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Article no.MRJI.67085 Original Research Article Adwan and Omar

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Abstract

Objective: The aims of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and the genotoxic effect of both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of stem and leaf of Capparis spinosa (C. spinosa) plant on Escherichia coli (E. coli) ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) ATCC 6538P, clinical isolate of Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) and Candida albicans (C. albicans) ATCC 90028. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity was determined using microbroth dilution method, while the genotoxic effect was investigated using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR. Results: The MIC values of both ethanolic and aqueous leaf and stem extracts of C. spinosa plant had a range 6.25 mg/ml to 100 mg/ml. In addition, it was found that ethanolic extract more effective than aqueous extract. The genotoxic activity of aqueous leaf extract, showed changes in both Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR and Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC)-PCR profiles of E. coli strain treated with extract compared to untreated (negative) control. These changes included an alteration in the intensity, absence or appearance of new amplified fragments. 49 Conclusions: Results of this study strongly show the genotoxic effect of aqueous leaf extract from C. spinosa plant on E. coli. The findings draw awareness to the possible toxic effect use of C. spinosa plant in traditional medicine and point out the capability of using C. spinosa to treat bacterial or fungal infections. More studies are needed to detect the exact ingredients of this plant as well as the mechanisms responsible for genotoxicity. Further in vivo genotoxicity studies are recommended to ensure and to evaluate the safety of using plants for therapeutic purposes. In addition, results of this study showed that molecular fingerprinting based on ERIC-PCR can be used to evaluate the genotoxic effect in the model bacterial species E. coli.

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... None of the organs was most active than the others toward the tested microorganisms (Gull et al., 2015). Similar results were described by Adwan and Omar, (2021), stem and leaf ethanol extracts exhibited MIC of 6.25-100 mg/ mL against relatively identical bacterial strains (Gull et al., 2015;Mickymaray and Al Aboody, 2019;Adwan and Omar, 2021). Similarly, the ethanol fruit extract of Caper featured strong antibacterial activity with MIC of 1.73 mg/mL against Listeria monocytogenes and 6.25 mg/mL against E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ...
... None of the organs was most active than the others toward the tested microorganisms (Gull et al., 2015). Similar results were described by Adwan and Omar, (2021), stem and leaf ethanol extracts exhibited MIC of 6.25-100 mg/ mL against relatively identical bacterial strains (Gull et al., 2015;Mickymaray and Al Aboody, 2019;Adwan and Omar, 2021). Similarly, the ethanol fruit extract of Caper featured strong antibacterial activity with MIC of 1.73 mg/mL against Listeria monocytogenes and 6.25 mg/mL against E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ...
... The ethanol flower extract was not as strong as the fruit extract against the same microorganisms disclosing MIC ranging from 10-15 mg/mL (Ennacerie et al., 2017;Hameed et al., 2021). Caper extract also showed differential antibacterial activity against Pasteurella multocida, K. pneumonia, Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Proteus mirabilis with DZI values of 24.9, 36, 21, 26 and 27 mm, respectively (Gull et al., 2015;Mickymaray and Al Aboody, 2019;Adwan and Omar, 2021). From other perspectives, the copper nanoparticles prepared from the aqueous extract from the fruits showed significant antibacterial activity with MIC of 5-10 mg/mL against S. aureus PTCC1112, B. cereus PTCC1556, E. coli PTCC1330, and K. pneumoniae PTCC1053 (Ebrahimi et al., 2017). ...
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates recovered from chronically colonized patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are phenotypically different from those collected from other patients or from the environment. To assess whether alterations in motility, mucoidy, and serum susceptibility represented an adaptation to chronic infection or replacement by a new strain, sequential P. aeruginosa isolates of known phenotype collected from 20 CF patients were typed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. A total of 35 RAPD strain types were found among 385 isolates from 20 patients, and only two patients had P. aeruginosa strains of the same RAPD fingerprint. Eight strain pairs representative of the first eight RAPD types were also analyzed by SpeI macrorestriction followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE); the strain types found by both fingerprinting techniques correlated exactly. In 11 of 20 patients, the RAPD types of serial P. aeruginosa isolates remained stable despite alterations in isolate motility, colonial morphology, and lipopolysaccharide phenotype. However, in isolates collected from one CF patient, a single band change in RAPD fingerprint and CeuI PFGE profile correlated with the appearance of an RpoN mutant phenotype, suggesting that the altered phenotype may have been due to a stable genomic rearrangement. Secretion of mucoid exopolysaccharide, loss of expression of RpoN-dependent surface factors, and acquisition of a serum-susceptible phenotype in P. aeruginosa appear to evolve during chronic colonization in CF patients from specific adaptation to infection rather than from acquisition of new bacterial strains.
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Medicinal plants have been known as one of the most important therapeutic agents since ancient times. During the last two decades, much attention has been paid to the health-promoting effects of edible medicinal plants, because of multiple beneficial effects and negligible adverse effects. Capparis spinosa L. is one of the most common medicinal plants, used widely in different parts of the world to treat numerous human diseases. This paper aims to critically review the available scientific literature regarding the health-promoting effects of C. spinosa, its traditional uses, cultivation protocols and phytochemical constituents. Recently, a wide range of evidence has shown that this plant possesses different biological effects, including antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial effects. Phytochemical analysis shows that C. spinosa has high quantities of bioactive constituents, including polyphenolic compounds, which are responsible for its health-promoting effects, although many of these substances are present in low concentrations and significant changes in their content occur during processing. In addition, there is negligible scientific evidence regarding any adverse effects. Different health promotion activities, as well as tremendous diversity of active constituents, make C. spinosa a good candidate for discovering new drugs. However these findings are still in its infancy and future experimental and clinical studies are needed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay and related techniques like the arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) have been shown to detect genotoxin-induced DNA damage and mutations. The changes occurring in RAPD profiles following genotoxic treatments include variation in band intensity as well as gain or loss of bands. However, the interpretation of the molecular events responsible for differences in the RAPD patterns is not an easy task since different DNA alterations can induce similar type of changes. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a number of DNA alterations on the RAPD profiles. Genomic DNA from different species was digested with restriction enzymes, ultrasonicated, treated with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) diol epoxide (BPDE) and the resulting RAPD profiles were evaluated. In comparison to the enzymatic DNA digestions, sonication caused greater changes in the RAPD patterns and induced a dose-related disappearance of the high molecular weight amplicons. A DNA sample substantially modified with BPDE caused very similar changes but amplicons of low molecular weight were also affected. Appearance of new bands and increase in band intensity were also evident in the RAPD profiles generated by the BPDE-modified DNA. Random mutations occurring in mismatch repair-deficient strains did not cause any changes in the banding patterns whereas a single base change in 10-mer primers produced substantial differences. Finally, further research is required to better understand the potential and limitations of the RAPD assay for the detection of DNA damage and mutations.
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We report the results of our genotoxic evaluation of extracts from three medicinal plants Acacia nilotica, Juglans regia, and Terminalia chebula and the herbal drug Triphala employing the VITOTOX and comet tests.These tests detect DNA damage in prokaryotic and eukaryotic test systems, respectively. In the VITOTOX test, none of the extracts were identified as genotoxic. In the comet assay, extracts of Acacia nilotica showed statistically significant DNA damage only in a concentration of 2500 ppm (highest tested dose), whereas extracts from Juglans regia showed significant damage in concentrations above 250 ppm and more. Extracts from Terminalia chebula and Tripahala significantly increased DNA damage in a concentration above 500 ppm. This is not considered contradictory, because DNA damage in the alkaline comet assay may not be permanent and hence may not necessarily result in mutations. All the extracts were previously found in the Ames assay to have potent antimutagenic effects against the direct acting mutagens NPD, sodium azide, and the S9-dependent mutagen 2-AF. The results of the previous study using the Ames assay are in conformity with those of the VITOTOX test. It was found that the extracts were safe in concentrations of up to 1000 microg/0.1 mL and 2500 microg/0.1 mL. A literature survey also showed that plant extracts can be mutagenic as well as antimutagenic depending on the test system used. This indicates that a battery of assays is needed before any conclusion can be reached.
Recent Advances in Plant Nanobionics and Nanobiosensors for Toxicology Applications
  • Mhd Ansari
  • S Lavhale
  • R M Kalunke
  • P L Srivastava
  • V Pandit
  • S Gade
Ansari MHD, Lavhale S, Kalunke RM, Srivastava PL, Pandit V, Gade S, et al. Recent Advances in Plant Nanobionics and Nanobiosensors for Toxicology Applications. Curr Nanosci. 2020;16: 27-41.
Antimicrobial activity of leaves and bark of Libyan Capparis spinosa subsp orientalis (Duh.) Jafri
  • S I Eltawaty
  • Mea Omare
  • A Z Almagboul
  • S O Yagoub
  • S F Ben-Gweirif
  • A Alramli
Eltawaty SI, Omare MEA, Almagboul AZ, Yagoub SO, Ben-Gweirif SF, Alramli A. Antimicrobial activity of leaves and bark of Libyan Capparis spinosa subsp orientalis (Duh.) Jafri. Arab J Med Aromat Plants. 2018;4(2):42-56.
Antibacterial Activity of Syrian Capparis spinosa. (Capparidaceae) Fruits and Roots
  • H H Deeb
  • O M Alali
Deeb HH, Alali OM. Antibacterial Activity of Syrian Capparis spinosa. (Capparidaceae) Fruits and Roots. J Biol Agric Healthc. 2019;9(18):7-9.
Antimicrobial activities and evaluation of genetic effects of Moringa peregrina (forsk) fiori using molecular techniques
  • A S Hajar
  • N M Gumgumjee
Hajar AS, Gumgumjee NM. Antimicrobial activities and evaluation of genetic effects of Moringa peregrina (forsk) fiori using molecular techniques. Inter J Plant and Animal Environ Sci. 2014;4(1):65-72.
Evaluation of genotoxicity and subchronic toxicity of the standardized leaves infusion extract of Copaifera malmei Harms in experimental models
  • E Pavan
  • A S Damazo
  • Lms Lemos
  • B Adzu
  • S O Balogun
  • K Arunachalam
Pavan E, Damazo AS, Lemos LMS, Adzu B, Balogun SO, Arunachalam K, et al. Evaluation of genotoxicity and subchronic toxicity of the standardized leaves infusion extract of Copaifera malmei Harms in experimental models. J Ethnopharmacol, 2018;211:70-77.