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Passion to Profession: A review of Passion fruit Processing

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Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) is a nutritious tropical fruit belongs to the family Passifloraceae. The purple passion fruit is local from southern Brazil through Paraguay to northern Argentina. India, for a long time, has appreciated a moderate collect of purple passion fruit in the Nilgiris in the south and in various parts of northern India. The Passion fruit has good amount of antioxidants, flavanoids, anti- inflammatory, anti- bacterial, anti- fungal and anti- ageing properties. This fruit has huge economical importance as all the parts of this fruit (seed, peel, flower, pulp) are rich in medicinal and therapeutic properties. The fruit is a fantastic wellspring of dietary fiber, nutrient, Vitamin C and Vitamin A. Being a decent laxative, it likewise secures the colon mucosa by diminishing openness time to harmful substances in the colon and clearing off the malignant growth causing poisonous substances from the colon. Passion fruit has several medical advantages and hence require diverse processing and preservation methods. Here we are going to review portion of these methods.
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Aptisi Transactions on Technopreneurship (ATT) P-ISSN: 2655-8807
Vol. 3 No. 1 Maret 2021 E-ISSN: 2656-8888
A Review of Passion Fruit Processing … 48
Passion to Profession: A review of Passion fruit
Processing
Srishti Biswas1, Ritesh Mishra2, Ankur Singh Bist3
School of Agricultural Sciences & Engineering, IFTM University, Moradabad, 244102, Uttar
Pradesh, India
Signy Advanced Technologies, INDIA
e-mail:srishtibiswas12@gmail.com1, mishra.ritesh9@gmail.com2 , ankur1990bist@gmail.com3
Biswas, S., Mishra, R., & Bist, A. S. (2021). Passion to Profession: A review of Passion fruit
Processing. Aptisi Transactions on Technopreneurship (ATT), 3(1), 48-56.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.34306/att.v3i1.143
Abstract
Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) is a nutritious tropical fruit that belongs to the family
Passifloraceae. The purple passion fruit is local from southern Brazil through Paraguay to
northern Argentina. For a long time, India has appreciated a moderate collection of purple
passion fruit in the Nilgiris in the south and various parts of north India. The Passion fruit has a
good amount of antioxidants, flavonoids, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-
aging properties. This fruit has huge economic importance as all the parts of this fruit (seed,
peel, flower, pulp) are rich in medicinal and therapeutic properties. The fruit is a fantastic
wellspring of dietary fiber, nutrients, Vitamin C, and Vitamin A. Being a decent laxative, it likewise
secures the colon mucosa by diminishing openness time to harmful substances in the colon and
clearing off the malignant growth causing poisonous substances from the colon. Passion fruit
has several medical advantages and hence requires diverse processing and preservation
methods. Here we are going to review a portion of these methods.
Keywords: Passion fruit, Anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-ageing and preservation.
1. Introduction
The passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) familyPassifloraceae, is a native of Brazil. In India
it is discovered to be filling wild in many parts of Western Ghats such as Nilgiris, Wynad,
Kodaikanal, Shevroys, Coorg and Malabar as well as Himachal Pradesh and North Eastern
States like Manipur, Nagaland and Mizoram. Passion fruit is commercially cultivated in the North
Eastern States of Manipur, Mizoram and Nagaland. It is also cultivated in some parts of Nilgiris
an Shevroys. It is a perennial woody fruit vine belongs to family Passifloraceae, native to tropical
America (Brazil) [1], bears hermaphrodite, solitary flowers located in the leaf axils. The fruit is
round or ovoid and has an intense, smooth, waxy dull purple or yellow tinted skin with weak,
fine white spots. Inside, the fruit is pretty much loaded up with a sweet-smelling mass of twofold
walled, membranous sacs containing orange shading thick squeeze and upwards of 250 little,
hard, dim earthy colored to dark pitted seeds. It can grow rapidly under great conditions - up to
six meters in one year. The evergreen leaves of the vine provide a shelter for the fragrant exotic
looking white and purple flowers that appear on the new growth. A ripe fruit is reviving, sensitive
flavor with satisfying smell and high nutritive worth. In India, passion fruit can successfully be
grown well up to 2000 m altitude with an annual rainfall of 1000 to 2500 mm. Fruits are widely
acknowledged as important component of a healthy diet and adequate consumption could help
to reduce a wide range of diseases [2]. The fruit is valued for its pronounced flavor and aroma
which helps not only in producing a high quality squash but also in flavoring several other
products. This nutritious fruit crop highly appreciated for fresh consumption and industrial
purposes because of its excellent flavor and nutrition which is used for juice, jelly and ice cream
products [3].Fruits have been a part of the human diet over the years. They contain high quantity
of water, carbohydrate, sugars, vitamins, minerals and organic compounds which are required
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by the body to function well [4].To enhance the flavor of the final produce, passion fruit juice is
often mixed with juices of pineapple, mango, ginger etc. The juice is extensively used in
confectionery and preparation of cakes, pies and ice cream. It is a rich source of Vitamin A and
contains fair amounts of Sodium, Magnesium, Sulphur and Chlorides. Commercial Processing
of yellow passion fruit yields 36% juice, 51% rinds and 11% seeds [5].
2. Types
Out of 600 known species of Passiflora, in the familyPassifloraceae, only one P. edulis,
sims, has been utilized for the edible purpose in India. Passiflora edulis exits in two distinct
types known as Passiflora edulis sims the purple passion fruit and Passiflora edulis flavicarpa,
the yellow passion fruit. The purple passion fruit is originally native of Tropical America, whereas
yellow passion fruit is being considered as a mutation of the purple variety or as a natural hybrid
between purple and another related species of passion fruit [6]. Passiflora quadrangular is L.,
the giant granadilla, is also cultivated to a limited extent for local consumption. It grows best in
a hot, moist climate and produces a round or oblong, pale yellow to yellowish-green fruit when
ripe, which may reach up to 8 inches in size. Passiflora foetida L., a wild species, bears very
small fruits and has unique characters of being highly precocious and very short fruit maturity
period [7]. Purple and yellow are commonly cultivated in northeast region of India, while Knavery
(hybrid between purple and yellow) is common in south India [8].Two types of Passiflora edulis
Sims (Passifloraceae) are grown commercially, the purple form (P.edulis Sims) and a yellow
form (P. edulis var. flavicarpa DeGeneres) [9]. In Brazil, Passiflora alata is the official Passiflora
species in the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia and P. edulis is the species most employed as a
flavoring and as a juice in the food industries.
This tropical fruit is actually considered a type of berry, according to botanists. It is the
fruit of the Passiflora vine, a type of passion flower. It has a tough outer rind and juicy, seed-
filled center. Despite its small size, it's a rich source of antioxidants and contains a range of
vitamins and plant compounds that could benefit your health.
Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims.) belongs to family Passifloraceae which includes
12 genera with more than 500 species. Genus Passiflora has about 400 species out of which
few are economic importance. Within these species there are two district forms i.e., the standard
purple (P. edulis) and the yellow (P. edulis f. flavicarpaDeg.). The chromosome number ranging
from 2n=18 to 2n=22 [10]. Below here is mentioned 12 species of Genus Passiflora [11]:
i. Passiflora Alta Dryland: It is native of Peru and Brazil. It is a woody vine cultivated in
Brazil for its fruits.
ii. Passiflora antiqueness Karst. (Syn. P. valxsemii (Len.) Traina& Planch.):It is native of
Colombia and known as banana passion fruit. This species is also a woody vine
cultivated for its fruit.
iii. Passiflora cearensis Barb : It is native of Brazil and cultivated for its fruits.
iv. Passiflora edulis Sims. : It is real passion fruit which is native of South Brazil. This
species is widely distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics. The fruits are
especially used for juice preparation.
v. Passiflora foetida L . : It is woody species native of West Indies and South America. It
is distributed to many tropical countries in Africa and Asia where it has naturalized. The
fruits are hardly edible however, in Malaysia and East Africa it is used as cover crop.
vi. Passiflora LaurifoliaL. : It is native of thickets and forest fringes of West Indies and
North-East South America. Cultivated for fruits and spread throughout the tropics (Parse
glove, 1968).
vii. Passiflora ligularis Juss: It is native of Tropical America and commonly known as Sweet
granadilla. Its sweet fruits are much used in mountainous region of Mexico and central
America).
viii. Passiflora maliformis L.: A vine native to Tropical America and cultivated for fruits.
ix. Passiflora mallissima (H.B.K.) Bailey. It is native of Andes and commonly known as
Banana Passion fruit. It is especially cultivated in Ecuador and Bolivia.
x. Passiflora psilatha(Sondrio) Kilip: It is native of Ecuador and known as Gullan. It is a
vine grown for fruits.
A Review of Passion Fruit Processing … 50
xi. Passiflora quadrangular is L. : It is commonly known as Giant granadilla and Barba dine
and native of tropical South America. Widely distributed in tropics where it is grown for
fruits.
xii. Passiflora tripartite (Juss) Poir: It is native of Ecuador and cultivated for fruits. It is
commonly known as Tasco.
3. Varieties
Passion fruit has two distinct forms , the standard yellow (Passiflora edulis f. flaavicarpa
Deg.) and the purple (Passiflora edulis f. edulis). The yellow are more acidic and less starchy
while the purple are less acidic and more starchy. Both two form viz., purple passion fruit (P.
edulis) and yellow passion fruit (P. edulis var.flavicarpa) are of commercial importance. The
hybrids of these two have also been developed for cultivation. The most popular passion fruit
cultivated for their edible fruits have been discovered, which can vary in size and color. These
most commonly available varieties are.
3.1 Purple Passion Fruit
Vines are productive at higher elevations. Fruits are 4-5 cm in diameter, deep purple
when ripe each weighing 35-45 g. The juice content varies from 31-35 per cent. The variety is
known for its quality in terms of flavor and nutrient content. Seeds are black in color. The variety
is susceptible to leaf spot, collar rot, attack by trips and nematodes. The juice content of the fruit
varies from 35-38% and has a better flavor and aroma as fresh, canned and frozen juice or pulp
than the yellow one. The seeds are black in color. The commercial cultivars of the purple form
are Ouropretano, Muico, Peroba, Pintado etc. in South America. In India, there is no standard
cultivar. The local lines such as Ooty Purple, Coorg Purple Moodabidri Purple, Thrissur Purple,
Cher punji Purple, Thalipramba Purple, Ambalavaval Purple etc. are cultivated by the growers
[12].
3.3 Giant Granadilla
The hybrids of yellow and purple form have been developed for combining the desirable
characteristics of both the forms of passion fruits. Several hybrid varieties have been developed
in Brazil, Australia ,south Africa, etc. In India, a hybrid “Kaverii‟ of purple and yellow form was
developed at Central horticultural Experimental Station, Chattily, Coorg, Karnataka. This variety
is a high yielding hybrid developed from Central Horticultural Experiment Station, Chattily in
1986. This is a cross between purple and yellow varieties. The fruits are ovoid to round and
purple dotted in color. The average fruit weight ranges between 90-100 g. Each plant bears 40-
60 fruits per annum. The average yield of a grown up orchard is around 60-70 tons per year. Its
fruit yield is around 200 tons per ha over a three-year cropping period. Fruits contain 25-30 per
cent juice, 11.5-12.0 percent sugars and 3.0-3.5 mg citric acid/100ml of Juice. This is tolerant
to Alternaria leaf spot, Fusarium collar rot and nematodes. This variety is popular in Karnataka,
Kerala, Tamilnadu and North Eastern States.
4. Importance of Passion Fruit
Passion fruit is a good source of nutrients, especially fiber, vitamin C and vitamin A.
Raw passion fruit is 73% water, 22% carbohydrates, 2% protein and 0.7% fat (table) [13]. In a
100 gram amount, fresh passion fruit supplies 97 calories, and contains 36% of the Daily Value
(DV) of vitamin C, 42% dietary fiber, B vitamins riboflavin (11% DV) and niacin (10% DV), 12%
iron and 10% phosphorus (table) [14]. It's also rich in beneficial plant compounds, including
carotenoids and polyphenols [15]. Passion fruit is a high acid food (pH~ 3.2) due to the
predominance of two acids, citric and malic acid. It is also rich in minerals like K, P, Ca, Fe, Na,
Mg, S, Cl and protein (Table 1) [16]. Passion fruit is also known as a nutritionally dense fruit,
based on the level of nutrients present. The high amount of vitamin A, C and B2 in passion fruit
is the primary driver of such nutritional scores. Nutritional composition of passion fruit per 100g
is enumerate in Table 1 [17]. The fruit has a high content in nutraceuticals, as phenolic acids,
where anthocyanin’s and flavonoids are the majoritarian compounds of this group; carotenoids
and β-carotene appear to be the principal component, with consequently increased pro vitamin
A activity. These nutraceutical compounds have biological activities in the health, protective
effect against degenerative and chronic diseases and act as mutagenesis and carcinogenesis
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A Review of Passion Fruit Processing … 51
inhibitors. Also, these compounds have been associated with antiviral, anti-allergic, antiplatelet
and anti-inflammatory activities [18] [19] [20] [21].
The presence of pythoconstituents like Alkaloids, phenols, glycosylic flavonoids and
cyanogenic compounds make this fruit beneficial for the treatment and prevention of diseases
such as anxiety, diabetic, cardiovascular diseases, sedative, convulsive, asthma, osteoarthritis
and cancer. In several preclinical experiments, P. edulis extracts have exhibited potential effects
for the treatment of inflammation, pain, and insomnia as well as for attention-deficit hyperactivity
disorder, hypertension, and cancer. The juices extracted from pulps of P. edulis, P. maliformis
and P. quadrangular is possessed a rich source of fiber, protein and carbohydrate content. A
cup of 247 mL Passiflora fruit juices provided ~24% of K, 60-80% Mg, >80% P and 90% Fe of
recommended dietary allowance of minerals [22]. Several mechanisms, including the inhibition
of proinflammatory cytokines, enzyme (myeloperoxidase) and mediators (bradykinin, histamine,
substance P, nitric oxide) release and/or action, appear to account for P. edulis actions. The
leaves and stems of P. edulis have shown anti nociceptive, antitumor, antimicrobial, and
antioxidant activities. This plant-based, traditional medicine system still acquires an important
place in the health care system. The pulp of the fruit acts as a stimulant and tonic. Many
practitioners actually use P. edulis extracts alone or in combination with other herbal medicines
to treat depression and insomnia in a wide range of patients [23] [24].
Table 1: Nutritional composition of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) per 100g
Nutrients
Nutrient value per 100 g
Percentage of RDA
Energy
97 K Cal
5%
Carbohydrate
23.38 g
18%
Protein
2.20 g
4%
Total Fat
0.70 g
3%
Cholesterol
0 mg
0%
Dietary Fiber
10.40 g
27%
Vitamins
Folates
14 μg
3%
Niacin
1.500 mg
9%
Pyridoxine
0.100 mg
8%
Riboflavin
0.130 mg
10%
Thiamin
0.00 mg
0%
Vitamin A
1274 IU
43%
Vitamin C
30 mg
50%
Vitamin E
0.02 μg
<1%
Vitamin K
0.7 mg
0.5%
Electrolytes
Sodium
0 mg
0%
Potassium
348 mg
7%
Minerals
Calcium
12 mg
1.2%
Copper
0.086 mg
9.5%
Iron
1.60 mg
20%
Magnesium
29 mg
7%
Phosphorus
68 mg
10%
Selenium
0.6 µg
1%
Zinc
0.10 mg
1%
A Review of Passion Fruit Processing … 52
Phyto-nutrients
Carotene-ß
743 µg
---
Crypto-xanthine-ß
41 µg
---
Lycopene
0 µg
---
Source: USDA National Nutrient data base. United States Department of Agriculture,
Agricultural Research Service National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 27
Software v.2.2.6 The National Agricultural Library [25].
Table 2: Physic-chemical composition of various species of passion
fruits (% per 100 g DW)
Species
Moisture
content
Ash
Crude
protein
*Crude
fiber
Crude
fat
Carbohydrat
e
P.Edulis
(Purple)
85.45±0.5
6
1.18±0.11a
b
2.81±0.1
9
4.31±0.3
1
0.50±0.1
4
6.95±0.73
P.Edulis
(Frederick)
84.37±0.6
3
1.03±0.03
2.40±0.1
1
3.47±0.2
6
0.51±0.1
0
7.44±0.69
P. maliformis
85.44±0.3
6
0.91±0.01
2.20±0.1
4
3.63±0.1
8
0.45±0.0
2
7.17±0.64
P.quadrangul
a
86.16±0.4
6
1.37±0.14
2.35±0.0
9
2.40±0.1
1
0.35±0.0
1
6.57±0.29
P. edulis
84.70
1.00
2.80
3.30
0.50
7.39
P.edulis
flavicarpa
84.21
0.70
0.67
0.20
0.18
14.25
SOURCE: Ramaiya, S.D., 2Bujang J.B., 3Zakaria, M.H. and 1 Saupi.N. 2019. Nutritional,
mineral and organic acid composition of passion fruit (Passiflora species). Food Research 3 (3)
: 231 240. ISSN: 2550-2166
5. Post-Harvest Management of Passion Fruit
Passion fruit has various little hard seeds which makes it troublesome as a table leafy
foods its business significance exists in preparing, processing and value addition. There is
an immense interest for blended fruit juices in Indian just as abroad business sectors, passion
fruit juice or its mix with different fruits and vegetables have an extraordinary potential to drift
in the market. The first harvesting is done after 1-2 years of planting and a healthy plant
produces about 150-180 fruits per year. Passion fruit is manually picked by chopping or
clipping the fruit from the vine. To help avoid water loss and fungal growth, a small piece of
stem, around 4 cm (1.5 inches) in length, should be left attached to the fruit [26]. The storage
of purple passion fruit at 10±2°C and 75% RH is recommended for the three maturity stages
tested because of the absence of chilling injury and better keeping quality during the shelf
life period [27].
5.1 Cleaning
Depending upon the volume of fruit to be cleaned, the cycle should be possible manually
or automatically. Automatic operations utilize overhead splash wash framework to clean to
the fruit. To evade the spread of disease, the water utilized for washing should be consistently
cleaned by keeping a 150 ppm sodium hypochlorite concentration and a water pH of 6.5.
Subsequent to washing, the fruit should be air dried prior to grading or sorting.
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5.2 Grading/Sorting
The Pre-sorting of fruit should be carried out in the field, and additional grading
performed at the packing area to remove fruit that does not meet market requirements. The
fundamental qualities utilized in grading passion fruit are size, skin color and uniformity,
shape, firmness, and the amount of surface blemishes. Three different grades have been
established by the National Bureau of Standards for domestic marketing of passion fruit
(Grade 1, Grade 2, and Grade 3).
Grade 1
Fruits are firm with shiny
appearance; indication of
wilting will be absent, free
from visible evidence of
insects, disease, and
surface imperfections.
These fruit types are most
superior.
Grade 2
These passion fruits should
be of acceptable quality,
although 10% of the fruit in
this grade may be soft or
give indications of
withering, and won't have
a shiny appearance
Grade 3
These passion fruit don't
meet all requirements for
consideration in the
higher evaluations, yet
ought to be clean, mature,
free from pests and
diseases, will have similar
color, shape, and size.
Passion fruit should be divided into 3 diverse size classifications from 4 to 9 cm in
diameter and 4 to 12 cm long. The average diameter for fruit classified as small size is 5 cm (2
inch), for medium size is 6.5 cm, and for large size fruit is 8 cm.
External color tone is another significant quality characteristic utilized in sorting passion
fruit. Prior to packing it is important to look for uniformly colored fruit in each container. The fruit
should have a minimum of 75% of the surface area coloured to type (i.e. yellow or purple).
Internal fruit quality should be checked on randomly selected fruit. Soluble solids content (SSC)
of marketable fruit should range between 10% and 18% for yellow passion fruit and between
10% and 20% for purple passion fruit. Acidity of the pulp should range from 3% to 5%.
A Review of Passion Fruit Processing … 54
5.3 Waxing
Passion fruit may benefit from a postharvest wax application. Much of the fruit's natural
wax is removed during washing, so it should be replaced. Waxing enhances the shine and
external appearance of the fruit, reduces postharvest weight loss, minimizes shriveling, and
extends market life. A carnauba-based wax is preferred for passion fruit. A liquid paraffin wax
dip may also be used, but it is costlier and does not impart a shine on the fruit surface. After
waxing, the fruit is packed for market.
5.4 Packing
A well-ventilated containers capable of being stacked without damaging the fruit is used
for packing of passion fruit. Passion fruit are packed typically in large synthetic mesh sacks for
export market and wooden containers or durable plastic crates are preferred for the domestic
market. Ventilation holes are desired for horizontal air movement and efficient cooling. During
shipment the carton should also have vents for vertical air flow.
5.5 Processing of passion fruit
The main objective of processing technique is to enhance the keeping quality of
perishable fruit and minimize the qualitative and quantitative deterioration of the fruit and its
products.
5.6 Fruit pulps and juices
Pulp or juice of passion fruit is extracted by straining the seed from the fruit content.
With the help of additives, the juice can be stored from six months to more than year. During off
seasons, the stored juice can be utilized for making different variants of beverages for
consumption.
5.7 Dehydrated products
It is a less difficult technique for preparing and expansion of storage life by physical
removal of water, by hot air drying, which is affordable on commercial scale. Here the fresh
material is dried to residual moisture of about 5% and depending upon the required retention of
pigmentation, flavor and taste, pre-treatment need to be ascribed. The dried material can be
rehydrated using water. The storage life of dried material can be of a half year at room
temperature. This process provides the scope for better storage and transportation due to
reduction in bulk weight. Osmodehydrated and intermediate moisture products of ~25% water
content can be used for direct consumption without the need of re-hydration.
5.8 Freezing of pulps
In order to expect least or no changes in the stored fruit pulp, it is advisable to hold the
fruit pulp prepared in a hygienic condition, in frozen condition at - 30°C. The storage life would
be minimum of six months. The frozen pulp after thawing can be reconstituted to obtain RTS
drinks.
5.9 Aseptic packaging
Here the fruit pulp or juice is passed through computerized equipment with set
temperature, duration and flow rate for processing and filling into sterile containers for storage
and transport. The principle behind is high temperature short time (HTST).
5.10 Micro-filtration
After suitable dilution or the juice extracted is passed through ceramic membrane with
micro pores. In fact, this technique can also serve to render stability to the product if operated
under strictly sterile conditions. The greatest advantage of this process is a high degree of juice
clarification and also prevention of discoloration over a course of storage life.
5.11 Jam, jelly and marmalade
Using pectin as a setting agent, fruit pulp can be converted to jam, whereas juice can
be transformed into jelly under definite conditions of sugar and pectin concentrations.
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Marmalade represents a product like jelly including a bitter principle, usually as bits of citrus
peel.
5.12 Pickles
Raw fruit can be converted into pickle after mixing in salt along with chili powder,
followed by seasoning in hot oil of saturated fatty acids to overcome the rancidity during
prolonged storage. To avoid the freight charges of wet pickle and convenience of handling,
salting and dehydration into “instant pickles” can be packed along with chili, salt and spice
powder. Upon reconstitution in water overnight the dry pickle can be converted into wet pickle.
5.13 Bakery products
Fruit pulp or its dehydrated product can be utilized for preparation of biscuits, cookies, fruit
cake and muffins. After juice extraction, fruit pomace can be utilized in amalgamation with
bakery flour to give bakery products better functionality due to balanced ratio of soluble/insoluble
fiber, better hydration properties, and confer better sensory properties.
6. Value Addition
Value is added to the fruit by changing their form, color in order to increase the shelf life
of perishable fruit. In the current scenario, there is an urgent need to increase the level of value
addition and to improve the quality of value added fruit products for domestic and export market.
Passion fruits are primarily used for food, in the form of value added products like juices, jams,
jellies, ice creams and liquors. It is known for its sedative property, but its attractive aroma and
flavor make the passion fruit an important product for the industry. The leaves and juice contain
pass florin, a natural sedative, and tea prepared with leaves has a diuretic effect. It also shows
purgative, sedative and anti-inflammatory properties. The seeds act as anthelminthic. It is
popularly believed that the tea leaves, besides acting as a sedative, are also an effective
antipyretic and help to treat skin inflammation, but these two uses are based on popular beliefs.
7. Byproducts and Waste Management
The processing of fruits leads to large amounts of by-products that may have functional
properties. The waste resulting from passion fruit processing consists of more than 75% of the
raw material. The rind constitutes 90% of the waste and is a source of pectin (20% of the dry
weight). Passion fruit seed oil is rich in linoleic acid (65%). Nearly 40% of passion fruit production
is directed to the juice industry. Large amounts of by-product (seeds and peels), that contains
functional substances, are carried in passion fruit juice processing. The rind can be utilized for
pectin production which is one of the major additive in confectionery industries whereas the
seeds which represent about 6% to 12% of the total fruit weight can be utilized for oil extraction.
The oil yield from the dry seeds of passion fruit reaches about 25%. One hectare can produce
approximately 480 kg of dry seed, which equals 96 kg of oil when using cold extraction.
8. Conclusion
Considering the above factors, it is possible to infer that the cultivation and processing
of passion fruit is technically feasible and can be expanded in the region. The first and most
important step to be taken is to raise public interest and provide widespread publicity by various
channels, followed by the development of coordinated initiatives among all potential
stakeholders, such as farmers and government agencies, research institutions and other
agencies. Strategies such as proper post-harvest management, the development of proper
storage facilities, the development of improved packaging for transportation, the improvement
of transportation facilities, the establishment of new processing units, and the strengthening of
existing processing units will undoubtedly increase passion fruit production in the region.
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[2] C. Winston and L. Beck, “Phytochemicals: health protective effects,” Can. J. Diet. Pract.
A Review of Passion Fruit Processing … 56
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