strict
restrictions, so we couldn’t reach our vessels and there
was no way for us to buy fuel” - Male, Kalpitiya). The
main concern for processors was the unavailability of
raw materials (“Due to the COVID-19 pandemic,
fishing activities were affected for a consecutive
number of weeks which resulted in unavailability of fish
for us to process” - Female, Jaffna), while the sellers
attributed the inaccessibility of consumers to be what
impacted them the most (“There were fewer buyers due
to the pandemic and as a result my income decreased” -
Male, Tangalle).
In addition, fishers reported that the absence of other
fisheries actors such as processors and sellers/traders,
and labourers to land their boats had an impact on their
work (“Due to the absence of processors, my harvest
was spoilt and there were no sellers or consumers to sell
the catch” - Male, Jaffna). While some fishers received
curfew passes, the limited access to ice malls and fuel
impacted their fishing activity (“Though the
government provided curfew passes for boats during the
curfew period, ice malls were closed. Therefore, the
harvest couldn't be preserved. In addition the reduction
of consumer demand at the time also resulted in the
spoilage of the catch”- Male, Galle). The fishers who
received curfew passes reported difficulties in accessing
the pass, delays in receiving the pass and limitations on
fishing hours (“Could not get a curfew pass for fishing
due to the long distance to the harbour from my home”
- Male, Galle; “We weren’t able to do fishing activities
for one month. After a month, we went fishing with a
curfew pass.” - Male, Beruwala; “Fishing activities
were limited to one to two days per week and the time
spent fishing was shortened as well” - Male, Galle).
Similarly, processors mentioned that the absence of
fishers and sellers impacted their work. However, the
ability to store processed seafood meant that they had
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stocks of seafood that they were able to sell (“Unlike
fresh fish, dry fish can be stored. Therefore, I had
previous stocks that were available to be sold” - Female,
Negombo).
Conversely, sellers reported that limitations in storing
the fresh seafood meant that it had to be sold
immediately which resulted in the reduction in the price
of the seafood (“I wasn’t able to store the fish. Since I
had to sell it immediately, I had to lower the prices.” -
Male, Batticaloa).
A clear trend was not observed in the change in price of
seafood; however, many offshore/deep-sea fishers
(68%, n=38) reported a decline in the price of seafood
(Figure 7). The respondents highlighted four factors that
resulted in the reduction in seafood price, three of which
were common among all fisheries actors; lack of
sellers/traders (“Traders are not coming out to buy fish
from us during curfew” - Male, Trincomalee), decrease
in consumer demand (“Harvest had to be sold for a low
price due to lack of consumer demand” - Male,
Mannar), and decrease in export (“All companies were
closed, so export decreased and the traders in our area
reduced the price” - Female, Mannar). However,
offshore/deep-sea fishers reported that the inability of
consumers to afford their catch was a reason for the
decline in the price of seafood (“The price is not
affordable for people or buyers, so we have to reduce
the price” - Male, Tangalle).
Figure 7: Changes in seafood price reported by the fisheries actors
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Support and adaptation
Among the respondents 74% (n=308) received some
form of assistance. A majority received assistance from
the government, while some received support from
religious institutions and their communities. Overall,
63% (n=263) reported that they received a government
issued allowance between Rs.5,000 - Rs.10,000, and
75% (n=197) reported that the assistance was
successful. The percentage of respondents that received
government support was lower in the North (49% (n=
39) and East 57% (n=68) coasts (Figure 8).
The adaptation strategies commonly used by all
fisheries actors were divided into 4 categories for
analysis: utilised savings and credit services, relied on
assistance from the community, switched mode of
income and relied on excess seafood for subsistence
(Table 2).
Most respondents reported that they wouldn’t be able to
cope in the event of another lockdown as they had
exhausted their limited savings. The shortage of food
(“Food shortages will lead to starvation” - Female,
Jaffna) and severe impacts to income would impact their
families (“I can’t even imagine another lockdown
because my whole family faced many difficulties. Since
we survive on a daily wage, when a lockdown is
imposed, we can’t earn money” - Female, Tangalle).
Table 2: The four most common adaptation mechanism
Utilised savings and credit
services
Relied on assistance
from the community
Switched mode of income
Relied on excess seafood for
subsistence
Used savings
Pawned jewellery
Accessed bank loans
Assisted by family/
community (e.g.
relatives, friends,
neighbours)
Switched their mode of income to
an activity beyond their existing
skill set (e.g. preparing gill nets,
going for deep-sea fishing without
experience, farming)
Consumed the excess fresh
seafood
Processed excess seafood for
consumption (e.g. making dry
fish for preservation)
Figure 8: The proportion of respondents who received assistance
from the government categorised by coast
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Assistance
The additional support that was requested by all
fisheries actors were categorised into three themes:
financial assistance, essential goods, and reduction in
utility bills (Table 3). These types of assistance were
expected from the government.
In addition, fishers emphasised the need to reduce the
price of fuel, nets, and other equipment, and requested
for their equipment to be subsidised (“To reduce the
cost of fishing gear and oil price” - Male, Negombo, “I
would expect money and nets as the two nets provided
by the government are insufficient” - Male,
Trincomalee). Processors requested a reduction in
imported fish and dry fish (“It would be helpful if there
were reduced imports of both fish and dry fish” Male,
Jaffna), while sellers/traders requested better storage
facilities (“Buying a refrigerator would allow us to
preserve fish stocks for longer” - Male, Negombo).
Furthermore, both processors and sellers/traders
requested for the price of seafood to be stabilised (“It
would be helpful if there were fixed rates for local dry
fish” - Male, Jaffna).
Table 3: Assistance requested by the respondents
Additional support requested by all fisheries actors
Financial support, as finances are becoming scarce
Low/ No interest loans
Customised loan schemes for fisheries actors
Provision of food rather than financial aid
Reduction in electricity and water bills
Mujas interviews a processor as she separates the shells of clams in Mutur, located in the eastern coast of Sri Lanka.
Photo: Mohammad Mujas/ Oceanswell
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Discussion
The focus of the study was to identify the impacts of
COVID-19 lockdowns, on small-scale fisheries actors.
Offshore/deep-sea fishers were included in the study to
compare their adaptive capacity to small-scale fisheries,
due to the larger scale of their fishing activity.
Processors and sellers/traders were included in the study
to understand the impacts on actors who directly interact
with fishers, and thereby comprise the broader fisheries
community. The interviewers were unable to reach the
target number of women respondents (30%) which
reflects the low numbers of women in Sri Lankan
fisheries. The lack of official recognition of the roles
that women play (Lokuge & Hilhorst 2017) and the fact
that a substantial amount of women’s labour is unpaid
(Sandaruwan et al., 2016) likely contributed to the
womenfolk being a ‘hard to reach’ population. The
majority of female fisherfolk interviewed were
processors (Figure 5), which could be attributed to the
fact that women are predominantly involved in post-
harvest preparation and processing (Feka et al., 2011).
Despite the release of a government Gazette notification
which stated that transporting and unloading of fish and
engaging in fishing activities during curfew hours was
permitted (Presidential Secretariat, 2020), all three
fisheries actors reported restrictions when carrying out
their respective fisheries-related activities. As a result,
the restrictions on fishers going out to sea due to curfew
was a barrier that had resulting knock-on effects through
the entire fisheries value chain. Similar trends were
observed in studies conducted in Bangladesh and
Malaysia where a disruption in the seafood supply chain
impacted the entire fishing communities (Jomitol et al.,
2020; Sunny et al., 2020). Furthermore, a decrease in
income was reported by 84% of the respondents, similar
to that observed in Malaysia where despite the
government allowing fisheries activities, a severe
decrease in income was reported (Jomitol et al., 2020).
This decrease can be attributed to the inaccessibility to
fisheries activities, along with a decrease in consumer
demand and spending power, and steep declines in
export (Sri Lanka Export Development Board, 2020).
There was no overall trend in the change in seafood
price among coastal fishers, processors, and
sellers/traders (Figure 7). This contrasts with a study
conducted in Indonesia, which reported that the change
in seafood price depended on factors such as daily catch
per trip and the type of seafood caught (Campbell et al.,
2020). As our study did not collect data per trip or per
kilogram of the varying species that were caught, the
reason for the price variation cannot be confirmed. A
more comprehensive market-based study would help
understand the reported fluctuation in seafood price.
A higher proportion of offshore/deep-sea fishers
reported a decrease in the price of seafood (Figure 7).
This could be because they catch high value seafood.
The offshore/deep-sea fishers mainly target large and
medium tunas, with skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis) and
yellowfin (Thunnus albacares) dominating the catch
(Edirisinghe et al., 2018), both of which are high-value
fish (NARA, 2018). In Sri Lanka, the price of seafood
is governed by market supply and demand, consumer
perception and purchasing power (NARA, 2018). The
reduction in the purchasing power of the consumer that
was observed by offshore/deep-sea fishers, the
reduction in export demand, and trade restrictions could
explain the observed trend. Furthermore, both species
of tuna are important exports of Sri Lanka and a
significant decrease in the export performance of edible
fish was observed during this period (Sri Lanka Export
Development Board, 2020). This is likely due to the vast
reduction in export-oriented demand due to port
14
closures, loss of access to cold storage and cessation of
shipping and air freight (Orlowski, 2020). A similar
reduction in demand for high-value seafood was also
observed in Bangladesh and Malaysia (Jomitol et al.,
2020 and Sunny et al., 2020).
The number of processors who reported that COVID-19
and the resulting lockdowns impacted their work was
less compared to the other actors (Figure 6). The longer
shelf life of dried seafood compared to fresh seafood
would explain this observation. The longer shelf life
allows processors involved in dry seafood processing
more control over their stocks during market shocks. A
similar trend was observed in Indonesia (Campbell et
al., 2020). Conversely, fishers and sellers/traders who
deal with fresh seafood have time sensitive
requirements for immediate processing and selling
mechanisms, without which they face losses or spoilage
of their stocks. While a similar trend was observed
among the processors throughout the coast, there were
more processors in the North who reported that the
restrictions impacted their processing activity (81%).
The reason for this is unclear.
Among the respondents, 63% reported receiving a
government issued allowance during this period.
However, fewer fishers from the north and east coasts
reported receiving this allowance (Figure 8). While a
few respondents mentioned that they relied on the
government allowance, this was not the case for most.
The most common coping strategy observed among the
respondents was relying on their personal savings. A
considerable number of respondents had savings, in
comparison to reports from Indonesia where a very low
percentage of fisheries actors could rely on their savings
as a coping mechanism (Campbell et al., 2020). The
next most common coping strategy was using credit
services such as loans and pawning jewellery.
Accessibility to these services from banks and financial
institutions appears to be better in Sri Lanka in
comparison to Bangladesh, where the communities
were unable to access these services as they did not have
sufficient resources to mortgage (Sunny et al., 2020).
This said, a small number of respondents reported that
they were not able to access financial services and
requested customised loan schemes for the fishing
communities. Most respondents requested financial
assistance and better suited financial services such as
low interest loans. There were also greater requests for
food essentials in place of financial aid. This could be
due to the difficulties in accessing essential goods
resulting from imposed movement restrictions.
Additionally, there were requests for reductions in
electricity bills and water bills. The government
provided a relief scheme which allowed consumers to
pay the electricity bills for March, April and May based
on the rate applied in the bill issued for February or the
minimum bill received afterwards (Range, 2020). While
the assistance requested by the three fisheries actors
were similar, there were a few requests that were unique
to their role in the value chain. The requests from fishers
were mainly centered around their ability to go to sea
and access to the necessary commodities to carry out
their essential operations. Accessibility and
affordability were concerns. Processors requested a
reduction in the quantity of imported processed seafood,
which could be because the average wholesale price of
local dried fish was higher than that of imported dried
fish (NARA, 2018). With the spending power of
consumers reducing due to the negative economic
consequences of the pandemic, consumers are more
likely to opt for cheaper alternatives, negatively
impacting demand for the local product.
Even though the respondents had access to coping
strategies, it is important to note that during this period
the government had not reported community spread.
The number of cases were contained, and necessary
15
measures were in place to decrease the impact of the
pandemic in the community. Therefore, the report is a
representation of the impacts mainly due to the
lockdown. In a future event their coping capacities
would be limited. We suspect that it would be harder for
the fisheries communities as they would have already
exhausted the limited resources that were available to
them during the initial lockdown. Thus, further research
into how the pandemic is impacting these communities
during the second wave is imperative to understand the
impact of the pandemic fully. Despite having reported
access to coping strategies during this lockdown,
respondents did not feel they would have the same
coping capacity in the event of a future lockdown with
their main concern being a shortage of food.
Overall, the study shows that the inaccessibility to the
ocean and thereby fishing negatively impacted the
entire fisheries community due to limited coping
strategies and lack of alternative modes of income.
Therefore, the results of this study can be used as a
model to predict and prepare for other unforeseen
shocks that can limit access to seafood stock. The
consequences of overfishing, climate change and
climate change-induced factors such as storm surges,
sea level rise and coastal flooding are examples of
potential future shocks that can threaten seafood stocks
and access to them.
Edirisinghe et al. (2018) reported that the coastal
fisheries in Sri Lanka have reached optimum
exploitation levels. Fishing efforts have increased with
the catch remaining the same (NARA, 2018). The
deficit being filled by the gradual transition to deep-sea
fishing. Therefore, the contribution of offshore/deep-
sea fishing to fish production is steadily increasing
while coastal fisheries are showing a steady decline
(Arulananthan, 2017). To adapt to this situation the
sector has resorted to investing in new fishing gear.
However, the cost of the gear is beyond the capital
resources of many small-scale fishers. Similarly,
climate change is causing the marine ecosystem to
change at an unprecedented rate with inevitable adverse
consequences on the Sri Lankan marine ecosystem
(Barange et al., 2018). Since the sustainability and
productivity of fisheries is heavily dependent on
conducive environmental conditions, climate change-
induced factors will affect the production, availability
and breeding patterns of marine species. The
redistribution of fisheries resources will render
traditional fishing grounds unproductive and fishing
gear and methods ineffective. In response, larger
vessels, longer trips and new gear development will be
crucial. These adaptation strategies will be more
challenging for the increasingly vulnerable small-scale
fishers (Arulananthan, 2017). In addition, climate
change-induced storm surges, sea-level rise and coastal
flooding will impact fisheries as well as the coastal
communities. Arulananthan (2017) reports that all
coasts apart from the northernmost coast of Sri Lanka
are experiencing a moderate to high degree of erosion.
The close proximity of small-scale fisheries
communities to the coast further increases their
vulnerability to these events. These compounding
effects, along with the pre-existing vulnerabilities,
related to structural, social and economic inequality, in
turn exacerbate the health, economic and other impacts
of COVID-19 and similar shocks (Bennett et al., 2020).
The involvement of around 120,000 fishers in mostly
small-scale fishing in the coastal waters forced the Sri
Lankan government to include small-scale fisheries as a
priority group for poverty relief (Dissanayake, 2009).
Adaptation and preparedness at all stages of the value
chain, including the resilience of vulnerable coastal
communities and their livelihoods to threats is crucial in
this endeavour.
16
Recommendations
Figure 9: The existing Sri Lankan governance framework
Small-scale fisheries are prone to instability during
crises such as COVID-19 as their livelihoods cannot
withstand market shocks. They are dependent on
existing systems which have proven unstable in the face
of the pandemic. Disaster risk reduction and
preparedness is crucial to the survival of small-scale
fisheries communities and is covered in the National
Fisheries and Aquaculture Policy section 4.5. The
section addresses the government’s responsibility to the
environment, climate and natural disasters by the
development of strategies for risk reduction and
preparedness; providing assistance to families;
developing community resilience; and improving
institutional involvement and research to maintain
updated databases (Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic
Resources Development, 2018). The national policy
under section 4.5 further highlights the government's
responsibility to generate employment opportunities as
well as equal opportunities for female participation in
the industry. Socioeconomic conditions can be
improved by providing subsidies and financial facilities
and strengthening human rights and anti-corruption
measures.Additionally, section 4.5 also addresses the
importance of promoting public private partnerships for
investment in the sector and strengthening fisheries
cooperatives (Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic
Resources Development, 2018). The governance
structure for fisheries management, under the purview
of the Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
Development, could serve as a model to further develop
a policy response that will protect communities from
compounding impacts and market shocks in the event of
disasters (Figure 9).
Building resilience through collective action will
require cooperation and coordination. Communities
need to be made aware of legal systems and ways to
approach relevant organisations. Government agencies
and civil society organisations have important roles to
play in this regard. Support could be provided to
community-based fisheries management organisations
to enable their direct involvement in assessing
vulnerability, and measures to secure climate resilience
including those addressed in the National Determined
Contribution (NDC) (Ministry of Mahaweli
Development and Environment, 2016).
Stakeholder engagement is instrumental in
successful risk preparedness and management. The
Department of Fisheries being the apex body in charge
of disaster response has responsibility in appointing an
oversight committee to mobilise state institutions,
17
allocate budgets and send out calls to actions to NGOs,
donor organisations, private sector partners and
development agencies to support small-scale fisheries to
tackle urgent and time-sensitive disasters.
The private sector can innovate during a time of
crisis through its technological capacities. Since
COVID-19, corporations in the island moved away
from their traditional ‘brick and mortar’ system to
online delivery methods in order to keep up with
consumer demand. In small-scale fisheries, due to the
lack of technology and online presence, their
connectivity to the consumer was limited during
lockdowns. By strengthening collaborative
partnerships, the government can strengthen supply
chains extending beyond small-scale fisheries.
Access to low and no interest microfinance schemes
for fishers are limited. More so for female fishers due
to the lack of gender-disaggregated data and limited
registrations of women who participate in small-scale
fisheries (Lokuge and Hilhorst, 2017).
Community engagement through skills building and
training programmes will contribute to small-scale
fisheries’ competitive capacities in fisheries industries.
Provision of schemes for fishers to access modern
and sustainable technologies including mechanised
and non mechanised boats, along with technical
knowledge that can be disseminated through Ocean
University courses for young generations is essential for
capacity building for a viable future for coastal
communities.
Figure 10: Disaster risk preparedness inter-institutional recommendations based on the study
18
Respondents had issues accessing food sources
during the pandemic. Food security during the curfews
implemented was limited to relief packs. Ensuring that
food vendors remain open and accessible to households
can relieve coastal communities of the additional stress
of meeting daily food intake requirements. Encouraging
home and community gardens would further ensure
food security and self sufficiency in the long term.
Similar to the below model (Figure 10), climate change
adaptation strategies must be developed and
implemented in cooperation with affected
communities and their organisations through
transparent processes. To ensure transparency, states
should develop relevant indicators, maintaining gender-
disaggregated data to track the impacts of climate
change on poor and vulnerable groups and geographical
areas.
19
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Present Status of Research Activities on Climate Change
Adaptations. (Ed. B. Marambe), 121-126.
Barange, M., Bahri, T., Beveridge, M. C., Cochrane, K. L.,
Funge-Smith, S., & Poulain, F. (2018). Impacts of climate
change on fisheries and aquaculture: synthesis of current
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Campbell, S et al. (2020). Impact of COVID-19 on small-
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https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-39895/v1
Coronavirus (COVID-19) Sri Lanka - Analytics Dashboard.
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dashboard/
Curfew imposed in Divulapitiya, Minuwangoda areas till
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https://www.sundayobserver.lk/2020/10/04/news/curfew-
imposed-divulapitiya-minuwangoda-areas-till-further-
notice/
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ent&view=article&id=14&Itemid=132&lang=en#history-of-
the-fisheries-industry/
Dissanayake DCT. Monitoring and assessment of the
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Fisheries Training Programme. Retrieved from 2009-2018.
http://www.unuftp.is/static/fellows/document/chamari05aprf
.pdf/
Edirisinghe, K., Wansapala, J., & Wickramasinghe, I.
(2018). Review of marine fishery status along the supply
chain in Sri Lanka. International Journal Of Food Science
And Nutrition, 3 (4): 10-23.
Feka, N., Manzano, M., & Dahdouh-Guebas, F. (2011). The
effects of different gender harvesting practices on mangrove
ecology and conservation in Cameroon. International
Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services &
Management, 7 (2): 108-121. doi:
10.1080/21513732.2011.606429
Foreign Ministry - Sri Lanka. (2020, March 20). Declaration
of police curfew island wide [Press release]. Retrieved from
https://mfa.gov.lk/declaration-of-police-curfew-island-wide/
Growth of Seafood Exports | Export Development Board.
(2020). Retrieved from
https://www.srilankabusiness.com/sea-food/seafood-export-
performance.html
Hillary, S., & Xavier, B. (2019). Defining Small-Scale
Fisheries and Examining the Role of Science in Shaping
Perceptions of Who and What Counts: A Systematic
Review. Frontiers In Marine Science, 6 (2296-7745), 236.
doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00236
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FoodValueChainWorkshop_AgriFoodValueChainSL_April
2016.pdf.
Jomitol, J., Payne, A., Sakirun, S., & Omar Bural, M.
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Tun Mustapha Park, Sabah, Malaysia; What Do We Know
So Far? doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0287
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and traditional fisheries in the Asia- Pacific Region. Pacific
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Lokuge, G. & Hilhorst, D., (2017). Outside the net:
Intersectionality and inequality in the fisheries of
Trincomalee, Sri Lanka. Asian Journal of Women's Studies,
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(2018). The National Fisheries and Aquaculture Policy.
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https://www.fisheries.gov.lk/web/images/downloads/pdfs/fis
heries_policy_e.pdf
Ministry of Mahaweli Development and Environment.
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nts/Sri%20Lanka%20First/NDCs%20of%20Sri%20Lanka.p
df
Bennett, N. J., Finkbeiner, E. M., Ban, N. C., Belhabib, D.,
Jupiter, S. D., Kittinger, J. N., Mangubhai, S., Scholtens, J.,
Gill, D., & Christie, P. (2020). The COVID-19 Pandemic,
Small-Scale Fisheries and Coastal Fishing Communities.
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10.1080/08920753.2020.1766937
20
National Aquatic Resources Research and Development
Agency (NARA). (2019). Fisheries Industry Outlook- 2018
(7-24). http://www.nara.ac.lk/wp-
content/uploads/2017/09/fisheries-industry-outlook-2018-
converted-Copy.pdf
National Aquatic Resources Research and Development
Agency (NARA). (2018). Fisheries Industry Outlook- 2017
(7-24). http://www.nara.ac.lk/wp-
content/uploads/2017/09/Fisheries-Industry-outlook
2017.pdf
Orlowski, A. (2020). Small-scale fishermen suffering
significantly from COVID-19 pandemic. Retrieved from
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scalefishermen suffering-significantly-from-covid-19-
pandemic/
President of Sri Lanka. (2020). Curfew completely lifted
[Press release]. Retrieved from
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nnouncement-on-curfew-3/
Range, I. (2020, July 16). Massive relief for electricity
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-relief-electricity-consumers
Sandaruwa, K., Wimalasena, H., De Silva, D., Amaralal, K.,
& Maheepala, M. (2016). Daily routing activities of the
fisher-women in the North-Western province of Sri Lanka.
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Smith, H., and X. Basurto. (2019). Defining small-scale
fisheries and examining the role of science in shaping
perceptions of who and what counts: A systematic review.
Frontiers in Marine Science, 6: 236. doi:
10.3389/fmars.2019.00236.
Sunny, A., Sazzad, S., Prodhan, S., Ashrafuzzaman, M.,
Datta, G., & Sarker, A. (2021). Assessing impacts of
COVID-19 on aquatic food system and small-scale fisheries
in Bangladesh. Marine Policy, 126: 104422. doi:
10.1016/j.marpol.2021.104422
Timeline: WHO’s COVID-19 response. (2020). Retrieved
from https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-
coronavirus-2019/interactive-timeline/
21
List of tables
Table 1: The three common themes that impacted the respondents’ work .......................................................................................... 9
Table 2: The four most common adaptation mechanisms .................................................................................................................. 11
Table 3: Assistance requested by the respondents ............................................................................................................................. 12
Table 4: A breakdown of survey areas in the respective coasts and the number of surveys conducted ............................................ 22
Table 5: A complete breakdown of the 415 surveys categorised by fisheries actor, coast and gender of respondents. .................... 22
List of figures
Figure 1: Timeline of major events related to the spread of COVID-19 in Sri Lanka from March to August 2020 - when this study
was conducted. ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 5
Figure 2: The relationship between the different fisheries actors and the consumer. The three fisheries actors interviewed in this
study are represented in blue: fishers, processors, and sellers/traders.. ............................................................................................... 6
Figure 3: The number of surveys conducted in the thirteen study sites around the coast of Sri Lanka: Mannar, Mullaitivu,
Kilinochchi, Jaffna, Trincomalee, Valaichchenai, Batticaloa, Ampara, Tangalle, Galle, Beruwala, Negombo and Kalpitiya ........... 7
Figure 4: The total number of respondents categorised by fisheries actor ........................................................................................... 8
Figure 5: The total number of female respondents categorised by fisheries actor ............................................................................... 8
Figure 6: Distribution of respondents who reported that COVID-19 impacted their work categorised by coast and fisheries actor . 8
Figure 7: Changes in seafood price reported by the fisheries actors .................................................................................................. 10
Figure 8: The proportion of respondents who received assistance from the government categorised by coast ................................ 11
Figure 9: The existing Sri Lankan governance framework ................................................................................................................ 16
Figure 10: Disaster risk preparedness inter-institutional recommendations based on the study ....................................................... 17
22
Annexure
Annexure 1
Table 4: A breakdown of survey areas in the respective coasts and the number of surveys conducted
Coast
Survey sites
Number of surveys
South
Galle
42
Tangalle
52
West
Beruwala
40
Kalpitiya
40
Negombo
41
East
Ampara
25
Batticaloa
50
Trincomalee
20
Valaichchenai
25
North
Jaffna
27
Kilinochchi
25
Mannar
2
Mullaitivu
26
Annexure 2
Table 5: A complete breakdown of the 415 surveys categorised by fisheries actor, coast and gender of respondents.
Coast
Total
Fishers
Coastal
Multi-Day
Processors
Sellers/Traders
F
M
Total
F
M
Total
F
M
Total
F
M
Total
F
M
Total
North
80
9
29
38
9
22
31
0
7
7
13
8
21
5
16
21
South
94
6
40
46
6
28
34
0
12
12
9
14
23
8
17
25
West
121
5
56
61
5
38
43
0
18
18
14
16
30
14
16
30
East
120
7
55
62
7
36
43
0
19
19
13
16
29
2
27
29
415
27
180
207
27
124
151
0
56
56
49
54
103
29
76
105
23
Summary
In response to the surge of COVID-19 cases across the globe, the Sri Lankan government imposed an island-
wide police curfew on 20 March 2020, followed by lockdowns and travel restrictions of varying nature1. This
study was conducted by Oceanswell to analyse the impacts of these restrictions on the coastal fishing
communities around the island.
Four hundred and fifteen surveys were conducted across 13 study sites along the coast of Sri Lanka from 29
July to 29 August 2020. The government had not reported community spread during this period. The main
known impacts of COVID-19 on fisheries in Sri Lanka prior to the survey period were due to the island-wide
curfew, cross border mobility restrictions and trade regulations.
Among the surveys conducted, 25% were from female fisheries actors, a majority of whom were processors.
The study included fishers, sellers/traders and processors, all of whom reported that restrictions negatively
impacted their respective fisheries related activity. The inability of fishers to go to sea disrupted the whole
fisheries value chain. Eighty four percent of the respondents reported a decrease in their income, which could
be attributed to the inaccessibility to the fisheries related activity, the decrease in consumer demand and the
steep decline in export.
A comparatively lower number of processors reported that the lockdown negatively impacted their work. This
could be due to the longer shelf-life of their product, which renders more control over their stocks during market
shocks such as this.
Sea food price showed no clear trend in any direction. However, a larger number of offshore/deep-sea fishers
reported a decline in seafood price2. This could be attributed to the fact that they catch high value seafood, which
was impacted by the decrease in purchasing power, trade restrictions and the decrease in export demand.
The most common adaptation strategies reported were utilising savings and credit services, while a small
number of respondents mentioned that they depended on the government allowance provided. The respondents
requested financial assistance and better suited financial services such as lower interest loan schemes.
Overall, this study showed that the inaccessibility to the ocean, and thereby fishing, negatively impacted small
scale fisheries communities due to limited coping strategies and lack of alternative modes of income.
The results of this study can be used as a model to predict and prepare for unforeseen shocks that can limit
access to seafood stock and disrupt the fisheries value chain. The consequences of overfishing, climate change
and climate change-induced factors such as storm surges, sea level rise and coastal flooding are examples of
potential future shocks that can threaten seafood stocks and limit access to them. The results of which would
render traditional fishing grounds unproductive and fishing gear and methods ineffective3. In response, larger
vessels, longer trips and the development of new gear will be crucial to a viable future of the industry, these
adaptation strategies will be more challenging for the increasingly vulnerable small-scale fishers4.
These compounding effects, along with pre-existing vulnerabilities, related to structural, social and economic
inequality, can in turn increase the effect that COVID-19 and similar shocks will have on health and socio-
economic factors in fisheries communities 5.
24
Sinhala translation
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தமி$ ெமாழியா)க+
ச"தியவாகீ*பர- சிவ.த-
COVID-19 ெதா12 உலெக5கி67 அதிக9":;ளத- காரணமாக, இல5ைக அரசா5க7 2020 ப5AனC 20 அ-2 நாE
FGவ:7 ெபாலி* ஊரட5A உ"தரைவ வJதி"த:ட-, அைத" ெதாடK.: பLேவ2 வJதமான FடNகLக;
ம127 பயண கOEPபாEக; நைடFைறPபE"தPபOடன. இ.த ஆSவான: இ.த கOEPபாEகளாL
இல5ைக"தTைவU V1றிW;ள கைரேயார மX-பJY சZக5க[NA ஏ1பOட தாNக5கைள ஆS] ெசSய
ஓசிய-*ெவL*ஸினாL ேம1ெகா;ளPபOட:.
2020 ஜூைல 29 FதL ஆக*O 29 வைரயான காலPபAதியJL இல5ைக கைரேயார"திL ெத9] ெசSயPபOட 13
ஆS] தள5களCL நாb12 பதிைன.: ஆS]க; நட"தPபOடன. இ.த காலகOட"திL அரசா5க7 சZக"
ெதா12 எ-பைத அறிவJ"திdNகவJLைல. இ.த ஆS] Zலமாக அறியPபOட இல5ைகயJL மX-பJY":ைற
மXதான COVID-19 இ- FNகிய தாNக5களான: தT] FGவத1Aமான ஊரட5A உ"தர], எLைலகைளN
கடPபத1கான பயணNகOEPபாEக; ம127 வK"தக ஒG5AFைறக; ேபா-றவ1றினாL ஏ1பOYd.தன.
நட"தPபOட ஆSவJL 25% ஆன ெபfகேள ப5Aப1றியJd.தனK எ-ப:ட- அவKகளCL ெபd7பாலாேனாK
கட6ண] பதனCEேவாK.
இ.த ஆSவJL கட1ெதாழிலாளKக;, வJ1பைனயாளKக; / வK"தகKக; ம127 பதினCEேவாK, இ.தN
கOEPபாEகளCனாL எதிKமைறயாக பாதிNகPபOட அைனவd7 கவன"தி1ெகா;ளPபOYd.தனK.
கட1ெதாழிலாளKக; ெதாழிL நிமி"த7 கட6NAU ெசLல வJதிNகPபOYd.த கOEPபாEக; FG கட1ெதாழிL
சாK மதிPh ச5கிலிையW7 சீKAைல"திd.த:. இ.த ஆSவJL ப5Aப1றியவKகளCL எfப": நா-A
சதவJகித"தினK த5க; வdமான"திL Aைற] இdPபதாகN iறினK. மX-பJY ெதாடKபான நடவYNைககளCL
ஈEபடFYயாைம, kகKேவா9- கட6ண]க[Nகான ேதைவ Aைறவைட.தைம ம127 ஏ12மதியJL ஏ1பOட
சEதியான வTlUி ஆகியைவ இ.த வdமானNAைறவJ1A காரணமாக இdNகலா7.
ஒPபmOடளவJL Aைற.த எfணJNைகயJலான பதனCEேவாேர இ.த நாEFடNகL நிைலயான: அவKகளC-
ெசய1பாOYைன எதிKமைறயாக பாதி"ததாக ெத9வJ"திd.தனK. இ: அவKகளC- உ1ப"திP ெபாdOகளC- iYய
காலாவதிN கால7 காரணமாக இd.திdNகலா7 எ-ப:ட-, இ.த நிைலயான: இ: ேபா-ற ச.ைத மா1ற5களC-
ேபா: அவKகளC- ேசக9Ph மX: அதிக கOEPபாOைட வழ5Aகி-ற:.
கடL உண] வJைலயJL எ.த ெதளCவான ேபாNA7 காணPபடவJLைல. இdPபJn7, அதிக எfணJNைகயJலான
ஆlகடL மXனவKக; கடL உண] வJைலயJL ச9] இd.ததாக ெத9வJ"திd.தனK. அவKக; பJYNA7 அதிக
மதிPh;ள கடL உண]களC- மXதான வா5A7 திறனCL ஏ1பOட வTlUி, வK"தக கOEPபாEக; ம127 ஏ12மதி
ேதைவ Aைறவைட.தைம ஆகியன இ.த நிைலNA காரணமாக இd.திdNக FYW7.
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இ.த நிைலயJைன சமாளCPபத1காக அவKக[ைடய ேசமிPhகைளP பய-பE":தL ம127 கட- ேசைவகைளP
பய-பE":தL எ-பன இ.த ஆSவJ- ேபா: iறPபOட உ"திகளாக இd.த:ட-, அேத ேநர"திL ஒd சிறிய
எfணJNைகயJலானவKக; தா5க; அரசா5க7 வழ5கிய இடKகாலNெகாEPபனைவ சாK.திd.ததாகN
AறிPபJOYd.தனK. பதிலளC"தவKக; நிதி உதவJ ம127 Aைற.த வOYN கட- திOட5க; ேபா-ற சிற.த
நிதிUேசைவகைள ேகா9யJd.தனK.
ஒOEெமா"தமாக இ.த ஆS], ெதாழிL நிமி"த7 கட6NA ெசLல FYயாத நிைல காணPபOட: எ-பைதN
காOEவ:ட-, வைரய2NகPபOட சமாளCNA7 உ"திக; ம127 மா12 வdமான Fைறக; இLலாைம ேபா-ற
காரணJகளாL சிறியளவJலான கட1ெதாழிL சZக5க; எதிKமைறயாக பாதிNகPபOYd.தன எ-பைதW7
கfடறிகி-ற:.
இ.த ஆSவJ- FY]க;, கடL உண]கைள ெப12Nெகா;ளNiYய த-ைமயJைன மOEPபE"தNiYய
நிைலக; ம127 கட1ெதாழிL மதிPh ச5கிலியJ- சீKAைல]க; ேபா-றவ1றிைன ஏ1பE"தNiYய எதிKபாராத
நிகl]கைள எதிK] iற]7, அ.த நிைலக[Nகான தயாKபE"தLகைள ேம1ெகா;வத1Aமான ஒd மாதி9யாக
பய-பE"தPபடலா7. மிைகயான மX-பJY"தL, காலநிைல மா1ற7 ம127 காலநிைல மா1ற"தாL ofடPபOட
காரணJகளான hயL, கடL மOட உயK] ம127 கைரேயார ெவ;ள7 ேபா-றைவ எதிKகால"திL ஏ1படNiYய
பாதிPபான plநிைலகளாக இdNகலா7 எ-ப:ட-, அைவ கடL உணவJ- அள]கைளஅUV2":7 ம127
அவ12Nகான அqகைலN கOEPபE":7 காரணJகளாக அைமயலா7. இத- FY]க; பார7ப9ய மX-பJY
இட5கைள உ1ப"தி"திறன1றைவயா மா12வ:ட- மX-பJY"த6NA பய-பE"தPபE7 மX-பJY உபகரண5க;
ம127 Fைறகைள வJைன"திறன1றதாக மா1றலா7. எதிKகால"திL இ.த நிைலயJைன எதிKேநாNAவத1காக
ெப9ய மX-பJYNகல-கைள பய-பE"தL, நTfட கட1ெதாழிL பயண5க; ம127 hதிய மX-பJY உபகரண5களC-
வளKUசி ஆகியைவ சா"தியமான F-ெமாழி]களாக இdNA7 எ-ப:ட-, இ.த சமாளCPh உ"திக; அதிக7
பாதிNகPபடNiYய சிறிய அளவJலான மX-பJYயJL ஈEபE7 மXனவKக[NA மிக]7 சவாலாக இdNA7.
கOடைமPh, சZக ம127 ெபாdளாதார சம":வமி-ைம ெதாடKபான ஏ1கனேவ இdNA7 பாதிPhக[டனான
iOE வJைள]க;, COVID-19 ம127 இேதேபா-ற எதிKபாராத நிைலகளCனாL கட1ெதாழிL சZக5களC- Vகாதார
ம127 சZக-ெபாdளாதார காரணJகளCL ஏ1படNiYய வJைள]கைள அதிக9NA7.
ந"றியறித'
இ.த திOட"தி1A நிதிWதவJயளC"த நTKவாl உயJ9னNகாOசியக"தி- கட1பா:காPh நடவYNைக நிதிய"தி1A (New
England Aquarium’s Marine Conservation Action Fund) ந-றி ெத9வJNக வJd7hகிேறா7. இ.த ஆராSUசியJL ப5Aப1றியைம,
ஒ":ைழPh வழ5கியைம ம127 ப5களC"தைமNகாக பதிலளC"தவKக[NA நா5க; ந-றிகைள"
ெத9வJ":Nெகா;கி-ேறா7. ேம67, வடNA ம127 கிழNA கைரேயார5களCL உ;ள எ5க; ஆராSUசி
உதவJயாளKகைள ஒd5கிைண"தைம, கணNெகEPhகளC- தர ச9பாKPh ெசயLFைறNA உதவJய திdமதி ெஜகதT*வ9
ஏகா7பர7 Aணசி5க7 அவKக[NA எ5க; ந-றிைய" ெத9வJ":N ெகா;கிேறா7. ேமலதிகமாக, ேநKகாணLகைள
நடா"திய எ5க; ஆராSUசி உதவJயாளKகளC- பணJைய பாராOEகி-ேறா7: ெகௗசLயா பாலp9ய, திலினC கமேக, மnஜா
ெஹfடவJதாரன, இஃPலாL இலியா*, தமிழினC கேணசலி5க7, Fஹ7ம: Fஜா*, கஜ.தினC ராஜநேள.திர-,
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ஷால5கா ரvVலா, 9ஃPதா 9*வா-, அ.ேதானC ச.ேதாw, சரfயா சி-ன":ைர, ச"தியவாகீ*பர- சிவ.த-,
அபJலாகினC வJNரம- ம127 F":லி5க7 Wஹி.த-. இ.த அறிNைகைய தயா9Pபத1A ஒ":ைழPh வழ5கிய இஷா
ம127 நEனC மLலிகா ஆராUசி ஆகிேயாdNA ந-றிகைள" ெத9வJ":Nெகா;கிேறா7. இ.த அறிNைகயJைன"
தயா9Pபத1காக ேம1ெகா;ளPபOட தர] பAPபாSவJ1A ஒ":ைழPh வழ5கிய கலாநிதி. ெநLலி கடகி அவKக[NA
ந-றிகைள" ெத9வJ":Nெகா;கிேறா7.
References
1. Foreign Ministry - Sri Lanka. (2020, March 20). Declaration of police curfew island wide [Press release]. Retrieved from
https://mfa.gov.lk/declaration-of-police-curfew-island-wide/
2. National Aquatic Resources Research and Development Agency (NARA). (2019). Fisheries Industry Outlook- 2018 (7-
24). http://www.nara.ac.lk/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/fisheries-industry-outlook-2018-converted-Copy.pdf
3. Edirisinghe, K., Wansapala, J., & Wickramasinghe, I. (2018). Review of marine fishery status along the supply chain in
Sri Lanka. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 3 (4): 10-23.
4. Arulananthan, K. (2017). Proceedings of the Workshop on Present Status of Research Activities on Climate Change
Adaptations. (Ed. B. Marambe), 121-126.
5. Nathan J. Bennett, Elena M. Finkbeiner, Natalie C. Ban, Dyhia Belhabib, Stacy D. Jupiter, John N. Kittinger, Sangeeta
Mangubhai, Joeri Scholtens, David Gill & Patrick Christie (2020). The COVID-19 Pandemic, Small-Scale Fisheries and
Coastal Fishing Communities, Coastal Management, 48 (4): 336-347, doi: 10.1080/08920753.2020.1766937
29
The team
1st Row (L to R) Nadiya Azmy (Project Lead, Co-author), Arpana Giritharan (Project Lead, Co-author), Asha de Vos Ph.D.
(Co-author), Sangeeta Mangubhai Ph.D. (Co-author)
2nd Row (L to R) Hafsa Jamel (Co-author), Jegatheeswary Ehamparam Gunasingham (Research Assistant Coordinator
North and East), Kaushalya Balasooriya, Dilini Gamage
3rd Row (L to R) Manuja Hendawitharana, Iflal Ilyas, Thamiliny Kaneshalingam, Mohammed Mujas
4th Row (L to R) Kajanthini Rajanalendran, Shalanka Ranjula, Rifdha Riswan, Antony Santhosh
5th Row (L to R) Saranya Sinnathurai, Sathiavakeesparan Sivanthan, Abilagini Vickraman and Muththulingam Yuhinthan
30
ISBN 978-624-5751-00-6
ISBN 978-624-5751-00-6
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Wood harvesting is an important source of income and a direct threat to mangrove forests in West-Central Africa. To understand the effects of this activity on mangrove ecology, it is necessary to assess harvesting practices of local communities. Knowledge on those is scarce for this region; we therefore examined implications of gender roles on the sustainability of mangrove forests in the South West Region (SWR), Cameroon. Socio-economic surveys, focus group discussions and forest inventories were used for the assessments. Mangroves in the studied sites were dominated by Rhizophora racemosa. The Simpson's diversity index did not vary significantly between exploitation levels. The current harvesting style by women (compared with men) is characterised by a larger working area but closer to home and more seasonal, intensive harvesting of smaller trees. This enhances mangrove ecosystem degradation, whereby the effect is exacerbated because of the catalytic harvesting practices of men (less frequent, small scale, selective harvesting of larger trees). To help sustain mangroves in this region, further research on wood harvesting practices and implications for factors affecting growth is essential. To improve harvesting strategies, communities need to be provided with alternative sources of livelihood and educated on the values of mangroves and regeneration techniques.
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COVID-19 is now a major global health crisis, can lead to severe food crisis unless proper measures are taken. Though a number of scientific studies have addressed the possible impacts of COVID-19 in Bangladesh on variety of issues, problems and food crises associated with aquatic resources and communities are missing. Therefore, this study aimed at bridging the gap in the existing situation and challenges of COVID-19 by linking its impact on aquatic food sector and small-scale fisheries with dependent population. The study was conducted based on secondary data analysis and primary fieldwork. Secondary data focused on COVID-19 overview and number of confirmed, recovered and death cases in Bangladesh; at the same time its connection with small-scale fisheries, aquatic food production, demand and supply was analyzed. Community perceptions were elicited to present how the changes felt and how they affected aquatic food system and small-scale fisheries and found devastating impact. Sudden illness, reduced income, complication to start production and input collection, labor crisis, transportation abstraction, complexity in food supply, weak value chain, low consumer demand, rising commodity prices, creditor's pressure were identified as the primary affecting drivers. Dependent people felt the measures taken by the Government should be based on protecting both the health and food security. Scope of alternative income generating opportunities, rationing system, training and motivational program could improve the situation. The study provides insight into policies adopted by the policy makers to mitigate the effects of the pandemic on aquatic food sector and small-scale fisheries.
Article
Inequality and conflict in Sri Lanka have frequently been analyzed along ethnic lines. However, many scholars have stressed the importance of other dimensions of identity, such as gender, caste and class, in studying social tension. This study uses intersectionality theory to examine how a combination of the social categories of gender, race, ethnicity and location creates structural inequality. This article draws upon in-depth research on Muslim, Tamil, Sinhalese and indigenous/Veder women who catch and market fish in the conflict-affected eastern district of Trincomalee, Sri Lanka. The focus was on intra-group differences among these women and the different sources of power they use to subvert existing power structures. Although multiple inequalities affected the respondents’ daily lives and participation in activities, they were not passive victims; they used their own agency to negotiate for their livelihoods. Nevertheless, the women who comprise the focus of this study appeared to be completely invisible to government fisheries management bodies. The lack of institutional representation has disadvantaged them in their negotiations for space to engage in livelihood activities. Registration of these women by the government department of fisheries among those who make a living from fishing would provide them with a first measure of recognition and empowerment, strengthening their chances of negotiating access to the fishery livelihood resources. © 2017 Asian Center for Women's Studies, Ewha Womans University.
COVID-19) Sri Lanka -Analytics Dashboard
  • Coronavirus
Coronavirus (COVID-19) Sri Lanka -Analytics Dashboard.
UNU-Fisheries Training Programme
  • Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka, final project 2005, UNU-Fisheries Training Programme. Retrieved from 2009-2018.