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Understanding cell responses to the topography they are interacting with has a key role in designing surfaces due to the distinctiveness in the responses of different cell types. Thus far, a variety of surface textures have been fabricated, and the cellular responses of diversified cell lines to the surface textures have been assessed together with surface chemistry. However, the results reported in the literature are contradictory, and also not in-depth for inferring the relevance between cells, surface chemistry, and surface topography. Starting from this point of view, we focused on fabricating surfaces having extracellular matrix-like surface patterns and investigated the influence of patterning on human ovarian cancer cells. In this study, hemispherical protrusion-shaped, nanotextured surfaces were prepared via colloidal lithography and polymer casting methods using monolayer templates prepared from 280 nm, 210 nm, and 99 nm polystyrene particles and polydimethylsiloxane moulds. Then, the surface textures were transferred to biocompatible polycaprolactone films. After the characterisation of the surfaces via atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements, the cellular response to topography was evaluated by cell attachment, viability, and apoptosis studies. The results were compared with non-textured surfaces and control plate wells. The results showed that human ovarian cancer cell attachment increased with nanotexturing, which suggests that nanotexturing may be a promising approach for cancer cell modulation, and may have the potential to introduce new strategies for cancer treatment.
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Aim Intracranial Hemorrhage (ICH) is an important cause of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), yet there are no United States (US), European, or Australian prospective studies examining its incidence in patients who sustained OHCA. This study aims to identify the incidence of ICH in US patients with OHCA who obtain return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Methods We prospectively analyzed consecutive patients with OHCA who achieved ROSC at a single US hospital over a 15-month period. Before beginning patient enrollment, we implemented a standardized emergency department order-set for the initial management for all patients with ROSC after OHCA. This order-set included a non-contrast head computed-tomography (NCH-CT) scan. Patient and cardiac arrest variables were recorded, as were NCH-CT findings. Results During the study period, 85 patients sustained an OHCA, achieved ROSC, survived to hospital admission, and underwent a NCH-CT. Three of these 85 patients had ICH (3.5%). Survival to discharge was seen in 23/82 (28.0%) patients without ICH and in 1/3 patients with ICH. Survival with good neurologic outcome was seen in 14/82 (17.1%) patients without ICH and in 0/3 patients with ICH. Patients with ICH tended to be older than patients without ICH. Conclusions In our US cohort, ICH was an uncommon finding in patients who sustained OHCA and survived to hospital admission, and no patients with ICH survived to discharge with good neurologic outcome. Additionally, the incidence of ICH was lower than reported in previous studies.
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The World Health Organization's new classification of breast tumors has just been published. This review aims to examine the morphological categorization of breast carcinomas which is still principally based on histological features and follows the traditions of histological typing. It gives a subjective and critical view on the WHO classifications and their changes over time, and describes the changes related to some of the most common or challenging breast carcinomas: in situ carcinomas, invasive breast carcinomas of no special type, lobular, cribriform, tubular, mucinous, papillary, metaplastic carcinomas and carcinomas with medullary pattern and those with apocrine differentiation are discussed in more details. Although the 5th edition of the classification is not perfect, it has advantages which are mentioned along with problematic issues of classifications.
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Metaplastic breast carcinomas (MPBC) are rare, aggressive and relatively chemorefractory tumors with a high unmet need. While most are "triple negative" and lack expression of estrogen, progesterone and HER2 receptors, MPBC are associated with worse outcomes compared to conventional triple negative invasive tumors. MPBCs are genetically heterogeneous and harbor somatic mutations, most frequently in TP53, PIK3CA and PTEN, with emerging studies suggesting a role for novel targeted therapies. These tumors have also been associated with overexpression of PD-L1 and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes suggesting an endogenous immune response and therefore a rationale for treatment with immunotherapies. Here, we focus on therapeutic options for this difficult to treat breast cancer subtype and encourage physicians to consider targeted therapies/immunotherapies as part of ongoing clinical trials.
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Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is a rare subtype of invasive breast cancer consisting of various combinations of malignant epithelial and mesenchymal cells. Its aggressive growth pattern combined with its histological heterogeneity account for MBC's characteristic resistance to systemic therapies, which subsequently leads to increased risk of recurrence and breast cancer mortality compared with other invasive mammary carcinomas. The aim of this review is to discuss the current therapeutic approaches, both in loco‐regional as well as in systemic management of MBC. With the accumulation of knowledge from histopathologic assessment and the increasing identification of underlying molecular aberrations, emerging, novel targeted therapies will enable physicians to implement a more individualized and efficacious therapeutic strategy, leading hopefully to an improvement in the poor prognosis of MBC.
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The shoulder is a complex joint, with a wide range of motion and functional demands. An understanding of the intricate network of bony, ligamentous, muscular, and neurovascular anatomy is required in order to properly identify and diagnose shoulder pathology. There exist many articulations, unique structural features, and anatomic relationships that play a role in shoulder function, and therefore, dysfunction and injury. Evaluation of a patient with shoulder complaints is largely reliant upon physical exam. As with any exam, the basic tenets of inspection, palpation, range of motion, strength, and neurovascular integrity must be followed. However, with the degree of complexity associated with shoulder anatomy, specific exam maneuvers must be utilized to isolate and help differentiate pathologies. Evaluation of rotator cuff injury, shoulder instability, or impingement via exam guides clinical decision-making and informs treatment options.