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Impacto del consumo de información sobre los estados de ánimo en el contexto de la pandemia de COVID-19

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Abstract

El tema central del presente capítulo es la relación que se establece entre el consumo de información en medios de comunicación tradicionales, en redes sociales o vía comunica¬ción interpersonal mediada o no mediada, por un lado y los estados de ánimo reportados durante los periodos de confinamiento por la pandemia de COVID-19 de febrero a octu¬bre de 2020 en México. La investigación usa una metodología mixta de dos etapas y los resultados se interpretan desde la perspectiva teórica de la metaemociones y de la teoría del manejo del estado de ánimo, encontrando resultados que validan las postulaciones de estas dos teorías. Por ejemplo, la adopción de un comportamiento de auto-regulación de consumo de información cuando estos se relacionan con la acentuación de estados de ánimo negativos, como miedo o ansiedad; o bien, que el consumo de información referente a la pandemia, sea a través de medios, sea a través de comunicación interper¬sonal, se relaciona con experimentar un complejo conjunto de emociones y estados de ánimo (metaemociones).

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This study applies Ball-Rokeach and DeFleur's (1976) media system dependency theory to the analysis of public opinion regarding the performance of the news media and the president before and after the September 11th attacks. Contrary to the "rally 'round the flag" effect, but consistent with system dependency theory, partisan differences become stronger predictors of presidential approval following the terrorist attacks.
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Purpose: A new strain of H1N1 influenza, also known as swine flu was confirmed in the UK in May 2009 and has spread to over 100 countries around the world causing the World Health Organization to declare a global flu pandemic. The primary objectives of this review are to identify the key demographic and attitudinal determinants of three types of protective behaviour during a pandemic: preventive, avoidant, and management of illness behaviours, in order to describe conceptual frameworks in which to better understand these behaviours and to inform future communications and interventions in the current outbreak of swine flu and subsequent influenza pandemics. Methods: Web of Science and PubMed databases were searched for references to papers on severe acute respiratory syndrome, avian influenza/flu, H5N1, swine influenza/flu, H1N1, and pandemics. Forward searching of the identified references was also carried out. In addition, references were gleaned from an expert panel of the Behaviour and Communications sub-group of the UK Scientific Pandemic Influenza Advisory Group. Papers were included if they reported associations between demographic factors, attitudes, and a behavioural measure (reported, intended, or actual behaviour). Results: Twenty-six papers were identified that met the study inclusion criteria. The studies were of variable quality and most lacked an explicit theoretical framework. Most were cross-sectional in design and therefore not predictive over time. The research shows that there are demographic differences in behaviour: being older, female and more educated, or non-White, is associated with a higher chance of adopting the behaviours. There is evidence that greater levels of perceived susceptibility to and perceived severity of the diseases and greater belief in the effectiveness of recommended behaviours to protect against the disease are important predictors of behaviour. There is also evidence that greater levels of state anxiety and greater trust in authorities are associated with behaviour. Conclusions: The findings from this review can be broadly explained by theories of health behaviour. However, theoretically driven prospective studies are required to further clarify the relationship between demographic factors, attitudes, and behaviour. The findings suggest that intervention studies and communication strategies should focus on particular demographic groups and on raising levels of perceived threat of the pandemic disease and belief in the effectiveness of measures designed to protect against it.
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