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Abstract

Syrphidae, more commonly known as flower flies, are considered one of the most important Diptera families worldwide because of their critical role in pollination, biological control and decomposition of organic matter. The study of these flies in Chile has stagnated due to a lack of local experts as well as the absence of an updated catalog of species. This study is an attempt to remedy the latter of these issues by providing an illustrated and updated catalog to the Syrphidae of Chile. Species are presented under currently accepted names, with synonyms and previous combinations listed and original references. Type localities, world and Chilean distribution by geopolitical Chilean regions, taxonomic and biological notes, a complete record of bibliographic references and extinction risk under IUCN Red List criteria are provided. This catalog recognizes 132 species of Syrphidae, belonging to four subfamilies (Eristalinae, Microdontinae, Pipizinae and Syrphinae), 13 tribes and 47 genera. A total of 46 species (34.84 %) is restricted to the geopolitical territory of Chile. Eight species are considered exotic, one is considered incertae sedis and three are based on doubtful records. Seventeen species of 10 different genera (Copestylum Macquart, 1846; Dolichogyna Macquart, 1842; Eosalpingogaster Hull, 1949b; Eupeodes Osten Sacken, 1877; Meromacrus Rondani, 1848; Palpada Macquart, 1834; Paragus Latreille, 1804; Sphiximorpha Rondani, 1850; Sterphus Philippi, 1865 and Toxomerus Macquart, 1855) are reported from Chile for the first time. A total of 44 species (33.33 %) reported from Chile are directly threatened by human activities such as agriculture, forestry, mining and/or urbanization and indirectly by climate change. The gaps found in the geographic distribution of Chilean flower fly species and what it means for its use by disciplines such as ecology, floral biology and agronomy, are discussed. In addition, the use of this illustrated catalog for biological conservation, the potential definition of priority areas and ecosystem management plans based on this group of Diptera are also discussed.

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... For example, there is almost a complete absence of data in Venezuela and Paraguay, which is known to reflect a lack of monitoring (Montoya et al., 2012). There are also data on hoverfly occurrences from Colombia (Montoya, 2016), Brazil (Borges andCouri, 2009), Ecuador (Marín-Armijos et al., 2017) and Chile (Barahona-Segovia et al., 2021) that are yet to be digitized. ...
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... Barahona-Segovia et al., 2021) that are yet to be digitized.409 Much of the data for all taxa were collected in Mexico. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aim: Aggregated species occurrence data are increasingly accessible through public databases for the analysis of temporal trends in species’ distributions. However, biases in these data present challenges for robust statistical inference. We assessed potential biases in data available through GBIF on the occurrences of four flower-visiting taxa: bees (Anthophila), hoverflies (Syrphidae), leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae), and hummingbirds (Trochilidae). We also assessed whether and to what extent data mobilisation efforts improved our ability to estimate trends in species’ distributions. Location: The Neotropics. Methods: We used five data-driven heuristics to screen the data for potential geographic, temporal and taxonomic biases. We began with a continental-scale assessment of the data for all four taxa. We then identified two recent data mobilisation efforts (2021) that drastically increased the quantity of records of bees collected in Chile available through GBIF. We compared the dataset before and after the addition of these new records in terms of their biases and their impact on estimated trends in species’ distributions. Results: We found evidence of potential sampling biases for all taxa. The addition of newly-mobilised records of bees in Chile decreased some biases but introduced others. Despite increasing the quantity of data for bees in Chile sixfold, estimates of temporal trends in species’ distributions derived using the post-mobilisation dataset were broadly similar to what would have been estimated before their introduction. Main conclusions: Our results highlight the challenges associated with drawing statistically robust inferences about trends in species’ distributions using publicly available data. Mobilising historic records will not always enable trend estimation because more data does not necessarily equal less bias. Analysts should carefully assess their data before conducting analyses: this might enable the estimation of more robust trends and help to identify strategies for effective data mobilisation. Our study also reinforces the need for well-designed, standardized monitoring of pollinators worldwide.
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Article
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Article
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Article
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Se registra por primera vez a Eristalinus taeniops en las localidades de Chada, comuna de Paine, Región Metropolitana de Santiago y Rancagua, comuna homónima, Región del Libertador General Bernardo O 'Higgins, Chile, convirtiéndose este último en el registro más austral del país. Se detallan los registros de la especie presentes en íNaturalist, confirmando por este medio su presencia en las regiones de Valparaíso y Metropolitana, añadiendo además el primer registro para la Región de Antofagasta. Se discute brevemente el impacto que pudiese generar la presencia de esta especie exótica en los ecosistemas naturales. Palabras clave: Eristalinae; Eristalini; especie exótica; moscas de las flores.
14.I.1954, Leg. L. Peña (CNC)
  • Pilli
Pilli, 14.I.1954, Leg. L. Peña (CNC);
Altitudinal range. From coastal to highland ecosystems (5-3,000 m.a.s.l.). Biology and notes. Palpada chilena is associated with exotic plants such as Lantana trifolia L. (Orlando Montes, CSP record), Ranunculus aquatilis L. (Rodrigo Barahona-Segovia pers
  • Camousseight
Camousseight, 2005: 96 (cat.). World distribution. Argentina and Chile. Chilean distribution. From Coquimbo to Aysén region (Fig. 65). Altitudinal range. From coastal to highland ecosystems (5-3,000 m.a.s.l.). Biology and notes. Palpada chilena is associated with exotic plants such as Lantana trifolia L. (Orlando Montes, CSP record), Ranunculus aquatilis L. (Rodrigo Barahona-Segovia pers. obs.), R. ulmifolius (Fernando González, CSP records), Chrysantemum sp. (Karina Bustamante, CSP record), and M. domestica (Vanessa Durán & Rodrigo Barahona-Segovia pers. obs.) as well as the native species E. cordifolia or M. ovata var. ovata (Cecilia Smith-Ramírez et al. 2005, 2014) and M. planipes, Amomyrtus meli (Phil.) D. Legrand & Kausel, L. sempervirens (Rodrigo Barahona-segovia, pers. obs.). Conservation status. LC;
526, fig. 1 (head, lateral) (Nepenthosyrphus rev
  • Thompson
Thompson, 1971: 526, fig. 1 (head, lateral) (Nepenthosyrphus rev.);
Termas de Cauquenes, 15.I.1969, Leg. J. Herrera (IEUMCE); Ñuble: 1♂, 2♀, Termas de Chillán, II
1♂, Termas de Cauquenes, 15.I.1969, Leg. J. Herrera (IEUMCE); Ñuble: 1♂, 2♀, Termas de Chillán, II.1965, Leg. J. Herrera (IEUMCE);
  • Xii
XII.1986, Leg. S. Cerda (MNHNCL);
Altitudinal range. From coastal to highland ecosystems (2-3,240 m.a.s.l.). Biology and notes. Dioprosopa clavata is a species with a wide distribution. It has been found visiting mainly exotic plants such as Myoporum laetum G. Forst, T. officinale, Trifolium sp
  • Marín-Armijos
Marín-Armijos et al., 2017: 176 (cat.). World distribution. Argentina, Bahamas, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Less Antillas, Puerto Rico, Venezuela and Chile. Chilean distribution. From Arica y Parinacota to Metropolitan region (Fig. 180). Altitudinal range. From coastal to highland ecosystems (2-3,240 m.a.s.l.). Biology and notes. Dioprosopa clavata is a species with a wide distribution. It has been found visiting mainly exotic plants such as Myoporum laetum G. Forst, T. officinale, Trifolium sp., and Plumbago auriculata Lam. (R. Barahona-Segovia, pers. obs.). Also, this species have been observed visiting flowers of E. pectinatus, L. marítima, H. helix and Chlorophytum comosum (Thunb.) Jacques (Gabriela Germain, CSP records);
This species is an important biological controller of different insect pests such as aphids
  • H Rojo
H. echioides (Mari Peña, CSP record) and Cuscuta sp. (Matías Cortés, CSP record). This species is an important biological controller of different insect pests such as aphids (Rojo et al., 2003). Conservation status. LC;
  • Marinoni
Marinoni et al., 2007: 148 (key & dist.);
Biology and notes. Eosalpingogaster conopida is a native species from northern Chile. Porter (1924) describes that a puparium of this species was collected in the plant species Foeniculum spp. and subsequently reared from a plant strongly attacked by aphids
  • Miranda
Miranda et al., 2016: 166 (phylogeny). World distribution. Argentina, Brazil and Chile. Chilean distribution. From Antofagasta to Los Ríos region (Fig. 185). Altitudinal range. From coastal to precordillera ecosystems (2-1,000 m.a.s.l.). Biology and notes. Eosalpingogaster conopida is a native species from northern Chile. Porter (1924) describes that a puparium of this species was collected in the plant species Foeniculum spp. and subsequently reared from a plant strongly attacked by aphids. In other countries, E. conopina has been described as a predator of Cercopidae and Dactylopidae (Silva et al. 1968, Zimmermann et al. 1979). Conservation status. LC;
Altitudinal range. From coastal to highland ecosystems (0-3,500 m.a.s.l.). Biology and notes. Fazia argentipila have been observed visiting flowers of Haplopappus sp. (Raúl Dinam, CSP record). Other aspects of its biology and ecology remain unknown in Chile
  • Mengual
Mengual et al., 2009: 15 (distr.). World distribution. Argentina, Ecuador, Peru and Chile. Chilean distribution. From Arica y Parinacota to Valparaíso region (Fig. 192). Altitudinal range. From coastal to highland ecosystems (0-3,500 m.a.s.l.). Biology and notes. Fazia argentipila have been observed visiting flowers of Haplopappus sp. (Raúl Dinam, CSP record). Other aspects of its biology and ecology remain unknown in Chile. Conservation status. LC;
Ecuador and Chile. Chilean distribution. From Tarapacá to Magallanes region (Fig. 192). Altitudinal range. From coastal to highland ecosystems (5-2,700 m.a.s.l.). Biology and notes
  • López
López et al., 2012: 11 (key). World distribution. Ecuador and Chile. Chilean distribution. From Tarapacá to Magallanes region (Fig. 192). Altitudinal range. From coastal to highland ecosystems (5-2,700 m.a.s.l.). Biology and notes. Fazia decemmaculata is associated with the native tree species L. apiculata and M. ovata var. ovata (Smith-Ramírez et al., 2005). Due to its wide distribution in the country, this species be associated with different plants such as B. globosa (Juan González, CSP record);
Type locality and data
Type locality and data. "Serena, Chile" (MNHNP). Material examined. Coquimbo: La Serena (Porter 1921);
Valparaíso: 1♂, Peñuelas, 27
Valparaíso: 1♂, Peñuelas, 27.V.1964, Leg. D. Lanfranco (MNHNCL);
(ecological study, supplementary material). World distribution. Argentina and Chile. Chilean distribution. From Coquimbo to Los Lagos region (Fig. 192). Altitudinal range. From coastal to highland ecosystems
  • Smith-Ramírez
Smith-Ramírez et al., 2014: 6 (ecological study, supplementary material). World distribution. Argentina and Chile. Chilean distribution. From Coquimbo to Los Lagos region (Fig. 192). Altitudinal range. From coastal to highland ecosystems (5-1,200 m.a.s.l.).
María Rojas Gómez-Lobo, CSP record) and Sophora macrocarpa Sm (Francisco Espinoza
  • L Rosa
Rosa eglanteria L. (María Rojas Gómez-Lobo, CSP record) and Sophora macrocarpa Sm (Francisco Espinoza, CSP record). Conservation status. LC;
Material examined. Arica y Parinacota: 1♂, Azapa, 21.XI
Type locality and data. "Chile Chico, Chile" (T, ♂, USNM). Material examined. Arica y Parinacota: 1♂, Azapa, 21.XI.1967, Leg. G. Díaz P. (UTA);
  • O'higgins
O'Higgins: 1♂, Rancagua, 21.IV.1962, Leg. Solervicens (MNHNCL);
  • Lander
Maule: surround Reserva Nacional Los Queules (Lander et al. 2009); Biobío: 3♂, 4♀, Concepción, 15.XII.1955, Leg. J. Artigas (MZUC);
This tree is found in a small area of the Chilean coastal mountain range between the Maule and Biobío regions (Acevedo & Álvarez 1999), but S. reedi has a greater distribution in Chile
  • Sanzana
Sanzana et al., 2012: 28 (pollinator study). World distribution. Argentina, Brasil and Chile. Chilean distribution. From Arica y Parinacota to Los Ríos region (Fig. 205). Altitudinal range. From coastal to highland ecosystems (5-2,930 m.a.s.l.). Biology and notes. Syrphus reedi is associated with the EN native tree G. keule (Lander et al., 2009). This tree is found in a small area of the Chilean coastal mountain range between the Maule and Biobío regions (Acevedo & Álvarez 1999), but S. reedi has a greater distribution in Chile. Biological interactions are not currently considered as a criterion in the IUCN Red List assessment (IUCN 2012).
  • Quebrada De
  • La Plata
Quebrada de la Plata, 23.IV.1966, Leg. N. Hichins (MEUC);
Chilean distribution. From Valparaíso to O'Higgins region (Fig. 205). Altitudinal range. From coastal to precordillera ecosystems (5-1,310 m.a.s.l.). Biology and notes
  • Montoya
Montoya, 2016: 479 (cat.). World distribution. Argentina, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Panamá, Peru, Mexico, Venezuela and Chile. Chilean distribution. From Valparaíso to O'Higgins region (Fig. 205). Altitudinal range. From coastal to precordillera ecosystems (5-1,310 m.a.s.l.). Biology and notes. Syrphus shorae is a species widely distributed in the Neotropical region (Montoya 2016).
ex Benth (César Martínez, CSP record) and L. maritima (Gabriela Germain
  • E Plectranthus
  • Mey
Plectranthus ciliatus E. Mey. ex Benth (César Martínez, CSP record) and L. maritima (Gabriela Germain, CSP record). Conservation status. LC;
Saltos de Petrohue, 30.III
2♂, Saltos de Petrohue, 30.III.1968, Leg. L.E. Peña (MEUC). References. Philippi, 1865: 749 (desc.);
World distribution. Chile. Chilean distribution. From Valparaíso to Los Lagos region (Fig. 200). Altitudinal range. From coastal to precordillera ecosystems
  • Mengual
Mengual et al., 2018b: 12 (desc. group). World distribution. Chile. Chilean distribution. From Valparaíso to Los Lagos region (Fig. 200). Altitudinal range. From coastal to precordillera ecosystems (0-1,600 m.a.s.l.).
ecological study, supplementary material
  • Smith-Ramírez
Smith-Ramírez et al., 2014: 6 (ecological study, supplementary material).