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Policy Report Buttressing the Middle: A Case for Reskilling and Upskilling America's Middle-Skill Workers in the 21st Century

Authors:
Policy Report
Buttressing the Middle:
A Case for Reskilling and
Upskilling America’s Middle-Skill
Workers in the 21st Century
Irwin Kirsch, Anita Sands,
Steve Robbins, Madeline Goodman
and Rick Tannenbaum
THE ETS CENTER FOR RESEARCH ON HUMAN CAPITAL AND EDUCATION
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 =;>CB3@#C;3@71/::G=<B@=::32"/167<3)==:%@=5@/;;3@A"3B/:/<2%:/AB71 
 =;>CB3@$11C>/B7=<A::$B63@ 
 =;>CB3@(GAB3;A</:GABA 
 =;>CB3@(GAB3;A<57<33@A@167B31BA 
 =;>CB3@*A3@(C>>=@B(>317/:7ABA 
 =<AB@C1B7=</<2C7:27<5O<A>31B=@A 
 =<AB@C1B7=</<2'3:/B32,=@93@A::$B63@ 
 =<AB@C1B7=</@>3<B3@A 
 =<AB@C1B7=<!/0=@3@A 
 =<AB@C1B7=<"/</53@A 
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 =ABAB7;/B=@A 
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 =C@B'3>=@B3@A 
 @327B=C<A3:=@A 
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National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)
Institute of Education Sciences (IES®)
Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC)
This report was generated using the U.S. PIAAC International Data Explorer. https://nces.ed.gov/surveys/piaac/ideuspiaac
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... Here again it is important to note that this is a rough proxy for CTE students, who may fall within the group (high school graduates with fewer than 2 years of postsecondary education) but do not comprise that whole group. These findings are in line with findings about the percentage of all U.S. PIAAC test takers aged 16-34, many of whom fall below the minimum proficiency levels (three) for literacy (50% of adults aged 16-34), numeracy (64%), and problem solving in a technology-rich environment (56%) (Kirsch et al., 2021;OECD, 2019). ...
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Have you ever found it difficult to read something because you lack knowledge on the topic? We investigated this phenomenon with a sample of 3,534 high school students who took a background-knowledge test before working on a reading-comprehension test on the topic of ecology. Broken-line regression revealed a knowledge threshold: Below the threshold, the relationship between comprehension and knowledge was weak (β = 0.18), but above the threshold, a strong and positive relation emerged (β = 0.81). Further analyses indicated that certain topically relevant words (e.g., ecosystem, habitat) were more important to know than others when predicting the threshold, and these keywords could be identified using natural-language-processing techniques. Collectively, these results may help identify who is likely to have a problem comprehending information on a specific topic and, to some extent, what knowledge is likely required to comprehend information on that topic.
Technical Report
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The ‘basic skills’ of literacy and numeracy are among the most fundamental attributes of human beings and their civilization, lying at the root of our capacity to communicate and live and work together, to develop and share knowledge, science and culture. Their contribution to workforce skills have increasingly been recognized as critical to economic success, while evidence on gaps in adult basic skills and the link with economic and social outcomes has also been growing, both at national and international level (e.g. International Survey of Adult Skills of 1994-98 and Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey of 2003-2007). Most tellingly, there has been a belated realization that despite universal basic education in advanced countries, some adults have slipped through the net, leaving them with very weak literacy and numeracy. All of these factors underline the importance of the OECD’s new international Survey of Adult Skills. This report on skills in the US draws out the policy implications of the Survey for the US, while also making use of some additional data collected for the Survey on the US alone. The study does not directly evaluate relevant US policies and programs – such as schooling and adult education. Instead it identifies in the results of the Survey some key lessons about the strategic objectives and directions which should form a frame for policy development in the US, including policy on adult learning and schooling.
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US cities today are vastly more educated and skill-intensive than they were five decades ago. Yet, urban non-college workers perform substantially less skilled jobs than decades earlier. This deskilling reflects the joint effects of automation and, secondarily, rising international trade, which have eliminated the bulk of non-college production, administrative support, and clerical jobs, yielding a disproportionate polarization of urban labor markets. The unwinding of the urban non-college occupational skill gradient has, I argue, abetted a secular fall in real non-college wages by: (1) shunting non-college workers out of specialized middle-skill occupations into low-wage occupations that require only generic skills; (2) diminishing the set of non-college workers that hold middle-skill jobs in high-wage cities; and (3) attenuating, to a startling degree, the steep urban wage premium for non-college workers that prevailed in earlier decades. Changes in the nature of work--many of which are technological in origin--have been more disruptive and less beneficial for non-college than college workers.
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Employers both in the United States and internationally are facing difficulties hiring workers who meet the skill requirements of 21st century jobs. This chapter focuses on the skill requirements of middle-skill jobs and argues for building a talent supply chain with standards that workforce entrants need to meet. The chapter provides a framework summarizing these skill requirements. By establishing a framework of critical skills for workplace readiness, identifying valid assessments of these skills, and defining expected skill levels for a targeted subset of jobs, expectations of what it means to be ready for the workplace can be articulated and education and business systems can communicate using a common set of standards. These activities will help link a “broken” talent supply chain by bridging education and work systems and by encouraging individuals to seek out transferable skills as they seek livable wage jobs and meaningful employment.
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The purpose of this paper is to explore the minimum standards required to produce worthwhile evaluation. It brings into question the easy assumption that the lack of rigorous evaluation in drug education and prevention is because program practitioners have been ignoring the basic methodological tenets of evaluation research. The paper examines the notion that worthwhile evaluation is based more on the careful and straightforward inspection of the basic issues underlying evaluation than of the level of sophistication of the evaluation design itself. It is suggested that the resistance for evaluation conducted in an orderly and scientific manner may come more from an inability to stipulate the intent and goals of a program, including their underlying theoretical premises, than because of a low level of refinement of evaluation theory or a lack of resources. It is necessary, when talking about the minimum standards of evaluation, to first address the planning process itself before discussing the research design and application of scientific method. Evaluation can be seen as a dynamic process, which, when executed properly, is a series of sequential phases which build upon each other. Furthermore, it is felt that informal attempts at evaluating programs, when the limitations of this approach are understood, become an important first step in the process. This emphasis on the planning process certainly does not preclude the importance of the design and implementation of the evaluation. It is felt, though, that without a careful and realistic appraisal of the issues raised in this paper, a fruitful evaluation study will probably not occur. It is not in the scope of this paper to address the methodological concerns of evaluation, but it would appear from the body of literature concerned with methodological questions that perhaps there are other, more fundamental reasons contributing to the lack of worthwhile evaluation.