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In 2017, the German ethics commission for automated and connected driving released 20 ethical guidelines for autonomous vehicles. It is now up to the research and industrial sectors to enhance the development of autonomous vehicles based on such guidelines. In the current state of the art, we find studies on how ethical theories can be integrated. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no framework for motion planning has yet been published which allows for the true implementation of any practical ethical policies. This paper makes four contributions: Firstly, we briefly present the state of the art based on recent works concerning unavoidable accidents of autonomous vehicles (AVs) and identify further need for research. While most of the research focuses on decision strategies in moral dilemmas or crash optimization, we aim to develop an ethical trajectory planning for all situations on public roads. Secondly, we discuss several ethical theories and argue for the adoption of the theory “ethics of risk.” Thirdly, we propose a new framework for trajectory planning, with uncertainties and an assessment of risks. In this framework, we transform ethical specifications into mathematical equations and thus create the basis for the programming of an ethical trajectory. We present a risk cost function for trajectory planning that considers minimization of the overall risk, priority for the worst-off and equal treatment of people. Finally, we build a connection between the widely discussed trolley problem and our proposed framework.
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Autonomous Driving Ethics: fromTrolley Problem toEthics
MaximilianGeisslinger1 · FranziskaPoszler2 · JohannesBetz1 ·
ChristophLütge2· MarkusLienkamp1
Received: 10 July 2020 / Accepted: 25 March 2021
© The Author(s) 2021
In 2017, the German ethics commission for automated and connected driving
released 20 ethical guidelines for autonomous vehicles. It is now up to the research
and industrial sectors to enhance the development of autonomous vehicles based
on such guidelines. In the current state of the art, we find studies on how ethical
theories can be integrated. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no framework for
motion planning has yet been published which allows for the true implementation of
any practical ethical policies. This paper makes four contributions: Firstly, we briefly
present the state of the art based on recent works concerning unavoidable accidents
of autonomous vehicles (AVs) and identify further need for research. While most
of the research focuses on decision strategies in moral dilemmas or crash optimiza-
tion, we aim to develop an ethical trajectory planning for all situations on public
roads. Secondly, we discuss several ethical theories and argue for the adoption of
the theory “ethics of risk.” Thirdly, we propose a new framework for trajectory plan-
ning, with uncertainties and an assessment of risks. In this framework, we transform
ethical specifications into mathematical equations and thus create the basis for the
programming of an ethical trajectory. We present a risk cost function for trajectory
planning that considers minimization of the overall risk, priority for the worst-off
and equal treatment of people. Finally, we build a connection between the widely
discussed trolley problem and our proposed framework.
Keywords Autonomous driving· Trolley problem· Ethics of risk· Motion
planning· Unavoidable accidents· Moral dilemma
* Maximilian Geisslinger
1 Institute ofAutomotive Technology, Technical University ofMunich (TUM), Boltzmannstr. 15,
85748Garchingb.München, Germany
2 Institute forEthics inArtificial Intelligence, Technical University ofMunich (TUM),
Arcisstr. 21, 80333Munich, Germany
Published online: 12 April 2021
Philosophy & Technology (2021) 34:1033–1055
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1 Introduction
Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are expected to play a key role in future transporta-
tion systems. They will have a global impact that will change society and the
safety of roadways and transportation systems. For the final introduction of AVs
on public roads, the technological perspective is only one aspect. It is assumed
that AVs will have to make decisions which would be morally difficult for
humans, and to which industry and research have not yet provided solutions. Poli-
cymakers as well as car manufacturers currently focus on the inclusion of ethical
considerations into the software of AVs. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to
derive a mathematical formulation for the decision-making of AVs. This is a first
necessary step to bring ethical theories into the software of AVs one day.
While the public discourse mainly deals with thought experiments like the
trolley problem, solutions are actually needed to consider ethical principles in the
software of AVs. In the following, we want to take up the widely discussed trolley
problem and develop the public discourse towards the actual problems of AVs.
There are many different versions of the trolley problem, all aimed at a moral
dilemma (Foot, 1967; Thomson, 1985). A simple and widely used version is as
Imagine you are standing at a switch and a trolley is speeding towards five
people tied up on the rails. It is certain that these people will definitely die
if you do not intervene. There is the possibility to change the switch. On
the other rail, however, there is also a person tied up on the tracks who will
surely die if the trolley takes this path. You can either do nothing and five
people will die, or you can pull the switch and a single person will be killed.
What will you do?
The trolley problem represents a dilemma, which has mainly two dimensions
that create a moral conflict. The first dimension is about outweighing human
lives. The question here is, whether five lives are worth more than a single one.
The second dimension addresses the degree of intervention: Whether one lets
a person die (i.e., does not evade) or kills a person actively makes a big dif-
ference not only from a legal point of view. From a moral point of view, it is
increasingly difficult for people to actively decide in favor of saving more lives
the stronger the necessary intervention is (Greene, 2013; Rehman & Dzionek-
Kozłowska, 2018).
The main problem from the trolley dilemma that can be transferred to autono-
mous driving and that we would like to investigate in this paper is the outweigh-
ing of human lives. In contrast to a trolley, the trajectory planning of AVs does
not have any initial setting, but the algorithm actively computes all calculated
trajectories. Figure1 visualizes the trajectory planning of an AV. The blue area
represents the quantity of all possible trajectories. The question of outweighing
human lives becomes relevant for AVs, as algorithms are able to decide within
the fraction of a second, whereas human drivers become panicked and act on their
instinct (Nyholm & Smids, 2016).
1034 M. Geisslinger et al.
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However, the comparison of the trolley problem with real scenarios of autono-
mous driving reveals some shortcomings. Firstly, the consequences in the trolley
problem, namely the death of the victims, are postulated as certain events, which
cannot be assumed in real-life scenarios. Secondly, the dilemma offers only two
options, while the AV can draw on a continuous solution space for trajectories
(Fig.1). Thirdly, depending on the version of the trolley problem, there is a lack
of important prior information about how the situation occurred. This information
may be necessary to enable a morally well-founded decision to be made. Nyholm &
Smids, (2016) draw a comprehensive comparison between the trolley problem and
autonomous driving. According to our third point, they see a lack of information
regarding the question of whom we can justifiably hold morally and legally respon-
sible for the dilemma situation. Kauppinen, (2020) argues that when an accident
becomes inevitable, the degree of moral responsibility that people bear for creating
risky situations must be taken into account. Himmelreich, (2018) identifies further
issues around the trolley problem, and argues that solutions to trolley cases are likely
to be only of limited help in informing decisions in novel and uncertain situations.
Therefore, one objective of this work is to establish a connection between the public
discussion about moral dilemmas and relevant ethical problems around autonomous
driving, as well as to provide a possible solution approach to such problems.
The next section presents a selection of approaches facing the problem of una-
voidable accidents. We identify need for further research in deploying ethical behav-
ior in the trajectory planning of an AV. Section3 deals with this topic in detail and
compares different ethical theories. Based on this analysis, great potential in the area
of ethics of risk is recognized, and a risk-based framework is proposed in Section4.
2 Unavoidable Accidents andtheNeed forEthics
As already highlighted by the trolley dilemma, unavoidable accidents involving AVs
are one of the main research topics in autonomous driving ethics. Previous works
deal with different fields at very different degrees of abstraction: from theoretical
Fig. 1 Schematic visualization of the trajectory planning of an AV. Physically possible trajectories are
represented by the blue area within the boundaries of the road. The dotted lines are exemplary discrete
trajectories within the possible area
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considerations to implemented software. The literature largely agrees that AVs will
be involved in accidents (Goodall, 2014; Shalev-Shwartz et al., 2017). Goodall,
(2014) concludes that the decision of automated vehicles preceding certain crashes
will have a moral component. The Moral Machine experiment shows that there is
no easy way to encode complex human morals in software, as moral values strongly
differ by culture for example (Awad etal., 2018). In literature, there is so far no
known way of addressing unavoidable accidents that meets all ethical requirements.
Davnall, (2019) looks at the problem of fatal accidents independently of ethical con-
siderations, and argues from a vehicle dynamics perspective. Due to the dynamics
of braking and tire traction, it is always least risky for the car to brake in a straight
line rather than swerve in the case of the trolley dilemma. However, Lin, (2016)
argues against purely physical approaches, as they do not satisfy the need of an ethi-
cal decision. In addition, this physical approach has other limitations. The approach
no longer pays off if the obstacles in the dilemma are not equidistant from the ego
vehicle, so the shortest braking distance is not necessarily the best solution. There-
fore, ethical approaches known in literature, which tackle these kinds of moral prob-
lems, are presented in Section3. Kumfer and Burgess, (2015) examine a simple pro-
gramming thought experiment to demonstrate the AVs behavior in a moral dilemma
based on utilitarianism, respect for persons, and virtue ethics. They find that utilitar-
ian ethics reduces the total number of fatalities, but conclude that some drivers may
object to being potentially sacrificed to protect other drivers. Leben, (2017) presents
a way of developing Rawls’, (1971) Contractarian moral theory into an algorithm for
crash optimization. Accordingly, the AV calculates a chance of survival for every
individual. The action that is considered fair is the one every player would agree
not knowing his own position in this situation. He argues that according to this veil
of ignorance, every self-interested player will follow the Maximin criterion, which
results in maximizing the minimum payoffs. Keeling, (2018), however, shows the
weaknesses of this approach and therefore argues not to use this decision strategy
presented by Leben, (2017). He formulates three challenges based on scenarios
that an ethical AV has to overcome. We will address these challenges in the further
development of our framework in Section4.
In the literature, the focus is on finding decision metrics in crash situations. How-
ever, it is still unclear how these metrics can one day be used in real vehicles. We
propose a holistic framework for ethical trajectory planning in all kinds of driving
situations in Section4 and focus on the practical applicability of our approach. We
want to transfer knowledge from thought experiments with mostly binary outputs to
algorithms with real applications in public road traffic.
The deployment of ethical theories to the problem of unavoidable accidents
means to also consider whether we should implement a mandatory ethics setting
for the whole of society, or whether every driver should have the choice to select
his own personal ethics setting (Gogoll & Müller, 2017). Mandatory in the sense of
Gogoll & Müller, (2017) means that this particular ethics setting would not be self-
determined or adjustable by drivers but rather imposed by manufacturers that imple-
ment a universal industry standard for autonomous vehicles. Traditionally, moral
considerations are always mandatory, meaning that they impose a moral duty on an
agent to act in a certain way so that diverging personal ethical considerations cannot
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emerge in the first place. However, according to Gogoll & Müller, (2017), a disin-
tegration of personal and mandatory ethics settings can arise when assuming a situ-
ation that does not require one specific action but instead permits a plethora of dif-
ferent beliefs, moral stances, and hence actions. For example, when an autonomous
vehicle enters a dilemma situation “an old couple might decide that they have lived
a fulfilled life and thus are willing to sacrifice themselves” while “a family father
might decide […] that his car should never be allowed to sacrifice him” (Gogoll &
Müller, 2017, p. 688). This question of mandatory versus personal ethics settings
can be related to a social conflict between self-determination and protection. In the
literature, we find arguments for both approaches: Gogoll & Müller, (2017) use a
game theoretical thought experiment and argue that ethical settings should be man-
datory, as this would be in the best interest of society as a whole. Contissa etal.,
(2017) argue for the use of personal settings achieved by an “ethical knob.” Via this
knob, users can input their personal ethical setting on a scale between altruist and
egoist. The authors further suggest that an adjustment in the direction to the passen-
ger’s benefit should lead to a higher insurance premium, as the chances of accidents
will be increased (Contissa etal., 2017). Since the literature does not yet have a clear
answer here, it would be of great advantage if the framework leaves space for both
3 Practical Requirements andEthical Theories
The literature agrees that there is more research required in the area of ethics of una-
voidable accidents involving AVs. In order to implement ethical algorithms for deal-
ing with unavoidable accidents, which can be used in a real AV, some requirements
have to be satisfied. We would like to introduce these five requirements here: repre-
sentation of the reality, technical feasibility, universality, social acceptance, explain-
ability, and transparency. In the further course of the section, we want to review
existing approaches from different ethical theories for these requirements. We focus
on the implementations derived from theory in the software with special attention
to the problem of unavoidable accidents. Rather than looking at ethical theories as a
whole, we focus on implementations and algorithms from the literature that emerge
from different theories. In particular, we will deal with approaches originating from
deontology, utilitarianism, virtue ethics, and ethics of risk. Based on this analysis,
we will argue to develop our proposal based on ethics of risk in Section4 regarding
our motion planning framework.
One of the most important requirements is the representation of the reality within
a specific framework. The real world is characterized by complex correlations, while
ethical theories can only consider a simplification of these correlations. In the field
of autonomous vehicles, there are important circumstances in reality, which must
be represented by an ethical framework. For application in the vehicle, the technical
feasibility is also of great importance, i.e., the ability to transfer tenets from ethi-
cal theories into software. Ethical implications must be captured in software code,
which ultimately determines the behavior of AVs. The literature already contains
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suggestions for the implementation regarding various theories, which we will dis-
cuss briefly in this section.
To enable the widest possible use of ethical driving software in the future, univer-
sality is an essential requirement with the objective to enable general applicability.
As already described, it is not enough to give answers in critical situations. Since
it is often not even possible to predict exactly when a critical situation will occur
or which kind of situation applies, it is advantageous if the framework has general
The literature shows that trust is a major construct for the adoption of autono-
mous vehicles on road traffic one day (Choi & Ji, 2015). Therefore, social accept-
ance (i.e., society’s inclination towards a particular theory) represents a further
requirement. Moreover, to increase user’s trust in algorithmic decisions, explainabil-
ity and transparency play an important role (Kizilcec, 2016). This also ensures that
the parties affected by a decision are provided with sufficient information to exer-
cise their rights properly and may challenge the decision if necessary (Data Ethics
Comission, 2018).
3.1 Deontological Approaches
In general, deontological theories judge the morality of choices by criteria differ-
ent from the states of affairs the choice brings about (Alexander & Moore, 2020).
For example, such criteria may be the underlying intention for pursuing a particu-
lar action, or for its compatibility with a certain formal principle (Bartneck etal.,
2019). According to deontic ethics, ethically right actions should generally conform
to a moral norm. The philosopher Immanuel Kant is regarded as central to deonto-
logical moral theories, thanks to his introduction of the Categorical Imperative as a
fundamental principle for human’s moral duties: Act only according to that maxim
whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law (Kant,
1981). Similarly, contractualist deontological theorists seek principles, which indi-
viduals in a social contract would agree to (e.g., Rawls, 1971) or which none could
reasonably reject (e.g., Scanlon, 2003). Regarding the field of AVs, maxims such
as the Kant’s Categorical Imperative seem too broad and unspecific to be directly
adopted. Therefore, scholars have recently proposed rule-based ethical theories in
the form of a cluster (e.g., “forbidden, permissible, obligatory actions” (Powers,
2006)) or hierarchy of constraints that are tailored to the programming of machines
or AVs, to guide them towards desirable behavior in dilemma situations. An exam-
ple of such a hierarchy is the Three Laws of Robotics by Asimov that prioritizes
the non-maleficence (i.e. avoidance of injury or harm) of human beings by robots,
whereas the obedience of robots to humans and the robot’s own protection is only
subordinate (Asimov, 1950). Gerdes & Thornton, (2015) translated such a hierar-
chy to collision-situations in traffic. In general, such rule-based ethical theories may
represent promising application possibilities for machine/AV ethics, since they offer
a computational structure for judgment and thus, at least from a practical perspec-
tive, are achievable (Powers, 2006). However, it can be argued that such rule-based
approaches ignore context-specific information (Loh, 2017) such as the probability
1038 M. Geisslinger et al.
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of occurrence of current and future conditions. Hence, the AV may undertake dan-
gerous behaviors in order to adhere to its strict rules (Goodall, 2016). According to
this, the representation of reality is only possible to a limited extent. This may also
lead to a lower level of social acceptance of implementing rule-based approaches
since moral decisions and obligations are not absolute but dependent on context
(Karnouskos, 2020). Although rule-based approaches can be implemented very well
in software (technical feasibility), the number of rules needed that can conflict with
each other arbitrarily represents an enormous complexity. The universality of such
approaches is also poor since each so-called corner case must be covered by a rule in
advance. Only the explainability is given by the representation of rules with different
prioritization. Therefore, from a technical and functional perspective, implementing
a deontic approach in the systems of AVs seems to exhibit many complications.
3.2 Utilitarian Approaches
Utilitarianism is a prominent form of consequentialism, which was introduced by
philosopher Jeremy Bentham and promotes the maximization of human welfare
(Crimmins, 2019). The theory determines the ethical correctness of an act or norm
solely on the basis of its (foreseeable) consequences (Bartneck etal., 2019) by maxi-
mizing the expected overall utility. Such a theory may permit and advocate the sac-
rifice of one person in order to save a greater amount of people overall. Therefore,
such an ethical theory could be adopted to AVs by designing cost function algo-
rithms that calculate the expected costs (i.e., personal damages) for various possible
options, selecting the one that involves the lowest cost (Lin, 2016), e.g., the one that
minimizes the number of victims in car crashes (Johnsen etal., 2018). Therefore,
utilitarian approaches for AVs may enable an improved representation of reality as
many situational factors could be considered in its calculation. A cost function with
the goal of maximizing benefits can also be potentially used in numerous traffic situ-
ations, depending on the exact definition of the benefit being maximized. Therefore,
the objective of general applicability in terms of universality is given. Similar to
the deontological ethics, the programming of utilitarianism in AVs is appealing to
engineers due to machines’ inherent ability to maximize functions for the sake of
optimization (technical feasibility), which is ultimately the underlying logic of utili-
tarianism (Gogoll & Müller, 2017). However, calculating the benefits or burden of
all accident participants represents a great challenge from a technical point of view.
Compared to a deontological AVs that act according to fixed constraints, a utilitar-
ian vehicle that pursues unrestricted optimization may be less transparent (Hübner
& White, 2018) or at least less foreseeable before the underlying logic is inspected
to explain why a certain decision was made by the AV. Furthermore, when con-
fronted with trolley scenarios, laypersons generally express a tendency for utilitar-
ian solutions, which may promote the social acceptance of AVs that follow such
a logic (Bonnefon etal., 2016). However, the central question here is whether it is
right and permissible to actively inhibit the utility of an individual to achieve greater
utility for other individuals. Therefore, from an ethical and legal perspective imple-
menting a utilitarian approach in the system of AVs seems to exhibit many barriers.
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To approximate a compromisable approach, scholars advocate the combination of
deontological ethics (e.g., some sort of imperative to avoid collisions and personal
damage) and utilitarianism in the form of a relative weighing of costs and options
(Gerdes & Thornton, 2015).
3.3 Approaches fromVirtue Ethics
Virtue ethics go back as far as Plato and Aristotle, and tend to grasp morality as
a question of character, meaning that virtues are central to a well-lived life. Cor-
responding cardinal virtues for mankind are prudence, courage, temperance, and
justice (Bartneck et al., 2019). A cognitive machine should analogically exhibit
such virtues (Berberich & Diepold, 2018), in the “hope for automation to allow us
to care better and more readily” (Vallor, 2018). Therefore, the consideration of vir-
tues—and thus virtue ethics—is becoming more essential than ever before in the
digital age (Ess, 2015; Vallor, 2018). Such virtues or behavioral traits could relate to
the type of role a vehicle is assigned to (e.g., ambulance versus passenger vehicle).
This consideration of role morality may lend greater social acceptance of such AVs
(Thornton etal., 2017). Virtues within machines cannot be preprogrammed, yet are
due to the result of machine learning (Berberich & Diepold, 2018). Presently, the
actual operating systems of autonomous vehicles demonstrate different variants of
machine learning. For example, autonomous vehicles can be trained via reinforce-
ment, where wrong acts are punished and right acts are rewarded. The technical
feasibility is shown by a recent implementation of imitation learning for real-world
driving called ChaffeurNet (Bansal etal., 2018). In this process, ethics in the form
of a set of virtues can provide guidance as a pattern of the positive signals (Kulicki
etal., 2019). Ultimately, machines or autonomous vehicles themselves should (learn
to) recognize situations that require moral action, and decide to act accordingly.
Depending on the number of trainable parameters, even complex correlations from
reality can be represented, which would provide an adequate representation of real-
ity. To enable a good universality, it is important that the machine learning models
can generalize well. The problem with such models is that corner cases, which are
poorly represented by the training data, lead to unwanted decisions. However, the
most pressing challenge for a virtue-based autonomous vehicle is the explainability
of its underlying logic and thus the attribution of responsibility. Namely, it should be
made clear how the virtues of such cars have been formed through experience, and
how a given car has been led to its particular action (Berberich & Diepold, 2018). In
this regard, autonomous vehicles or driver assistance systems at present should and
cannot be regarded as moral agents, but rather weak actors of responsibility (Loh,
2017). Observing people will not teach an AV what is ethical, but what is common
(Etzioni & Etzioni, 2017). Therefore, truly applying virtue ethics to autonomous
vehicles seems impermissible until questions of explainability and responsibility can
be answered.
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3.4 On theBasis ofEthics ofRisk
Ethics of risk deal with the morally correct action in situations of risk. There are
three established decision theories of ethics of risk: the Bayes’ rule, the Maximin
principle, and the Precautionary principle. Firstly, the Bayes’ decision criterion
demands—when confronted with different options of action—the selection of the
particular action that yields the greatest expected utility. This expected utility is
composed of the probability of occurrence for different events and a real number/
rating for these consequences. Secondly, the Maximin principle can be described
as a strategy to avoid the greatest damage when in a situation where information on
the probability of occurrence for each consequence is not available. Accordingly, a
decision-maker would choose an alternative action that yields the least bad conse-
quence in the worst expected scenario. Thirdly, the Precautionary principle follows
the motto “better safe than sorry” and advocates encountering new innovations that
may prove disastrous with caution and risk aversion, by developing particular laws
to proactively prevent potential future damage (Nida-Rümelin etal., 2012). Since
these three decision theories are known, ethics of risk could generate more transpar-
ent (in the sense of more predictable) decisions that corresponding AV would make.
For example, the Maximin principle states clearly that (the traffic participant fac-
ing) the greatest damage will be avoided while, in comparison, the utilitarian prin-
ciple maximizes human welfare without giving particular information on what the
worst outcome should or would be. Furthermore, the use of ethics of risk enables
the consideration of probabilities and their associated consequences. Since all deci-
sions of an AV are subject to certain uncertainties, the best representation of reality
is achieved by this. This is also why AVs that follow an ethics of risk approach may
be more acceptable to society: in fact, respondents have demanded to include uncer-
tainties and risks about decision outcomes in future studies (Frison et al., 2016).
Another advantage is the given universality. The consideration of risk enables an
implementation independent of the situation. The applicability is therefore not lim-
ited to decision strategies in moral dilemmas or crash optimization. Compared to
other approaches that are based on machine learning, the use of ethics of risk as top-
down approach is explainable, and we have no black box behavior: In the case of an
accident, investigators could access the vehicle’s calculations and logic to determine
why the AV has behaved in a certain way.
However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, there is no technical approach
to implementing ethics of risk in trajectory planning. Theoretically, cumulative risk
of certain outcomes could be easily calculated and compared (Goodall, 2016), thus
reflecting its technical feasibility to be turned into a mathematical formula and sub-
sequently into code. For this reason, we will devote Section4 to such a technical
implementation. A further challenge that we will address in Section4 is the adapt-
ability to different cultures or individuals. As a top-down approach, the risk for a fair
distribution of risk would have to be answered anew for each case—for example, for
each culture.
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4 Proposed Framework
4.1 Motivation
Section3 prompts the use of a risk-aware framework for the motion and behav-
ior planning of AVs. With our framework, we build on the work of Bonnefon
etal., (2019), who transform the trolley problem into a statistical thought exper-
iment. We agree with the argument that AVs do not make decisions between the
outright sacrificing of the lives of some, in order to preserve those of others.
Instead, they decide implicitly about who is exposed to a greater risk of being
sacrificed. Figure2 illustrates this by means of an example: An AV drives pre-
cisely between a cyclist and a truck. The lateral position of the AV determines
the risk posed by it. Reducing the distance to the cyclist shifts the risk towards
the cyclist, as the consequences for the cyclist are assumed much greater in the
event of a collision with a car. On the other hand, a reduction of the distance to
the truck causes a shift of the risk towards the AV, under the assumption that due
to the different masses, the consequences of an accident are mainly noticeable
on the car. In general, it can be seen that minimizing the risk for the occupants
of AVs is at the expense of vulnerable road users, such as cyclists or pedestrians.
In 2014, Google described in a patent how an AV might position itself in a lane to
minimize its risk exposure, similar to the left-hand illustration of Fig.2 (Dolgov &
Urmson, 2014). According to a user study by Bonnefon etal., (2016), a majority of
the participants agree that utilitarian AVs were the most moral. Nevertheless, these
people also tend to have a personal preference towards riding in AVs that will protect
themselves at all costs. Accordingly, vehicle manufacturers may be incentivized—in
More risk on ego vehicleMore risk on cyclist
Fig. 2 The lateral distance of the AV in the middle influences the probability of a collision, and thus, the
risks to which road users are exposed. Illustration according to Bonnefon etal., (2019)
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line with the Google patent—to develop vehicles that always strive to minimize the
passenger’s risk, with possibly devastating consequences for vulnerable road users.
Mercedes Benz announced to program its self-driving cars to prioritize the safety
of people inside the car over pedestrians (Taylor, 2016). These developments at the
expense of vulnerable road users are alarming from an ethical perspective. Weighing
up human lives or even prioritizing them deprives human beings of their subjectiv-
ity. This is not compatible with the human dignity based on Kant. According to this
concept of human dignity, human beings are capable of autonomy. They set their
own goals and as such are ends in themselves. Therefore, they must not be used
solely as means. The German ethics commission follows this argumentation and
classifies the sacrifice of innocent people for the benefit of other potential victims,
as in a utilitarian approach, as inadmissible (Ethik-Kommission, 2017). However,
minimizing the number of victims does not constitute a violation of human dignity
according to the commission if it is a matter of a probability prognosis in which
the identity of the victims has not yet been established (Ethik-Kommission, 2017).
Lütge, (2017) underlines this in his analysis of the ethics commission’s report. The
second ethical rule of the report suggests the further need for risk assessment. It
describes that the registration of automated systems is only justifiable if these sys-
tems guarantee a reduction in damage, in the sense of a positive risk balance com-
pared to human driving performance. This prompts the development of a motion
planning framework with a fair assessment of risks.
The shifting of risks, although not intended, is not completely new to the auto-
motive industry. Studies found that bull bars attached to vehicles increase the risk
for vulnerable road users in road traffic (Desapriya etal., 2012). For this reason,
the European Union decided to prohibit bull bars on road vehicles (Bonnefon etal.,
2019). Developments to the detriment of vulnerable road users have therefore
already been prohibited in the past. However, regulating the decision-making pro-
cess in motion planning for AVs is much more complex than banning specific hard-
ware components.
4.2 Mathematical Formulation ofRisk
First, the aforementioned risk is to be formulated mathematically. In general,
risk is defined as the product of a probability of occurrence and an estimated
consequence (Rath, 2011). Thus, according to our case, we define the risk R
as the product of collision probability p and estimated harm H. Both, p and H
are functions of the trajectory u of the AV. This allows us to account for the
two-dimensionality of risk resulting from a probability and the corresponding
consequences. In contrast to Leben, (2017), who argues in favor of a probability
of survival, extreme cases of high probabilities for minor harm and very low
probabilities for major harm can thus be mapped separately. Therefore, unlike
Leben, (2017), our approach overcomes the first challenge in dilemmatic situa-
tions formulated by Keeling, (2018).
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Figure 3 shows a high-level overview of the proposed framework for motion
The collision probability is a result of uncertainties occurring during automated
These uncertainties mainly originate from the vehicle sensors, the perception sys-
tem, and the prediction algorithm. The uncertainties due to sensor technology are
mainly related to noise, range limitations, and occluded areas. Uncertainties in the
perception amount to the classification and localization of foreign road users, as well
as the own localization. As third part, uncertainties in the prediction regarding the
intention and exact trajectory of foreign road users contribute to overall uncertainty.
Previous research, such as by Hu, Zhan, and Tomizuka (2018), involved a proba-
bility-based prediction of external trajectories. Collision probabilities for trajectories
can be determined on such a basis. Another major uncertainty that must be taken
into account in a risk assessment is that caused by sensor occlusion (Nolte etal.,
2018). Objects that may not yet be visible to the AV may be involved in a future
collision. Thus, trajectories close to occluded areas have a slightly higher collision
probability. An assessment of uncertainties through not yet known objects may
finally reveal the need to adjust the AV’s velocity. Figure4 schematically visualizes
collision probabilities resulting from these uncertainties. The probabilities are visu-
alized as a heat map, where red corresponds to a high probability and green to a low
4.3 Harm Estimation
Harm has been an abstract quantity to date. One of the major challenges is the
quantification of harm. The objective of a risk assessment is to map the expected
accidental damage on a single scale to calculate according values for risk. From an
ethical perspective, it is unclear how different types of harm should be quantified
Prediction: Intentions,
Sensors: Noise, range
limitations and occlusions
Perception: Classification,
Collision Probabilities Harm estimation
Risk Quantification
Trajectory Planning
Uncertainties forMotion Planning
Fig. 3 High-level structure of the proposed framework for the trajectory planning of an AV
1044 M. Geisslinger et al.
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1 3
and weighed against each other. Especially when it comes to extreme accidents
with potentially fatal consequences, this presents us with enormous difficulties.
We cannot, for example, weigh up how a serious injury with lifelong disabilities
relates to a death. From a moral point of view, it is even more difficult to com-
pare property damage with personal injury. In research, we find approaches, for
example, from economics, which attribute a certain monetary value to a human
life (Murphy & Topel, 2006). However, this cannot be a basis for weighing up
material damage and personal injury in the sense of a decision metric. According
to the German Code of Ethics, this would constitute a violation of human dignity
in the German Basic Law. As an alternative, for example, lives are not valued in
monetary terms, but rather various measures are merely compared in terms of
their effectiveness in statistically extending the lifetime of the population (e.g., in
quality-adjusted life years) (Weinstein etal., 2009). This method is also contro-
versial, as young and healthy people with a higher life expectancy would be sys-
tematically preferred. According to the German Ethics Code, however, age must
not be a basis for decision-making (Ethik-Kommission, 2017).
These ethical considerations in relation to the quantification of harm
require precise knowledge of the consequences of accidents. Indeed, in prac-
tice, the severity of an accident can only be predicted to a certain degree of
accuracy. According to the current state of the art, it is not possible to dif-
ferentiate, for example, whether a road user dies in an accident or suffers
serious injuries. This makes the ethical problems of quantifying harm dis-
cussed at the beginning obsolete for our proposed motion planning frame-
work. Particularly from the point of view of an autonomous vehicle, only a
few factors are known to indicate the severity of an accident. For example,
it is unknown how many people are in a vehicle or where the people are
located inside the vehicle. Furthermore, vehicle-specific elements of pas-
sive safety such as airbags or seat belts are completely unknown. There are
only a few characteristics that are known and on which a modeling of the
accident damage must be based: The type of road user, such as a pedestrian
or a passenger vehicle and therefore a general measure of vulnerability and
an estimate of the mass; the differential speed of the accident participants at
Fig. 4 Visualization of two types of motion planning uncertainties. On the left, the prediction of the
vehicle’s trajectory is based on a probabilistic distribution. On the right, an occluded area (red) causes a
probability of an object appearing around it in the next time steps, from the AV’s point of view
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1 3
which a collision could occur; and an impact angle under which a collision
could occur.
The severity of injury increases in proportion to the kinetic energy. Relevant stud-
ies show that the kinetic energy seems to be a good measure for the harm (Sobhani
etal., 2011): The higher the kinetic energy exerted on a road user in an accident, the
higher is the severity of injuries in general. Similarly, the probability of death in an
accident increases with higher velocities and thus higher kinetic energies (Rosén &
Sander, 2009). Given the AVs’ vehicle mass and the differential speed, the kinetic
energy that will be impacted on a third-party road user can be calculated. Depending
on the angle of impact, the kinetic energy actually acting on road users and the AV
can be adjusted as part of a physical model. The exact modeling of harm can be done
analogous to the so-called Injury Severity Score proposed by Sobhani etal. (2011).
It should be noted that the calculation of the harms must be done at runtime, and
therefore, the calculation time must be limited. Normalization can be achieved by
means of an upper limit value, above which the severity of an accident is assumed as
being maximum and thus cannot increase. Summarizing, we will not determine esti-
mated harm by the rather subjective measure of quality of life but by quantifying the
severity of injuries based on a few more objective factors such as the kinetic energy.
4.4 Risk Distribution
We can calculate a quantified risk
for an automated ego vehicle according
to Eq.(2). The subscriptions of p and H indicate a collision between two objects.
While the two objects would be permutable in case of collision probability, the harm
refers to the first index of harm H.
We distinguish between static obstacles (stat. obst.) and dynamic obstacles (dyn.
obst.), in order to later consider only dynamic obstacles for the sake of simplifica-
tion. With the focus on risk distribution between human road users, it seems to be a
good assumption to focus only on dynamic objects. Furthermore, the uncertainties
regarding static objects are significantly lower compared to dynamic objects. From
the perspective of our ego vehicle, the risk for a third-party road user is presented in
Eq.(3). It consists of one part, which the ego vehicle has influence on and one part
, which is independent of the ego vehicle’s trajectory.
All the appearing risks, including the ego vehicle and all relevant third-party road
users, are defined to be part of the set
. The corresponding harms
are assigned
analogously in the set
ego =
pego, stat.obst. Hego, stat.obst. +
pego, dyn.obst. H
ego, dyn.obst.
1046 M. Geisslinger et al.
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The essential question now is how the calculated risks of road users can be dis-
tributed fairly in an ethical sense. The trajectory of the ego vehicle must then be
selected accordingly. In literature, different principles for dividing risk are well-
known and investigated, that can serve here as a model (Nida-Rümelin etal., 2012):
The Bayesian principle demands that the overall social benefit is maximized and
corresponds to a utilitarian demand. According to this principle, the risk assessed
to one person can be outweighed by the benefit done to another. This means choos-
ing a trajectory that minimizes the total risk of all road users according to Eq.(5).
denotes the resulting costs to be minimized for a given trajectory
However, only the overall risk is minimized here, which does not yet provide any
information on the relation of the risks. Accordingly, the Bayesian principle does
not take fairness into account. For reasons of fairness, the following Eq.(6) could
be added to this cost function. This principle demands equality in the distribution of
risk by minimizing the differences in the risks taken into account. We call this the
Equality principle.
Although minimizing the differences in risks taken seems to increase fairness,
this principle has some weaknesses. Regardless of the outcome, the preferred option
is one in which road users are treated as equally as possible. For example, it prefers
a trajectory where two people are certain to die over a trajectory where one will die
and one will survive unharmed. The example becomes even more apparent if in the
second case one of the two road users receives a harm H of 0.01 with a probability
of 0.01, so that no one will die in this case. As Fig.5 shows with this example, even
then the Equality principle would still prefer the two certain deaths.
B(u)=Rtotal (u)=
Fig. 5 There are two options for the AV: In a, two people will certainly die, while in option b, one person
will receive a harm of 0.01 with a probability of 1% and the other person will certainly be unharmed.
The Equality principle would choose option a here
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The Maximin principle requires that the option for action is chosen where the
greatest possible damage is least, which is achieved by minimizing Eq.(7). For the
worst of all possible cases, the best of all possible results should be achieved. In con-
trast to the Bayesian principle, the relation of risks is implicitly taken into account
The disadvantages of this principle are entirely highlighted by Keeling, (2018)
in three exemplary thought experiments. Especially the second challenge shows
that the Maximin principle gives undue weight to the moral claims of the worst-off
(Keeling, 2018). Accordingly, only the greatest possible harm is considered regard-
less of its probability of occurrence. If there is a much higher probability that a
slightly lower harm will occur, it does not influence the choice. The fact that only
the harm of one person is taken into account also means that all other road users
are not considered. Figure6 shows an example that demonstrates the problem of the
Maximin principle. In case A, one person will receive a harm of 1 with a probability
of 1%, a group of n people will be unharmed for sure. In option B, one person and
the group of n people will both certainly receive a harm of 0.99. No matter how
large the quantity n is, which would certainly suffer high amount of harm, the Maxi-
min principle would in any case prefer option B. Furthermore, it is not considered
how likely or unlikely the largest possible harm of 1 will occur.
All three principles presented in this paper thus have systematic shortcomings.
However, we also realize that these three principles should be considered and taken
into account in the choice of the trajectory. A combination of different moral princi-
ples is also proposed by Persad etal., (2009) in the field of allocation principles in
terms of organ donation. Like the authors, we find here that a single principle cannot
meet all the requirements for ethical risk assessment.
Therefore, we propose a cost function
considering all three principles
in Eq.(8).
represents a weighting factor for the three terms being added. These
weights can therefore be used to adjust how strongly each principle should be
represented. From a perspective of risk assessment, we choose the trajectory that
Fig. 6 There are two options for the AV: In a, one person will receive a harm of 1 with a probability of
1% and a group of n people will be unharmed for sure. In option b, one person and the group of n people
will both certainly receive a harm of 0.99. The Maximin principle would choose option B here
1048 M. Geisslinger et al.
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minimizes Eq.(8). The weights of the cost function provide an opportunity to com-
pare different ethical settings as discussed in Section2. Future work will focus on
evaluating mandatory (in the sense of universal and imposed) ethics settings next
to personal ethics settings with the ultimate aim of converging the two, meaning to
reach consensus on required actions, functioning, and decisions of AVs in traffic sce-
narios. For personal ethics settings, weights can be derived from empirical studies
that reflect the ethical intuitions of users. Combining these insights with considera-
tions of fundamental principles and rules from the disciplines of law and ethics such
as human dignity can serve as a starting point to move closer to a mandatory eth-
ics setting for AVs (in the traditional sense, meaning the only allowed and required
action). At this point, it should be noted that trajectory planning also has to consider
other aspects in the form of an optimization problem, such as minimizing accelera-
tion and jerk. Accordingly, the weighting of these factors must also be included. The
question of the weighting factors within the proposed risk function can therefore not
be answered separately. However, with the appropriate choice of weighting factors,
all the challenges proposed by Keeling can be successfully overcome.
In addition to the three distribution principles, we also want to consider the time
factor in the risk distribution function. The general approach is that imminent risk
should be prioritized more than risk appearing further in the future. With increas-
ing time horizon of a planned trajectory, the space for action increases (see Fig.1)
as well as the uncertainties. For example, the autonomous vehicle can usually avoid
a risk that appears in 5s by swerving or braking, whereas a risk appearing in 0.5s
represents a greater hazard. So we introduce a discount factor
, which reduces
the risk with increasing time step
When individual risks are compared, as in this case, the problem of information
asymmetry arises. As an ego vehicle, the calculated risk contains potential collisions
with all possible road users. However, the risk of third parties can only be calculated
based on the collision with the ego vehicle. Hence, from the point of view of the ego
vehicle, there are parts of third-party risks, namely the collisions with other third-
party road users, we cannot quantify. We already described these parts with
Since the own risk is better quantifiable, it is correspondingly higher. This informa-
tion asymmetry can be counteracted by normalizing the own risk with the number of
potential collisions considered. However, dealing with this problem of information
asymmetry that arises when transferring thought experiments to real applications
will be part of future research.
4.5 Discussion
In our proposed motion planning framework with risk assessment, we create the pos-
sibility to combine the advantages of three risk distribution principles. Analogous to
the distribution of scarce medical interventions proposed by Persad etal., (2009), we
achieve priority for the worst-off, maximization of benefits, and equal treatment of
people. Moreover, our approach does not only focus exclusively on decision-making
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in unavoidable accidents, but can be applied in any driving situation. This brings us
significantly closer to an actual application in real vehicles, which is demanded by
society and politics. Nevertheless, implicit answers are given also for situations of
unavoidable accidents or dilemma situations.
In Section2, we demanded that our motion planning framework should be able
to represent both personal ethics settings and mandatory ethics settings. By defin-
ing weights in our risk cost function, we offer the possibility to represent both
approaches. The representation of the knowledge learned in these three weight val-
ues limits the possible complexity of the model. On the other hand, the transparency
and explainability of moral decisions are guaranteed by this. While the proposed
model consists of sophisticated functions, a high-level explanation can be given, by
which principle (Bayes, Equality or Maximin) the decision was dominated. Our pro-
posed framework can thus be seen as a hybrid option of top-down and bottom-up
approaches aiming to combine the advantages of both.
The topic of attributing responsibility to artificial agents is very important (Loh,
2019; Misselhorn, 2018). In Section 1, we showed that the moral responsibility
must be taken into account in the case of unavoidable accidents (Kauppinen, 2020).
A pedestrian who, contrary to the law, crosses the road when the pedestrian traf-
fic lights are red brings risks into a traffic situation. Thus, it is reasonable that he/
she must be assigned more risk. In point nine, the guidelines of the German ethics
commission also distinguish between those involved in generating risks to mobility
and those not involved (Ethik-Kommission, 2017). While we present a method for
distributing risk among road users, the question of responsibility is not considered
in our framework. In the future, to consider individual responsibility, a method must
be found to quantify the level of risk for which a particular road user is respon-
sible. Hence, responsibility cannot be related to individual road users to this date,
but could be considered in terms of the road user type. Pedestrians in general, due
to their lower mass and velocities, bring less risk into road traffic than motorized
vehicles. On this basis, a representation of responsibility in this framework could
be implemented by introducing a discount factor for vulnerable road users similar to
the discount factor
in the previous section.
4.6 Back totheTrolley Problem
In Section1, we argued that the trolley problem does not reflect the ethical chal-
lenges of autonomous driving. However, some researchers claim that an answer to
how the self-driving car would behave in that case must be given. Minx & Dietrich,
(2015) state that AVs will only become established if it is possible to provide them a
kind of decision ethics in dilemma situations. For this reason, we use our proposed
framework and apply it to the trolley problem. Therefore, we calculate the risks for a
limited number of two trajectories. As in autonomous driving, there is no initial set-
ting, such as a preset switch: We have to omit this dimension of the trolley problem.
Furthermore, as described in the dilemma, in the event of a collision, the AV does
not take any consequences in terms of harm. The postulated death of a human is
described by a harm of 1. The trolley dilemma leaves two options, which are killing
1050 M. Geisslinger et al.
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a single human or killing five humans, as shown in Fig.7. As a collision is also
postulated as a certain event for both possible trajectories, the probabilities are set
to 1. Risks for the ego AV and all humans as third-party road users are calculated
according to Eqs. (2) and (3). The application of the Bayesian principle provides a
total risk of 1 for all road users in the case of killing a single person; while in the
case of five people being killed, the total risk is 5. As we see, applying the Bayesian
principle to the trolley problem yields to a utilitarian procedure. While the Bayes-
ian principle gives a straight answer to the trolley problem, the Equality principle
does not. Applying Eq.(6) to the given scenario leads to the same cost value of five
for both options. So both options are to consider equal in the sense of the Equal-
ity principle. Similarly, the Maximin principle does not provide a clear indication
of how the autonomous vehicle should behave in this situation. The maximum risk
in both cases is equal to 1. Thus, the Maximin principle does not provide a basis
for a decision on the trolley problem, since the maximum risk is the same in both
cases, and minimization, therefore, does not lead to a unique solution. Implemented
in software, only a random generator could bring about a decision in this case. The
proposed weighted combination of all three principles can be applied to the trolley
problem without the definition of weight factors. Two cases must be distinguished:
If the weighting factor for the Bayesian principle is equal to zero, no unique solution
can be found, since only the unclear solutions of Maximin and Equality are summed
up. However, as soon as this weighting factor takes on a value greater than zero, the
decision is then to kill only one person. So, the decision in the case of the trolley
problem is in line with human intuition using our proposed framework with
Fig. 7 Our proposed framework applied to the commonly known trolley problem. Bayesian principle
provides a decision to kill only one person instead of five because the total risk is lowest. The Equality
and Maximin principles do not yield a decision criterion in this case. Our proposed combination of these
free principles favors killing only one person in case of a weighting factor for the Bayesian principle
greater than zero
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While in the case of the trolley problem, only the Bayesian risk term allows for
an unambiguous decision, thought experiments are also conceivable in which the
Maximin and Equality principles provide guidance. As an example, we modify the
trolley problem slightly and postulate in the case of a collision with the 5 people
that they all will not die (H = 1) but only suffer injuries corresponding to a rela-
tive harm value of 0.2. The rest of the trolley problem remains unchanged. Now,
the Bayesian principle results in a cost value of 1 for both cases. Consequently, no
decision can be made using the Bayesian principle in this slightly different case.
Maximin and Equality principles both advocate a collision with the five persons
JM=0.2, JE=1
), as both costs are relatively lower than for the collision with a
single human (
JM=1, JE=5
). According to this, there are further examples con-
ceivable in which the different distribution principles have different significance.
Although applying the proposed framework to the trolley problem means many
simplifications, it is still possible to provide an answer to the widely discussed
dilemma. However, as already mentioned, the trolley problem reveals some signifi-
cant shortcomings and the challenges in the distribution of risk only become appar-
ent in real traffic scenarios. Nevertheless, both cases emphasize that a single distri-
bution principle is not sufficient to meet the demands of risk distribution from an
ethical perspective and a combination of various principles is required.
5 Conclusions andFuture Work
In order to bring AVs to the mass market one day, a variety of ethical problems still
need to be clarified. The behavior of an AV insituations of unavoidable accidents
raises ethical problems that need to be solved. Established ethical theories, such as
deontology, utilitarianism, or virtue ethics, are discussed in this paper based on their
applicability for deployment in AVs. We conclude that none of these theories alone
provides satisfactory answers. In Germany, an ethics commission provides basic
guidelines for the ethics of AVs. The development of AVs must consequently incor-
porate these guidelines. Especially against the background of these guidelines, we
have argued to make use of ethics of risk. We define risk as the product of colli-
sion probability and estimated harm. Quantifying these variables enables risks to
be taken into account in trajectory planning. The mathematical formulation of a risk
cost function in trajectory planning establishes the basis for incorporating ethical
considerations from ethics of risk into the software of an AV. We find that there is
no ethical principle in ethics of risk that meets all the requirements of an ethical risk
assessment alone. Therefore, we propose a combination of the Bayesian, Equality,
and Maximin principles. This assessment method is able to overcome the challenges
formulated by Keeling, (2018), although the weighting of the individual principles
will be subject to future research. Furthermore, future work will address the ques-
tion of how responsibility can be taken into account in a risk distribution. With our
proposed framework, we form the basis for implementing ethical motion planning in
real vehicles and at the same time provide an answer to the widely discussed trolley
problem. However, the question of what constitutes a fair distribution of risk in road
1052 M. Geisslinger et al.
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1 3
traffic cannot be answered here sufficiently. Therefore, this should be at the center
of future research in order to move ahead in the endeavor of creating an ethical AV.
Author Contribution Maximilian Geisslingeras the first author initiated the idea of this paper and con-
tributed essentially to its conception and content. Franziska Poszler contributed to the conception and
content of this paper. Johannes Betz and Christoph Lütge contributed to the conception of the research
project and revised the paper critically. Markus Lienkamp made an essential contribution to the concep-
tion of the research project. He revised the paper critically for important intellectual content. He gave
final approval of the version to be published and agrees to all aspects of the work. As a guarantor, he
accepts the responsibility for the overall integrity of the paper.
Funding Open Access funding enabled and organized by Projekt DEAL. The authors received financial
support from the Technical University of Munich—Institute for Ethics in Artificial Intelligence (IEAI).
Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the
authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the IEAI or its partners.
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License,
which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as
you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Com-
mons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article
are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the
material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is
not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission
directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http:// creat iveco mmons. org/ licen
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... The harm score is particularly interesting when considering vulnerable groups, as a collision with unprotected road users significantly impacts harm more than protected road users. The functionality of the harm function can be taken from [40], [47]. ...
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... Importantly, leveraging on multiple alternatives and a probabilistic risk formulation, the three-option format can become a valid experimental tool to investigate attitudes towards AVs other than the classic life and death edge cases employed in the trolley problem (Goodall, 2016). It will allow to consider additional layers of information, potentially more applicable with the AV's ethics of risk (Contissa et al., 2017;Geisslinger et al., 2021;Gogoll & Müller, 2017). ...
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Questions of what a self-driving car ought to do if it encounters a situation analogous to the ‘trolley problem’ have dominated recent discussion of the ethics of self-driving cars. This paper argues that this interest is misplaced. If a trolley-style dilemma situation actually occurs, given the limits on what information will be available to the car, the dynamics of braking and tyre traction determine that, irrespective of outcome, it is always least risky for the car to brake in a straight line rather than swerve.
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Everyone agrees that autonomous cars ought to save lives. Even if the cars do not live up to the most optimistic estimates of eliminating 90% of traffic fatalities [1] , eliminating at least some traffic fatalities is one of the key promises of automated driving. Indeed, the first two principles of the German Ethics Code for Automated and Connected Vehicles lead with this goal as a normative imperative [2] . The primary purpose of partly and fully automated transport systems is to improve safety for all road users. The licensing of automated systems is not justifiable unless it promises to produce at least a diminution in harm compared with human driving [ $\ldots $ ] . </disp-quote
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Recent studies by cognitive scientists demonstrate that people's choices are more complex than the image provided by rational choice theory, and consistency of choice is not a characteristic to be expected in real-life situations. This exploratory paper attempts to isolate three variables in relation to decision making. Working with a sample (N=70) of university students in the U.S, and using the three variants of the Trolley Problem, the subjects' responses are used to identify the similarities and differences based on the three dimensions. The participants were asked to respond to three hypothetical situations regarding a runaway trolley. Their decision in the first scenario could save a person's life or let him be run over by the trolley. In the second scenario, their decision could either let one person die and save five lives or save one life and let five people be killed. These two scenarios require pulling a lever to switch the trolley from one track to another. The third scenario requires pushing an obese person in front of the runaway trolley to stop it from killing five persons. The paper presents the findings on the three variables: gender, age, and relational status.
The moral importance of liability to harm has so far been ignored in the lively debate about what self‐driving vehicles should be programmed to do when an accident is inevitable. But as discussions in the context of self‐defense have highlighted, liability matters a great deal to just distribution of risk of harm. While it is sometimes morally required simply to minimize the risk of relevant harms, this is not so when one party is responsible for creating the risky situation, which is common in real‐world traffic scenarios. In particular, insofar as possible, those who have voluntarily engaged in activity that foreseeably poses the risk of harm should be the ones who bear it, other things being equal. This should not be controversial when someone intentionally or recklessly creates a risky situation. But I argue that on plausible assumptions, merely choosing to use a self‐driving vehicle typically gives rise to a degree of liability, so that such vehicles should be programmed to shift the larger share of the risk from innocent outsiders to users by default. Insofar as automated vehicles cannot be programmed to take all the factors affecting liability into account, there is a pro tanto moral reason to restrict their use.