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Passion to Profession: A review of Passion fruit Processing


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Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) is a nutritious tropical fruit belongs to the family Passifloraceae. The purple passion fruit is local from southern Brazil through Paraguay to northern Argentina. India, for a long time, has appreciated a moderate collect of purple passion fruit in the Nilgiris in the south and in various parts of northern India. The Passion fruit has good amount of antioxidants, flavanoids, anti- inflammatory, anti- bacterial, anti- fungal and anti- ageing properties. This fruit has huge economical importance as all the parts of this fruit (seed, peel, flower, pulp) are rich in medicinal and therapeutic properties. The fruit is a fantastic wellspring of dietary fiber, nutrient, Vitamin C and Vitamin A. Being a decent laxative, it likewise secures the colon mucosa by diminishing openness time to harmful substances in the colon and clearing off the malignant growth causing poisonous substances from the colon. Passion fruit has several medical advantages and hence require diverse processing and preservation methods. Here we are going to review portion of these methods.
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Vol. 3 No. 1 Maret 2021 E-ISSN: 2656-8888
A Review of Passion Fruit Processing … 48
Passion to Profession: A review of Passion fruit
Srishti Biswas1, Ritesh Mishra2, Ankur Singh Bist3
School of Agricultural Sciences & Engineering, IFTM University, Moradabad, 244102, Uttar
Pradesh, India
Signy Advanced Technologies, INDIA
e-mail:srishtibiswas12@gmail.com1, mishra.ritesh9@gmail.com2 , ankur1990bist@gmail.com3
Biswas, S., Mishra, R., & Bist, A. S. (2021). Passion to Profession: A review of Passion fruit
Processing. Aptisi Transactions on Technopreneurship (ATT), 3(1), 48-56.
Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) is a nutritious tropical fruit that belongs to the family
Passifloraceae. The purple passion fruit is local from southern Brazil through Paraguay to
northern Argentina. For a long time, India has appreciated a moderate collection of purple
passion fruit in the Nilgiris in the south and various parts of north India. The Passion fruit has a
good amount of antioxidants, flavonoids, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-
aging properties. This fruit has huge economic importance as all the parts of this fruit (seed,
peel, flower, pulp) are rich in medicinal and therapeutic properties. The fruit is a fantastic
wellspring of dietary fiber, nutrients, Vitamin C, and Vitamin A. Being a decent laxative, it likewise
secures the colon mucosa by diminishing openness time to harmful substances in the colon and
clearing off the malignant growth causing poisonous substances from the colon. Passion fruit
has several medical advantages and hence requires diverse processing and preservation
methods. Here we are going to review a portion of these methods.
Keywords: Passion fruit, Anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-ageing and preservation.
1. Introduction
The passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) familyPassifloraceae, is a native of Brazil. In India
it is discovered to be filling wild in many parts of Western Ghats such as Nilgiris, Wynad,
Kodaikanal, Shevroys, Coorg and Malabar as well as Himachal Pradesh and North Eastern
States like Manipur, Nagaland and Mizoram. Passion fruit is commercially cultivated in the North
Eastern States of Manipur, Mizoram and Nagaland. It is also cultivated in some parts of Nilgiris
an Shevroys. It is a perennial woody fruit vine belongs to family Passifloraceae, native to tropical
America (Brazil) [1], bears hermaphrodite, solitary flowers located in the leaf axils. The fruit is
round or ovoid and has an intense, smooth, waxy dull purple or yellow tinted skin with weak,
fine white spots. Inside, the fruit is pretty much loaded up with a sweet-smelling mass of twofold
walled, membranous sacs containing orange shading thick squeeze and upwards of 250 little,
hard, dim earthy colored to dark pitted seeds. It can grow rapidly under great conditions - up to
six meters in one year. The evergreen leaves of the vine provide a shelter for the fragrant exotic
looking white and purple flowers that appear on the new growth. A ripe fruit is reviving, sensitive
flavor with satisfying smell and high nutritive worth. In India, passion fruit can successfully be
grown well up to 2000 m altitude with an annual rainfall of 1000 to 2500 mm. Fruits are widely
acknowledged as important component of a healthy diet and adequate consumption could help
to reduce a wide range of diseases [2]. The fruit is valued for its pronounced flavor and aroma
which helps not only in producing a high quality squash but also in flavoring several other
products. This nutritious fruit crop highly appreciated for fresh consumption and industrial
purposes because of its excellent flavor and nutrition which is used for juice, jelly and ice cream
products [3].Fruits have been a part of the human diet over the years. They contain high quantity
of water, carbohydrate, sugars, vitamins, minerals and organic compounds which are required
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by the body to function well [4].To enhance the flavor of the final produce, passion fruit juice is
often mixed with juices of pineapple, mango, ginger etc. The juice is extensively used in
confectionery and preparation of cakes, pies and ice cream. It is a rich source of Vitamin A and
contains fair amounts of Sodium, Magnesium, Sulphur and Chlorides. Commercial Processing
of yellow passion fruit yields 36% juice, 51% rinds and 11% seeds [5].
2. Types
Out of 600 known species of Passiflora, in the familyPassifloraceae, only one P. edulis,
sims, has been utilized for the edible purpose in India. Passiflora edulis exits in two distinct
types known as Passiflora edulis sims the purple passion fruit and Passiflora edulis flavicarpa,
the yellow passion fruit. The purple passion fruit is originally native of Tropical America, whereas
yellow passion fruit is being considered as a mutation of the purple variety or as a natural hybrid
between purple and another related species of passion fruit [6]. Passiflora quadrangular is L.,
the giant granadilla, is also cultivated to a limited extent for local consumption. It grows best in
a hot, moist climate and produces a round or oblong, pale yellow to yellowish-green fruit when
ripe, which may reach up to 8 inches in size. Passiflora foetida L., a wild species, bears very
small fruits and has unique characters of being highly precocious and very short fruit maturity
period [7]. Purple and yellow are commonly cultivated in northeast region of India, while Knavery
(hybrid between purple and yellow) is common in south India [8].Two types of Passiflora edulis
Sims (Passifloraceae) are grown commercially, the purple form (P.edulis Sims) and a yellow
form (P. edulis var. flavicarpa DeGeneres) [9]. In Brazil, Passiflora alata is the official Passiflora
species in the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia and P. edulis is the species most employed as a
flavoring and as a juice in the food industries.
This tropical fruit is actually considered a type of berry, according to botanists. It is the
fruit of the Passiflora vine, a type of passion flower. It has a tough outer rind and juicy, seed-
filled center. Despite its small size, it's a rich source of antioxidants and contains a range of
vitamins and plant compounds that could benefit your health.
Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims.) belongs to family Passifloraceae which includes
12 genera with more than 500 species. Genus Passiflora has about 400 species out of which
few are economic importance. Within these species there are two district forms i.e., the standard
purple (P. edulis) and the yellow (P. edulis f. flavicarpaDeg.). The chromosome number ranging
from 2n=18 to 2n=22 [10]. Below here is mentioned 12 species of Genus Passiflora [11]:
i. Passiflora Alta Dryland: It is native of Peru and Brazil. It is a woody vine cultivated in
Brazil for its fruits.
ii. Passiflora antiqueness Karst. (Syn. P. valxsemii (Len.) Traina& Planch.):It is native of
Colombia and known as banana passion fruit. This species is also a woody vine
cultivated for its fruit.
iii. Passiflora cearensis Barb : It is native of Brazil and cultivated for its fruits.
iv. Passiflora edulis Sims. : It is real passion fruit which is native of South Brazil. This
species is widely distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics. The fruits are
especially used for juice preparation.
v. Passiflora foetida L . : It is woody species native of West Indies and South America. It
is distributed to many tropical countries in Africa and Asia where it has naturalized. The
fruits are hardly edible however, in Malaysia and East Africa it is used as cover crop.
vi. Passiflora LaurifoliaL. : It is native of thickets and forest fringes of West Indies and
North-East South America. Cultivated for fruits and spread throughout the tropics (Parse
glove, 1968).
vii. Passiflora ligularis Juss: It is native of Tropical America and commonly known as Sweet
granadilla. Its sweet fruits are much used in mountainous region of Mexico and central
viii. Passiflora maliformis L.: A vine native to Tropical America and cultivated for fruits.
ix. Passiflora mallissima (H.B.K.) Bailey. It is native of Andes and commonly known as
Banana Passion fruit. It is especially cultivated in Ecuador and Bolivia.
x. Passiflora psilatha(Sondrio) Kilip: It is native of Ecuador and known as Gullan. It is a
vine grown for fruits.
A Review of Passion Fruit Processing … 50
xi. Passiflora quadrangular is L. : It is commonly known as Giant granadilla and Barba dine
and native of tropical South America. Widely distributed in tropics where it is grown for
xii. Passiflora tripartite (Juss) Poir: It is native of Ecuador and cultivated for fruits. It is
commonly known as Tasco.
3. Varieties
Passion fruit has two distinct forms , the standard yellow (Passiflora edulis f. flaavicarpa
Deg.) and the purple (Passiflora edulis f. edulis). The yellow are more acidic and less starchy
while the purple are less acidic and more starchy. Both two form viz., purple passion fruit (P.
edulis) and yellow passion fruit (P. edulis var.flavicarpa) are of commercial importance. The
hybrids of these two have also been developed for cultivation. The most popular passion fruit
cultivated for their edible fruits have been discovered, which can vary in size and color. These
most commonly available varieties are.
3.1 Purple Passion Fruit
Vines are productive at higher elevations. Fruits are 4-5 cm in diameter, deep purple
when ripe each weighing 35-45 g. The juice content varies from 31-35 per cent. The variety is
known for its quality in terms of flavor and nutrient content. Seeds are black in color. The variety
is susceptible to leaf spot, collar rot, attack by trips and nematodes. The juice content of the fruit
varies from 35-38% and has a better flavor and aroma as fresh, canned and frozen juice or pulp
than the yellow one. The seeds are black in color. The commercial cultivars of the purple form
are Ouropretano, Muico, Peroba, Pintado etc. in South America. In India, there is no standard
cultivar. The local lines such as Ooty Purple, Coorg Purple Moodabidri Purple, Thrissur Purple,
Cher punji Purple, Thalipramba Purple, Ambalavaval Purple etc. are cultivated by the growers
3.3 Giant Granadilla
The hybrids of yellow and purple form have been developed for combining the desirable
characteristics of both the forms of passion fruits. Several hybrid varieties have been developed
in Brazil, Australia ,south Africa, etc. In India, a hybrid “Kaverii‟ of purple and yellow form was
developed at Central horticultural Experimental Station, Chattily, Coorg, Karnataka. This variety
is a high yielding hybrid developed from Central Horticultural Experiment Station, Chattily in
1986. This is a cross between purple and yellow varieties. The fruits are ovoid to round and
purple dotted in color. The average fruit weight ranges between 90-100 g. Each plant bears 40-
60 fruits per annum. The average yield of a grown up orchard is around 60-70 tons per year. Its
fruit yield is around 200 tons per ha over a three-year cropping period. Fruits contain 25-30 per
cent juice, 11.5-12.0 percent sugars and 3.0-3.5 mg citric acid/100ml of Juice. This is tolerant
to Alternaria leaf spot, Fusarium collar rot and nematodes. This variety is popular in Karnataka,
Kerala, Tamilnadu and North Eastern States.
4. Importance of Passion Fruit
Passion fruit is a good source of nutrients, especially fiber, vitamin C and vitamin A.
Raw passion fruit is 73% water, 22% carbohydrates, 2% protein and 0.7% fat (table) [13]. In a
100 gram amount, fresh passion fruit supplies 97 calories, and contains 36% of the Daily Value
(DV) of vitamin C, 42% dietary fiber, B vitamins riboflavin (11% DV) and niacin (10% DV), 12%
iron and 10% phosphorus (table) [14]. It's also rich in beneficial plant compounds, including
carotenoids and polyphenols [15]. Passion fruit is a high acid food (pH~ 3.2) due to the
predominance of two acids, citric and malic acid. It is also rich in minerals like K, P, Ca, Fe, Na,
Mg, S, Cl and protein (Table 1) [16]. Passion fruit is also known as a nutritionally dense fruit,
based on the level of nutrients present. The high amount of vitamin A, C and B2 in passion fruit
is the primary driver of such nutritional scores. Nutritional composition of passion fruit per 100g
is enumerate in Table 1 [17]. The fruit has a high content in nutraceuticals, as phenolic acids,
where anthocyanin’s and flavonoids are the majoritarian compounds of this group; carotenoids
and β-carotene appear to be the principal component, with consequently increased pro vitamin
A activity. These nutraceutical compounds have biological activities in the health, protective
effect against degenerative and chronic diseases and act as mutagenesis and carcinogenesis
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inhibitors. Also, these compounds have been associated with antiviral, anti-allergic, antiplatelet
and anti-inflammatory activities [18] [19] [20] [21].
The presence of pythoconstituents like Alkaloids, phenols, glycosylic flavonoids and
cyanogenic compounds make this fruit beneficial for the treatment and prevention of diseases
such as anxiety, diabetic, cardiovascular diseases, sedative, convulsive, asthma, osteoarthritis
and cancer. In several preclinical experiments, P. edulis extracts have exhibited potential effects
for the treatment of inflammation, pain, and insomnia as well as for attention-deficit hyperactivity
disorder, hypertension, and cancer. The juices extracted from pulps of P. edulis, P. maliformis
and P. quadrangular is possessed a rich source of fiber, protein and carbohydrate content. A
cup of 247 mL Passiflora fruit juices provided ~24% of K, 60-80% Mg, >80% P and 90% Fe of
recommended dietary allowance of minerals [22]. Several mechanisms, including the inhibition
of proinflammatory cytokines, enzyme (myeloperoxidase) and mediators (bradykinin, histamine,
substance P, nitric oxide) release and/or action, appear to account for P. edulis actions. The
leaves and stems of P. edulis have shown anti nociceptive, antitumor, antimicrobial, and
antioxidant activities. This plant-based, traditional medicine system still acquires an important
place in the health care system. The pulp of the fruit acts as a stimulant and tonic. Many
practitioners actually use P. edulis extracts alone or in combination with other herbal medicines
to treat depression and insomnia in a wide range of patients [23] [24].
Table 1: Nutritional composition of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) per 100g
Nutrient value per 100 g
Percentage of RDA
97 K Cal
23.38 g
2.20 g
Total Fat
0.70 g
0 mg
Dietary Fiber
10.40 g
14 μg
1.500 mg
0.100 mg
0.130 mg
0.00 mg
Vitamin A
1274 IU
Vitamin C
30 mg
Vitamin E
0.02 μg
Vitamin K
0.7 mg
0 mg
348 mg
12 mg
0.086 mg
1.60 mg
29 mg
68 mg
0.6 µg
0.10 mg
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743 µg
41 µg
0 µg
Source: USDA National Nutrient data base. United States Department of Agriculture,
Agricultural Research Service National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 27
Software v.2.2.6 The National Agricultural Library [25].
Table 2: Physic-chemical composition of various species of passion
fruits (% per 100 g DW)
P. maliformis
P. edulis
SOURCE: Ramaiya, S.D., 2Bujang J.B., 3Zakaria, M.H. and 1 Saupi.N. 2019. Nutritional,
mineral and organic acid composition of passion fruit (Passiflora species). Food Research 3 (3)
: 231 240. ISSN: 2550-2166
5. Post-Harvest Management of Passion Fruit
Passion fruit has various little hard seeds which makes it troublesome as a table leafy
foods its business significance exists in preparing, processing and value addition. There is
an immense interest for blended fruit juices in Indian just as abroad business sectors, passion
fruit juice or its mix with different fruits and vegetables have an extraordinary potential to drift
in the market. The first harvesting is done after 1-2 years of planting and a healthy plant
produces about 150-180 fruits per year. Passion fruit is manually picked by chopping or
clipping the fruit from the vine. To help avoid water loss and fungal growth, a small piece of
stem, around 4 cm (1.5 inches) in length, should be left attached to the fruit [26]. The storage
of purple passion fruit at 10±2°C and 75% RH is recommended for the three maturity stages
tested because of the absence of chilling injury and better keeping quality during the shelf
life period [27].
5.1 Cleaning
Depending upon the volume of fruit to be cleaned, the cycle should be possible manually
or automatically. Automatic operations utilize overhead splash wash framework to clean to
the fruit. To evade the spread of disease, the water utilized for washing should be consistently
cleaned by keeping a 150 ppm sodium hypochlorite concentration and a water pH of 6.5.
Subsequent to washing, the fruit should be air dried prior to grading or sorting.
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5.2 Grading/Sorting
The Pre-sorting of fruit should be carried out in the field, and additional grading
performed at the packing area to remove fruit that does not meet market requirements. The
fundamental qualities utilized in grading passion fruit are size, skin color and uniformity,
shape, firmness, and the amount of surface blemishes. Three different grades have been
established by the National Bureau of Standards for domestic marketing of passion fruit
(Grade 1, Grade 2, and Grade 3).
Grade 1
Fruits are firm with shiny
appearance; indication of
wilting will be absent, free
from visible evidence of
insects, disease, and
surface imperfections.
These fruit types are most
Grade 2
These passion fruits should
be of acceptable quality,
although 10% of the fruit in
this grade may be soft or
give indications of
withering, and won't have
a shiny appearance
Grade 3
These passion fruit don't
meet all requirements for
consideration in the
higher evaluations, yet
ought to be clean, mature,
free from pests and
diseases, will have similar
color, shape, and size.
Passion fruit should be divided into 3 diverse size classifications from 4 to 9 cm in
diameter and 4 to 12 cm long. The average diameter for fruit classified as small size is 5 cm (2
inch), for medium size is 6.5 cm, and for large size fruit is 8 cm.
External color tone is another significant quality characteristic utilized in sorting passion
fruit. Prior to packing it is important to look for uniformly colored fruit in each container. The fruit
should have a minimum of 75% of the surface area coloured to type (i.e. yellow or purple).
Internal fruit quality should be checked on randomly selected fruit. Soluble solids content (SSC)
of marketable fruit should range between 10% and 18% for yellow passion fruit and between
10% and 20% for purple passion fruit. Acidity of the pulp should range from 3% to 5%.
A Review of Passion Fruit Processing … 54
5.3 Waxing
Passion fruit may benefit from a postharvest wax application. Much of the fruit's natural
wax is removed during washing, so it should be replaced. Waxing enhances the shine and
external appearance of the fruit, reduces postharvest weight loss, minimizes shriveling, and
extends market life. A carnauba-based wax is preferred for passion fruit. A liquid paraffin wax
dip may also be used, but it is costlier and does not impart a shine on the fruit surface. After
waxing, the fruit is packed for market.
5.4 Packing
A well-ventilated containers capable of being stacked without damaging the fruit is used
for packing of passion fruit. Passion fruit are packed typically in large synthetic mesh sacks for
export market and wooden containers or durable plastic crates are preferred for the domestic
market. Ventilation holes are desired for horizontal air movement and efficient cooling. During
shipment the carton should also have vents for vertical air flow.
5.5 Processing of passion fruit
The main objective of processing technique is to enhance the keeping quality of
perishable fruit and minimize the qualitative and quantitative deterioration of the fruit and its
5.6 Fruit pulps and juices
Pulp or juice of passion fruit is extracted by straining the seed from the fruit content.
With the help of additives, the juice can be stored from six months to more than year. During off
seasons, the stored juice can be utilized for making different variants of beverages for
5.7 Dehydrated products
It is a less difficult technique for preparing and expansion of storage life by physical
removal of water, by hot air drying, which is affordable on commercial scale. Here the fresh
material is dried to residual moisture of about 5% and depending upon the required retention of
pigmentation, flavor and taste, pre-treatment need to be ascribed. The dried material can be
rehydrated using water. The storage life of dried material can be of a half year at room
temperature. This process provides the scope for better storage and transportation due to
reduction in bulk weight. Osmodehydrated and intermediate moisture products of ~25% water
content can be used for direct consumption without the need of re-hydration.
5.8 Freezing of pulps
In order to expect least or no changes in the stored fruit pulp, it is advisable to hold the
fruit pulp prepared in a hygienic condition, in frozen condition at - 30°C. The storage life would
be minimum of six months. The frozen pulp after thawing can be reconstituted to obtain RTS
5.9 Aseptic packaging
Here the fruit pulp or juice is passed through computerized equipment with set
temperature, duration and flow rate for processing and filling into sterile containers for storage
and transport. The principle behind is high temperature short time (HTST).
5.10 Micro-filtration
After suitable dilution or the juice extracted is passed through ceramic membrane with
micro pores. In fact, this technique can also serve to render stability to the product if operated
under strictly sterile conditions. The greatest advantage of this process is a high degree of juice
clarification and also prevention of discoloration over a course of storage life.
5.11 Jam, jelly and marmalade
Using pectin as a setting agent, fruit pulp can be converted to jam, whereas juice can
be transformed into jelly under definite conditions of sugar and pectin concentrations.
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Marmalade represents a product like jelly including a bitter principle, usually as bits of citrus
5.12 Pickles
Raw fruit can be converted into pickle after mixing in salt along with chili powder,
followed by seasoning in hot oil of saturated fatty acids to overcome the rancidity during
prolonged storage. To avoid the freight charges of wet pickle and convenience of handling,
salting and dehydration into “instant pickles” can be packed along with chili, salt and spice
powder. Upon reconstitution in water overnight the dry pickle can be converted into wet pickle.
5.13 Bakery products
Fruit pulp or its dehydrated product can be utilized for preparation of biscuits, cookies, fruit
cake and muffins. After juice extraction, fruit pomace can be utilized in amalgamation with
bakery flour to give bakery products better functionality due to balanced ratio of soluble/insoluble
fiber, better hydration properties, and confer better sensory properties.
6. Value Addition
Value is added to the fruit by changing their form, color in order to increase the shelf life
of perishable fruit. In the current scenario, there is an urgent need to increase the level of value
addition and to improve the quality of value added fruit products for domestic and export market.
Passion fruits are primarily used for food, in the form of value added products like juices, jams,
jellies, ice creams and liquors. It is known for its sedative property, but its attractive aroma and
flavor make the passion fruit an important product for the industry. The leaves and juice contain
pass florin, a natural sedative, and tea prepared with leaves has a diuretic effect. It also shows
purgative, sedative and anti-inflammatory properties. The seeds act as anthelminthic. It is
popularly believed that the tea leaves, besides acting as a sedative, are also an effective
antipyretic and help to treat skin inflammation, but these two uses are based on popular beliefs.
7. Byproducts and Waste Management
The processing of fruits leads to large amounts of by-products that may have functional
properties. The waste resulting from passion fruit processing consists of more than 75% of the
raw material. The rind constitutes 90% of the waste and is a source of pectin (20% of the dry
weight). Passion fruit seed oil is rich in linoleic acid (65%). Nearly 40% of passion fruit production
is directed to the juice industry. Large amounts of by-product (seeds and peels), that contains
functional substances, are carried in passion fruit juice processing. The rind can be utilized for
pectin production which is one of the major additive in confectionery industries whereas the
seeds which represent about 6% to 12% of the total fruit weight can be utilized for oil extraction.
The oil yield from the dry seeds of passion fruit reaches about 25%. One hectare can produce
approximately 480 kg of dry seed, which equals 96 kg of oil when using cold extraction.
8. Conclusion
Considering the above factors, it is possible to infer that the cultivation and processing
of passion fruit is technically feasible and can be expanded in the region. The first and most
important step to be taken is to raise public interest and provide widespread publicity by various
channels, followed by the development of coordinated initiatives among all potential
stakeholders, such as farmers and government agencies, research institutions and other
agencies. Strategies such as proper post-harvest management, the development of proper
storage facilities, the development of improved packaging for transportation, the improvement
of transportation facilities, the establishment of new processing units, and the strengthening of
existing processing units will undoubtedly increase passion fruit production in the region.
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... Concentration time is the time required to drain water from the most distant point in the flow area to the critical control point downstream of a stream [34] [35]. ...
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The old city area is a tourist area strategically located in the heart of the capital city of DKI Jakarta. The Krukut river is one of the rivers that often overflow, which is one of the causes of flooding in Jakarta. This study aims to determine the water level of the Krukut river so that it can be used as a reference in handling flood disaster mitigation. This study uses the Nakayasu method and the Snyder method to calculate flood discharge, with a return period of up to 100 years. Meanwhile, for modeling the river water level using the HEC-RAS 5.0.07 application. The results of this study, specifically on the upstream cross-section until 300 meters after that TMA, are pretty high with plan one, which is 3 m deep from the bottom of the channel. However, the track still has a sufficient guard height of about 1.5 m. In other words, no overtopping/ river water does not overflow in the upstream area with a return period of 10 years and 25 years. However, due to the narrower channel section, the upstream region is more prone to flooding than the middle downstream area. From the modeling results, the channel prone to erosion is the section 10 track which is widening at the same time that the channel is not filled with the CONCRETE channel, so it is effortless to erode. For this reason, it is recommended to repair the walls of the river/channel to avoid scouring, especially if there is a high/extreme discharge.
... In South America, the main countries where passion fruit is grown are Brazil, Ecuador, Peru and Colombia [2]. This fruit is consumed fresh as juice (locally) because around 40% of the fruit is composed of pulp, or it is marketed (world-wide) as a concentrate and is desirable as a beverage component due to its nutritional characteristics, color, acid taste and exotic aroma [3][4][5]. ...
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Tropical fruits are in high demand for their flavor and for their functional composition because these compounds are considered nutraceuticals. Passion fruit production is of economic importance to Ecuador; however, several Passiflora species are grown and each has to be analyzed to identify their phytochemical composition. In this study, the polyphenol, flavonoid, carotenoid, vitamin C, sugar and organic acid contents were determined. Six different Passiflora spp. germplasms were analyzed, coming from Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa, Passiflora alata, Passiflora edulis f. edulis and unidentified Passiflora species (local germplasm). Measurement techniques included reflectometry for vitamin C, spectrophotometry for antioxidant compounds and HPLC for sugars and organic acids. Data were analyzed by principal component analysis, correlation and analysis of variance. Results showed that INIAP 2009 and P10 showed a high amount of polyphenols, antioxidant activity and citric content. Sweet passion fruit had the lowest vitamin C content while Gulupa showed the highest content. In terms of the local germplasm, POR1 showed the lowest content of flavonoids while PICH1 had high flavonoid and carotenoid content. Polyphenols were the main compounds that influenced antioxidant activity. This phytochemical information adds value to passion fruit as a nutraceutical source.
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This study focused on proximate composition, mineral content and organic acid properties of fruit juices from four Passiflora species; Passiflora edulis (Purple), Passiflora edulis (Frederick), Passiflora maliformis, and Passiflora quadrangularis and the mesocarp of Passiflora quadrangularis. The moisture content varied between 84.37±0.63% in P. edulis (Frederick) to 86.63±0.33% in mesocarp of P. quadrangularis. The ash content of mesocarp of P. quadrangularis was significantly lower (0.51±0.02%) than its juice (1.37±0.14%). Among the Passiflora species, P. edulis (Purple) and P. edulis (Frederick) possessed higher protein, 2.81±0.19% and 2.40±0.11%, respectively. The fiber content in P. quadrangularis mesocarp was significantly higher (8.49±0.40%) than other juices. Passiflora fruits have fat content <0.5% in edible portion. The carbohydrate content of Passiflora fruit juices was not significantly different with ranged 6.57±0.29% in P. quadrangularis to 7.44±0.69% in P. edulis (Frederick). Additionally, a cup of 247 mL Passiflora juices provided ~34% of potassium, 60-80% Magnesium, >80% phosphorus and provides an adequate level of micronutrients especially Ferum content which is 90% of daily recommended allowance of minerals. The major organic acid in Passiflora fruit juice was citric acid and ranged 1137.00±0.13 mg 100 g-1 in P. quadrangularis to 1487.30±0.28 mg 100 g-1 in P. edulis (Purple). Malic acid was second abundant organic acid with 156.00±0.07 mg 100 g-1 in P. edulis (Frederick) to 502.30±0.07 mg 100 g-1 in P. quadrangularis. Apart from the common species of Passiflora edulis, other lesser known Passiflora species are also gaining visibility in drinks, food and health promoter.
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Floral biology of purple, yellow, giant and Passiflora foetida was studied at the ICAR Research Complex, Mizoram Centre, Kolasib, Mizoram, India during 2005-07. Purple, giant and P. foetida had major bloom during March-April, July-August and September-October. While major bloom in yellow was mainly during May-June and September-October. Purple, giant and P. foetida had the maximum duration of bloom of 42.4, 22.5 and 32.6 days, respectively during March-April with the maximum duration of effective bloom of 12.5 8.6 and 10.4 days in purple, giant and P. foetida, respectively. Yellow had the maximum duration of bloom for 28.4 days and effective bloom of 10.5 days during May-June. Most of the flowers of purple (54.5%) and giant (58.5%) opened between 6-7 hrs, while the maximum per cent of anthesis in yellow (70%) took place between 12-13 hrs. Pollen dehiscence and pollination in purple and giant mainly occurred between 7-8 hrs, while 13-14 hrs was the major period of pollen dehiscence and pollination in yellow. The earliest anthesis (5-6 hrs), anther dehiscence (6-7 hrs) and pollination (6-7 hrs) were recorded in P. foetida. The maximum stigma receptivity was recorded on the day of anthesis in all the passion fruits. Completely curved style was more common in all passion fruits that gave the maximum fruit set. The maximum number of bees observed between 7-8 hrs in purple and giant and between 13-14 hrs in yellow. The most common pollinating bee in purple, giant and yellow was Apis mellifera, while A. cerena was in P. foetida
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Flavonoids comprise the most common group of plant polyphenols and provide much of the flavor and color to fruits and vegetables. More than 5000 different flavonoids have been described. The six major subclasses of flavonoids include flavonols, flavonones, flavones, flavanols, flavan-3-ols and isoflavones according to the positions of the substitutes present on the parent molecule. Over 4,000 flavonoids have been identified, many of which occur in fruits, vegetables and beverages (tea, coffee, beer, wine and fruit drinks). The flavonoids have aroused considerable interest recently because of their potential beneficial effects on human health. They have been reported to have antiviral, antiallergic, antiplatelet, antiinflammatory, antitumor and antioxidant activities. Some studies support a protective effect of flavonoid consumption in cardiovascular disease and cancer.
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Anthocyanins are natural colorants which have raised a growing interest due to their extensive range of colours, innocuous and beneficial health effects. Despite the great potential of application that anthocyanins represent for food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, their use has been limited because of their relative instability and low extraction percentages. Currently, most investigations on anthocyanins are focused on solving these problems, as well as their purification and identification.In this paper, the most recent advances in the chemical investigation of the anthocyanins are summarised, emphasising the effects of pH, co-pigmentation, metal ion complexation and antioxidant activity on their stability.
In 2020 coronavirus (covid-19) has shocked the world. This virus attacks the immunity of a person's body and the spread of this virus is very fast. The weakening of the Chinese economy due to the co-19 epidemic certainly had a significant impact on the world, because China is a country that is very influential in the world economy. Many various countries were affected by co-19, including Indonesia. This co-19 outbreak is one of the causes of the decline in people's economic capacity. Many companies suffered losses due to the impact of the covid-19 outbreak, the impact experienced one of them in the field of creative industries, many industries had to close because they were affected by the covid-19. One example of industries that are affected by covid-19 is the batik industry typical of Sumenep. In addition to industry, the tourism sector was affected, many tourist sites were closed due to the co-19 impact which did not allow the public to gather in many crowds. The government has made several efforts to reduce the spread of this epidemic by implementing Large-Scale Social Restrictions or commonly called PSBB in almost all areas according to government regulations. The research method used in this study is to use a qualitative perspective method where this research was conducted with the aim of developing and improving Sumenep batik craftsmen during the covid-19 pandemic. The government has made several efforts to reduce the spread of this epidemic by implementing Large-Scale Social Restrictions or commonly called PSBB in almost all areas according to government regulations. The research method used in this study is to use a qualitative perspective method where this research was conducted with the aim of developing and improving Sumenep batik craftsmen during the covid-19 pandemic. The government has made several efforts to reduce the spread of this epidemic by implementing Large-Scale Social Restrictions or commonly called PSBB in almost all areas according to government regulations. The research method used in this study is to use a qualitative perspective method where this research was conducted with the aim of developing and improving Sumenep batik craftsmen during the covid-19 pandemic.
Passion fruit are grown mostly in tropical and sub-tropical part of the world . Passion fruit has a long and colorful history of popularity and extensive cultivation, starting in the late 19th century when it was introduced to Hawaii in 1880. It quickly became a "household word" and, at the turn of the 21st century, Hawaii is the country with the highest per-capita consumption of passion fruit juice in North America. Today, passion fruit is grown nearly everywhere in the tropical belt of South America to Australia, Asia and Africa and plantations are found in California (USA). South America is currently the largest producer of passion fruit world wide. Native to Brazil, it is immensely popular there; demand is so high that, despite their own passion fruit cultivation, they have to import additional supplies from other countries. Ecuador, having comparative advantage for the growth of passion fruit, is one of the largest producers in the world with a dominant share in the world export market. It is followed by Australia and New Zealand in export of the fruit to other countries. Kenya and South Africa also have a decent production of passion fruit and its area under cultivation is growing rapidly. India, too, has its place in passion fruit history. For several years, India has enjoyed a moderate harvest of purple passion fruit in the Nilgiris, Wynad, Kodaikanal, Shevroys, Coorg and Malabar in the south and in various parts of northern India, especially Himachal and North East states like Manipur, Nagaland Mizoram and Meghalaya. Passion fruit, a native of tropical America (Brazil), belonging to the family Passifloraceae is a high value and export oriented crop. Passion fruit stands out not only for its exotic and unique flavor and aroma but also for its amazing nutritional and medicinal properties. The name "passion fruit" is not derived from any aphrodisiac quality of the fruit but was named, reportedly, by Spanish Catholic missionaries who saw in the flower ,the symbolism of the Passion of Christ where "Passus" means "suffering" and "Flos" means "flower". Passion fruit should more correctly be referred to as the passion flower fruit, but the trade more commonly uses passion fruit. Passion fruit is known in Hawaii as lilikoi, golden passion fruit in Australia, maracuja peroba in Brazil, and yellow granadilla in South Africa. Passionfruit is a high value and potentially a foreign exchange earning crop. Of the estimated 500 species of Passiflora in the family Passifloraceae, only one P. edulis Sims, has the exclusive designation of passionfruit, preferably seen growing at an altitude of 800-1500 m above sea level. Within this species, there are two distinct forms, the standard yellow (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.) and the purple (Passiflora edulis f. edulis), differing in pH and starch content between the yellow (pH 2.8 and 0.06% starch) and the purple (pH 4.
The cyanogen of Passiflora edulis Sims is identified as prunasin [2(R)-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2-phenylacetonitrile] by 1H NMR. Quantitative assay of hydrogen cyanide in leaves and fruit at different stages of development shows potentially toxic levels to be present. Passion fruits contain the greatest amount of cyanide when immature, losing most of their cyanogenic capacity as they ripen. No significant difference was detected between edible and nonedible portions of fruit.