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Aether Friction in the Planetary Orbits

Frederick David Tombe,

Northern Ireland, United Kingdom,

sirius184@hotmail.com

10th April 2021

Abstract. When a theory of electromagnetism promotes the idea that the medium for the

propagation of light waves is an elastic solid comprised of electric particles, the question

is always going to be asked as to why this medium would not generate friction in the

planetary orbits, such as would cause the planets to spiral into the Sun. It would be

impossible for a moving body to completely avoid any physical interaction with these

electric particles, and so, in order to comply with Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion,

this interaction must be the actual cause of the inertial forces, as opposed to being the

cause of any dissipative friction.

The Inertial Path

I. The Barnett Effect, discovered in the year 1915 by American physicist

Samuel Jackson Barnett, demonstrates that a magnetic field, albeit extremely

weak, is generated around a spinning body, even if the body is electrically

neutral [1]. It will now be investigated whether the inertial forces can be linked

to this weak magnetic field. A body in motion will satisfy the equation,

(1)

relative to any polar origin. See Appendix I for the derivation and

interpretation of symbols. In the special case where , a body will be

undergoing its uniform straight-line inertial path and equation (1) then becomes

Newton’s first law of motion expressed in polar coordinates, relative to an

inertial frame of reference. It can then be reduced to,

(2)

where

is the centrifugal force. Equation (2) can alternatively be

written as,

(3)

2

where is a constant related to angular momentum. See Appendix II for

the derivation. This means that a body in motion has a centrifugal force to every

point in space, implying the existence of a centrifugal force field surrounding all

moving bodies. Meanwhile, the transverse term

is known as the

Coriolis force. The centrifugal force and the Coriolis force are known as

inertial forces.

It should be further noted that the centrifugal force field mentioned in the

paragraph above must be solenoidal since the sum of all the centrifugal forces in

the field is zero. This is similar in principle to what happens in the case of the

magnetic field that surrounds a long straight current carrying wire. If we define

the magnetic field intensity, H, with respect to a point on the wire and then add

the values of H at every point in space, the resultant is zero.

In 1861, James Clerk Maxwell, in the preamble to Part I of his seminal

paper entitled “On Physical Lines of Force”, explained the magnetic field as a

centrifugal force field [2]. He proposed that space is filled with tiny aethereal

vortices that press against each other with centrifugal force while striving to

dilate [3], [4], [5], and he referred to this sea of vortices as the luminiferous

medium. Maxwell further explained Ampère’s Circuital Law as being the

tendency of the rotation axes of these tiny vortices to form concentric solenoidal

rings around an electric current, these rings of force being magnetic lines of

force. Magnetic repulsion between like poles is then caused by the centrifugal

force in the equatorial planes of the vortices at the interface between two

adjacent magnetic fields, since this centrifugal force acts perpendicularly to the

magnetic lines of force, which spread outwards between two like poles.

It is now suggested that these same tiny aethereal vortices are responsible

for the inertial forces. As the luminiferous medium flows through the interstitial

spaces between the atoms and molecules of all moving bodies, as like water

flowing through a basket, this will generate a gyroscopic interaction akin to the

principles lying behind Maxwell’s explanation for Ampère’s Circuital Law.

This interaction leads to the formation of vortex rings, concentric on the line of

motion, and centred on the moving body. This will be the weak magnetic field

associated with the Barnett effect and it will exist in conjunction with a

gyroscopic stability in the atoms and molecules of the moving body, resulting in

the uniform straight-line inertial path [6]. In the case of two bodies in relative

motion, unless they are bonded to the luminiferous medium in the vicinity of

their centrifugal force fields, then they will have no direct physical impact on

each other, but in the case of planetary bodies undergoing orbital motion, their

gravitational fields should be strong enough to entrain the luminiferous

medium, hence transferring the physical interaction to the interface between the

two gravitational fields.

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The Inertial Forces in the Unbonded State

II. When two terrestrial bodies do a fly-by past each other while undergoing

their uniform straight-line inertial paths, they will possess a mutual centrifugal

acceleration which is maximum at the point of closest approach. The magnitude

of this mutual centrifugal acceleration as they continue along their straight-line

inertial paths can be substantial, and it produces a physical effect that can be

commandeered for useful purposes in mechanical devices. However, unless

their gravitational fields are strong enough to entrain the luminiferous medium,

then despite any centrifugal repulsion at the interface between the two

centrifugal fields, the two bodies will not have any direct influence on each

other, and so we must ascribe any centrifugal force in such circumstances to the

direct gyroscopic interaction that the atoms and molecules of each of these two

bodies have with the dense background sea of tiny aethereal vortices. This is an

example of centrifugal force in the unbonded state.

Where a force seeks to change only the speed of a body, but not its

direction, the inertial mass of the body serves as a reactance to this force and the

situation comes under the jurisdiction of Newton’s second law of motion. No

inertial forces will be involved. However, where an applied force seeks to

change the direction of a body that is undergoing its uniform straight-line

inertial path in the unbonded state, the situation will be different. When it comes

to trying to curve the path of a moving body, this will be opposed by an inertial

force, and this inertial force will depend, not only on the body’s inertial mass,

but also upon its velocity.

Inertial forces are measured relative to a point origin, and we normally

choose the point origin that is significant to the applied force that the inertial

force is opposing. For example, if a centripetal force or a central force is

applied, we will normally use the origin of those forces. If a transverse force is

applied, as for example when we roll a marble along a radial groove in a

turntable that is undergoing a forced rotation, we will locate the origin at the

centre of rotation. The transverse force impressed on the marble by the forced

rotation will then be opposed by an inertial Coriolis force, to that origin.

In many cases, it is the inertial motion itself which pro-actively causes the

inertial force, such as when a weight is being swung around in a circle on the

end of a string. In this case, the centripetal force does not come into existence

until the string is taut, and it is the centrifugal force which causes the string to

become taut in the first place. It can therefore never be said that a centrifugal

force is always a reaction to a centripetal force. It is often the action. We could

accurately say that an inertial force is a force which is at the ready for action

when a body is undergoing its uniform straight line inertial path. The centrifugal

force field is already there, squeezing inwards on the motion from all sides. It

acts perpendicularly to the direction of motion but can be resolved into any

direction, reducing to zero along the line of motion. There is therefore no

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pressure fore and aft. Along the line of motion, a body will encounter no

resistance from the dense background sea of aethereal vortices. Resistance from

the sea only occurs when attempts are made to curve the path of motion.

Likewise, when a marble is rolled along a radial groove towards the centre

of a freely rotating turntable, the Coriolis force is pro-active and it will cause

the turntable to angularly accelerate, and hence to spin faster. The inertial forces

exist in their own right, and they are a product of both the mass of a body and

its velocity. Centrifugal force is actually the radial gradient of rotational kinetic

energy, otherwise known as centrifugal potential energy. Its magnitude is

independent of the magnitude of any external centripetal force that the body

might be subjected to. The applied centripetal force will have its own magnitude

already set, and it will determine a point origin. But the magnitude of the

centrifugal force which opposes it from this origin will be determined by the

mass and velocity of the moving body. Only in the special case where the

centripetal force causes circular motion will the two opposing forces have the

same magnitude. It is a common error to believe that a centrifugal force is the

reaction in an equal and opposite action-reaction pair with a centripetal force.

Even Newton wrongly believed this [7], but Kepler’s laws of planetary motion

reveal that centrifugal force is totally independent of gravity [8], [9]. We can see

in a centrifuge machine that centrifugal force acts to fling the heavier particles

to the rim where no centripetal force is even involved. So long as a body is

forced to co-rotate in a rotating system, a centrifugal force will fling it radially

outwards, and that is a physical reality.

Centrifugal Force between Electric Particles

III. Consider two electron-positron dipoles sitting side by side. In each dipole,

the electron and the positron are orbiting each other in a circular orbit. They are

each orbiting in the same plane and in the same direction, and they each have

the same angular velocity. See “The Positronium Orbit in the Electron-

Positron Sea” [10]. When the electron of one dipole passes the positron of the

other dipole in the opposite direction, then, at the moment of closest approach,

the electrostatic field lines should be connecting directly between the two

particles, and so according to Coulomb’s law there should be a force of

attraction acting between them, as in the case of any two particles of opposite

charge. If however the electrostatic force field, ES, is based on tension in an

aethereal electric fluid that is flowing from the positron to the electron, their

mutual transverse speed will induce a curl into the velocity field. Above a

certain threshold of angular speed, the flow lines connecting the two dipoles

will be cut, and the two separate regions of electric fluid, assumed to be

inviscid, will now be shearing past each other in opposite directions. The

dipoles will be striving to dilate and so the pressure emanating sideways from

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the opposing flow lines will push the two dipoles apart, since the aether cannot

pass laterally through itself. A centrifugal repulsion will have taken the place of

the electrostatic attraction. This centrifugal repulsion is akin to that with which

the water in Newton’s rotating bucket pushes outwards against its inside walls.

This is the underlying principle behind both magnetic repulsion and electrostatic

repulsion at the deepest fundamental level. Maxwell’s tiny aethereal vortices

will therefore now be identified with rotating electron-positron dipoles, [11].

Centrifugal Force in Planetary Orbits

IV. In the case of the large planetary bodies where the gravitational fields are

significant enough to entrain a pocket of the background sea of tiny electron-

positron dipoles with them along their orbital paths, it would seem that the

centrifugal force acting between two planets is physically induced at the

interface of their respective gravitational fields by a shear interaction involving

the centrifugal pressure arising in the electron-positron vortices that are present

at this location. It will be a kind of hovercraft effect involving fine-grained

gyroscopy, [12], [13]. The mutual alignment in their equatorial planes, of the

vortices at the interface, is attributed to the same principles that underly

Maxwell’s explanation for Ampère’s Circuital Law. The tendency for two

adjacent vortices, undergoing mutual motion, to align themselves in their

equatorial planes, is a fundamental gyroscopic effect.

Hence, in cases where the gravitational fields of two planets share a

common interface, the mutual centrifugal acceleration between them represents

an actual physical repulsion, whereas in the case of two planets, such as Jupiter

and Mars, whose gravitational fields do not encounter each other, the mutual

centrifugal acceleration between them will be as per in the unbonded state

described in section II above.

Friction in Space

V. The important thing is that the shear interaction between a moving body and

Maxwell’s background sea of vortices, or that between two gravitationally

entrained regions of this sea of vortices, should account for the inertial forces

rather than causing dissipative friction that would result in the planets spiralling

into the Sun. It is clear that a body moving through a dense sea of electric

particles is going to interact with those particles, and that energy will be

transferred to the surroundings. It is necessary therefore to identify a possible

circular energy flow mechanism. As a precedent, we are aware of the case of an

inductance coil, and that when we switch off the electric power, the energy

stored in the magnetic field flows back into the conducting wire again giving

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the electric current a final forward surge. Furthermore, any analogy between the

magnetic forces and the inertial forces would be persuasive as to the possibility

that inertial motion involves a shear interaction with the luminiferous medium

similar to that which is observed when a charged particle moves through a

magnetic field. In his 1861 paper “On Physical Lines of Force”, Maxwell

derived the lossless electromotive force,

(4)

where is the magnetic intensity, which in Maxwell’s theory corresponds

to the vorticity of the tiny vortices. Meanwhile, the magnetic permeability, , is

a quantity related to density, while is equal to , where is angular

velocity, which in this case should be that of the electric particles circulating

around the edge of the vortices. Maxwell derived equation (4) in terms of

differential centrifugal pressure in his sea of aethereal vortices. Meanwhile, the

centrifugal force term in equation (2) in section I above can alternatively be

written in the form,

(5)

where is the transverse speed. If we cannot connect the inertial forces to

the medium that is the cause of electromagnetic phenomena, then this will

create serious problems for the planets in their orbits. The fact that equations (4)

and (5) both describe a force that is velocity dependent, and which acts at right-

angles to the causative motion, suggests that they are both induced by the same

kind of lossless elasticity, albeit in different contexts. Ampère’s Circuital Law

describing how a magnetic field exists around an electric current would

therefore appear to apply to inertial motion in just the same way.

The Coriolis Force

VI. While centrifugal force is a radial aspect of the uniform straight-line inertial

path, the Coriolis force is a transverse aspect. In equation (1) in section I, the

transverse component contains a Coriolis force in the form

alternatively

written as where is the radial velocity. In the unbonded state, it

would seem that the Coriolis force is exclusively a consequence of the

gyroscopic stability implicit in the uniform straight-line inertial path. It is a

matter of interest also, that the Coriolis force is always cancelled by an equal

and opposite inertial force, this being the underlying basis for the law of

conservation of angular momentum. In planetary orbits, conservation of angular

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momentum is observed in the form of Kepler’s second law, which is the law of

equal areas being traced out in equal times.

Just as the centrifugal force manifests itself when a centripetal force steers a

particle off its straight-line path, a Coriolis force likewise manifests itself when

a transverse force steers a particle off its inertial path. This manifestation is best

observed in the behaviour of gyroscopes. Although centripetal force due to the

inter-molecular bonds within the gyroscope has already taken the situation

outside of the uniform straight-line inertial path scenario, the action of the

Coriolis force can still be observed when we subject the spinning gyroscope to a

forced precession. In the case of a pivoted spinning gyroscope, gravity causes a

forced precession which induces a Coriolis torque, and hence a precession at

right-angles to the forced precession. Since the normal reaction of the pivot

cancels one side of this Coriolis couple, the Coriolis force on the other side can

make the centre of gravity rise upwards against gravity. The weight is therefore

transferred from the centre of gravity to the pivot, making it easier on the wrist

muscles when lifting a heavy spinning gyroscope. It is commonly accepted

however that the gyroscope is not any lighter as such, but the induced Coriolis

torque reduces the required momentary force needed to hold the gyroscope at

the end of its stem.

An analysis of this situation was carried out in “Magnetic Repulsion and

the Gyroscopic Force”, [14], and this article gives a further insight into the

nature of the physical reaction that occurs when the luminiferous medium

passes through the interstitial spaces between the atoms and molecules of

ponderable matter, as like water passing through the holes in a basket.

Gyroscopic stability in ponderable matter may involve a mechanism at a deeper

molecular level on the nano-scale, akin to the aerodynamic P-factor

(asymmetric blade effect) or the Magnus effect. So, while centrifugal force is

the anti-gravity force in planetary orbits, the Coriolis force is the anti-gravity

force in pivoted gyroscopes.

Meanwhile, just as centrifugal force manifests itself when a body is co-

rotating in a rotating system, a Coriolis force likewise manifests itself when a

constrained radial motion occurs in a rotating system. This situation is observed

in atmospheric cyclones. The rotation of the Earth introduces angular

momentum into the cyclone and the Coriolis force ensures conservation of

angular momentum, manifested by a transverse deflection of a radial air current.

In the case of artificial satellite orbits undergoing a non-circular orbit, the

Coriolis force will simply be a geometrical fact of the inertial path since it is

believed that the luminiferous medium passes right through the interstitial

spaces between the atoms and molecules of the satellite. However, in the case of

planets that entrain a large pocket of the luminiferous medium within their

gravitational fields, and where the centrifugal force between planets is due to a

fine-grained gyroscopic interaction involving the tiny rotating electron-positron

dipoles at the interface between two gravitational fields, the Coriolis force will

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be absorbed into the general interaction. The Coriolis force will amount to equal

and opposite transverse centrifugal forces pressing from each side. This will

have the illusion that a Coriolis force has deflected the effects of gravity into the

transverse direction in a process not dissimilar to how the Coriolis force deflects

the effects of gravity sideways in a pivoted gyroscope [14]. This illusion may in

fact be a reality in the deeper vortex interactions occurring among the rotating

electron-positron dipoles at the interface between two gravitational fields.

We are looking at an extremely subtle fine-grained gyroscopic mechanism

occurring in an elastic medium which serves as the medium for the propagation

of light, while simultaneously, without contradiction, underlying Kepler’s laws

of planetary motion. We are looking at a medium which is a solid for the

purposes of electromagnetic wave propagation, but which exhibits fluid

characteristics in accommodating the planetary motions.

Conclusion

VII. In the classical limit, ignoring Einstein’s “General Theory of Relativity”,

[15], the elasticity in space that is involved in electromagnetism and

electromagnetic waves must conform to Newton’s laws of motion and to

Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, otherwise the planets would spiral into the

Sun. The inertial forces are closely related to the convective aspect of

electromagnetic induction where, , while Newton’s second law of

motion is closely related to time-varying electromagnetic induction where,

, with only the latter being involved in electromagnetic waves. It is now

suggested that inertial motion is closely related to the same physical cause that

underlies Ampère’s Circuital Law.

According to James Clerk Maxwell, Ampère’s Circuital law is about how a

moving element interacts with the surrounding luminiferous medium in such a

way as to induce vortex rings that amount to magnetic lines of force [2]. These

lines of force form concentric solenoidal rings around the direction of motion.

The manner of the physical interaction that induces these magnetic lines of

force is dictated by hydrodynamics in the context of a sea of tiny aethereal

vortices that are pressing against each other with centrifugal force while striving

to dilate. It is now suggested that this same mechanism determines the uniform

straight-line inertial path by a process involving gyroscopic stability, out of

which forms a surrounding centrifugal force field. This is in fact a weak

magnetic field, similar in principle to that discovered by S.J. Barnett in 1915, [1],

in connection with a spinning neutral body. When a strong gravitational field

entrains the sea of aethereal vortices, hence bonding it to the gravitating object

such as an orbiting planet, the centrifugal force field then begins at the edge of

the entrained zone. Hence at the interface between two orbiting planets, there

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will be a cushion of centrifugal repulsion which undermines the gravitational

force of attraction.

The important thing however is, that if space is densely filled with electric

particles in order to accommodate the propagation of light waves, then these

electric particles must interact with matter in motion in such a way as to

generate the inertial forces in line with Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, rather

than to be the cause of dissipative friction that would result in the planets

spiralling into the Sun. This can be achieved if space is densely packed with

tiny aethereal vortices, where each vortex comprises a single electron in orbit

with a positron, hence forming a dense neutral dielectric sea.

References

[1] Barnett, S.J., “Magnetization by Rotation” Physical Review, Volume 6, Issue 4, page

239 (1915)

[2] Clerk-Maxwell, J., “On Physical Lines of Force”, Philosophical

Magazine, Volume XXI, Fourth Series, London, (1861)

http://vacuum-physics.com/Maxwell/maxwell_oplf.pdf

Equation (77) in this paper is Maxwell’s electromotive force equation and it exhibits a strong

correspondence to equation (1) above. The centrifugal and Coriolis terms in equation (1)

correspond to the compound centrifugal force term , while the other transverse term

corresponds to .

[3] Whittaker, E.T., “A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity”, Chapter 4, Pages

100-102, (1910)

“All space, according to the younger Bernoulli, is permeated by a fluid aether, containing

an immense number of excessively small whirlpools. The elasticity which the aether appears

to possess, and in virtue of which it is able to transmit vibrations, is really due to the

presence of these whirlpools; for, owing to centrifugal force, each whirlpool is continually

striving to dilate, and so presses against the neighbouring whirlpools.”

[4] Lodge, Sir Oliver, “Ether (in physics)”, Encyclopaedia Britannica,

Fourteenth Edition, Volume 8, Pages 751-755, (1937)

http://gsjournal.net/Science-

Journals/Historical%20PapersMechanics%20/%20Electrodynamics/Download/4105

In relation to the speed of light, “The most probable surmise or guess at present is that the

ether is a perfectly incompressible continuous fluid, in a state of fine-grained vortex

motion, circulating with that same enormous speed. For it has been partly, though as yet

incompletely, shown that such a vortex fluid would transmit waves of the same general nature

as light waves— i.e., periodic disturbances across the line of propagation—and would

transmit them at a rate of the same order of magnitude as the vortex or circulation speed”

10

[5] O’Neill, John J., “PRODIGAL GENIUS, Biography of Nikola Tesla”, Long Island, New

York, 15th July 1944, quoting Tesla from his 1907 paper “Man’s Greatest Achievement”

which was published in 1930 in the Milwaukee Sentinel,

“Long ago he (mankind) recognized that all perceptible matter comes from a primary

substance, of a tenuity beyond conception and filling all space - the Akasha or luminiferous

ether - which is acted upon by the life-giving Prana or creative force, calling into existence,

in never ending cycles, all things and phenomena. The primary substance, thrown into

infinitesimal whirls of prodigious velocity, becomes gross matter; the force subsiding, the

motion ceases and matter disappears, reverting to the primary substance”.

http://www.rastko.rs/istorija/tesla/oniell-tesla.html

http://www.ascension-research.org/tesla.html

[6] Tombe, F.D., “Straight Line Motion” (2018)

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325472420_Straight_Line_Motion

[7] Swetz, Frank J., “Learn From The Masters” ‘An Episode in the History of Celestial

Mechanics’, Page 269, Mathematical Association of America (1995)

https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=gqGLoh-

WYrEC&pg=PA269&dq=reaction+fictitious+rotating+frame+%22centrifugal+force%22&hl

=en#v=onepage&q

=reaction%20fictitious%20rotating%20frame%20%22centrifugal%20force%22&f=false

[8] Tombe, F.D., “Leibniz’s Radial Planetary Orbital Equation” (2017)

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320694417_Leibniz's_Radial_Planetary_Orbital_E

quation

[9] Tombe, F.D., “The Reality of Centrifugal Force”, (2021)

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/350060937_The_Reality_of_Centrifugal_Force

[10] Tombe, F.D., “The Positronium Orbit in the Electron-Positron Sea” (2020)

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/338816847_The_Positronium_Orbit_in_the_Electr

on-Positron_Sea

[11] Tombe, F.D., “The Double Helix and the Electron-Positron Aether” (2017)

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319914395_The_Double_Helix_and_the_Electron-

Positron_Aether

[12] Tombe, F.D., “Compressed Orbits and the Secret Behind E = mc2” (2017)

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313204969_Compressed_Orbits_and_E_mc

[13] Tombe, F.D., “Maxwell’s Equations Extended to Gravity” (2017)

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322317219_Maxwell's_Equations_Extended_to_Gr

avity_The_Link_Between_Gravity_and_Electromagnetism

[14] Tombe, F.D., “Magnetic Repulsion and the Gyroscopic Force”, (2015)

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283225757_Magnetic_Repulsion_and_the_Gyrosco

pic_Force

11

[15] Tombe, F.D., “Centrifugal Force in the Schwarzschild Field” (2021)

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/354656658_Centrifugal_Force_in_the_Schwarzschi

ld_Field

Appendix I

Consider a particle moving in an inertial frame of reference. We write the

position vector of this particle relative to any arbitrarily chosen polar origin as,

(1A)

where the unit vector

is in the radial direction, and where

r

is the radial

distance. Taking the time derivative and using the product rule, we obtain the

particle’s velocity,

θ

(2A)

where

is the unit vector in the transverse direction, and where θ is the

angular speed about the polar origin. Taking the time derivative again we obtain

the expression for the particle’s acceleration in the inertial frame,

(3A)

which can be rearranged as,

(4A)

Appendix II

Kepler’s second law is the law of areal velocity, which is essentially a statement

that angular momentum is conserved, and it means that only radial forces are

involved in planetary orbits. This can be proven in reverse as follows. If the

total transverse acceleration is zero, then from equation (4A),

(5A)

hence, multiplying across by ,

(6A)

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Since,

(7A)

then,

(8A)

where is a constant which is twice the areal velocity, and so the areal

velocity must be constant. Hence,

(9A)

Substituting

in (9A) into (4A) in conjunction with (5A) we obtain,

(10A)

which expresses the centrifugal force in terms an inverse cube law in radial

distance from the polar origin and a constant, , that is related to angular

momentum. In the case of the uniform straight-line inertial path, where we have

, equation (10A) becomes,

(11A)

where is a constant related to angular momentum. This means that

relative to any arbitrarily chosen point in space, a particle undergoing uniform

straight-line motion experiences a centrifugal acceleration to this point,

dependent on the angular momentum relative to it, and this acceleration

diminishes as per the inverse cube of the distance from the point.

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