Conference Paper

Active safety systems for motorcycles: where are we? A novel transnational comparison of applicability in the Australian, American and Italian fleets

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The aim of the study is to compare the applicability of PTW (Powered Two-Wheeled) active safety systems in the US, Australia and Italy, using police-reported accident data in each region. The goal is to understand which active systems could have the greatest likelihood of reducing PTW crashes in each country.

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... The applicability analysis using crash data from a study of non-fatal injury crashes on urban and non-urban roads in Victoria, Australia, indicated that MCA could be applicable in 14% of cases in the sample. This proportion is in line with those indicated in previous studies for Victoria (Australia), and higher when compared to other countries around the world like USA and Italy, mainly due to different traffic environments and PTW usage (Terranova et al. 2020). ...
Objective Safely negotiating curves with a powered-two-wheeler (PTW) requires a high level of skill, and a significant proportion of PTW crashes have a curve involvement. This study aimed to estimate the applicability, potential benefits and feasibility of novel Motorcycle Curve Assist (MCA). The system is designed to operate an emergency control of the speed of a motorcycle approaching a bend at an inappropriate speed. Methods First, the MCA system intervention was defined. Second, the applicability of the system and an estimate of its potential benefits was performed based on a PTW crash database. Motorcyclists’ injury risk estimates, MCA working parameters and timing of intervention were employed to estimate the potential injury reduction of applicable crash types. Third, a field test campaign involving 29 common riders as participants was conducted to investigate the real-world applicability and acceptability among end-users of the system deployment in one relevant riding condition adopting a range of parameters of intervention. Results In the crash database, 23% of cases had curve involvement and after detailed analysis, 14% resulted to be suitable for MCA (60% of cases with curve involvement). The potential relative injury risk reduction considering only the benefits due to crash speed reduction ranged from 3–9% for MAIS2+ to 9–27% for MAIS3+ injuries. Field tests were performed in corners approached at an average speed of 28.7 km/h and an average lean angle of 20°. The system provided a mean deceleration of 0.33 g reached with a fade-in jerk of 1.73 g/s, for an average total duration of 0.59 s. For the field test component, participants reported good controllability of the system, with no incipient loss of control recorded nor reported by participants. Conclusions The proposed approach for MCA implementation showed considerable potential benefits in terms of injury reduction. The intervention with the defined working parameters was considered feasible by a sample of end-users. When integrated with an intervention logic capable of predicting emergency situations while approaching curves, MCA will be a technology capable of assisting PTW riders in conditions where other available active safety systems do not.
... In order to prevent and mitigate the negative outcome of crashes involving PTWs, researchers worked in recent years to introduce on PTWs some of the IOP Publishing doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/1214/1/012047 2 Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) already available on four-wheeled vehicles. Among the rider assistance systems derived from ADAS, the Motorcycle Autonomous Emergency Braking (MAEB), a technology which autonomously deploys a braking action in pre-crash condition to reduce PTW speed or even prevent crashes, has been indicated as one of the most promising technologies for improving PTW users' safety [3]. In the past, some studies assessed the effectiveness of such a system [4] and its applicability in real-world conditions, mainly with expert riders [5,6] and straight-line riding conditions [7]. ...
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Among the rider assistance systems for powered-two-wheelers (PTWs) that are currently in the developing stage, autonomous emergency braking (identified by the acronym MAEB - Motorcycle Autonomous Emergency Braking) was shown to be promising to significantly improve the safety of such vehicles. This system, which is already available on passenger cars and trucks (known as AEB), reduces the vehicle speed in the event of a forthcoming collision. The lack of implementation of AEB on standard motorcycles is due to the characteristic capsize instability of PTWs and their complex dynamics, which is, strongly influenced by the motion of the rider. In a recent field-test campaign within the EU funded project “PIONEERS”, tests were conducted with common riders as participants to evaluate the intervention of MAEB in urban riding scenarios. A combined analysis of the data recorded from the vehicle, data related to the movement of the rider’s body measured through an inertial measurement unit and videos recorded during the test, allowed characterizing the different behaviours of the rider’s body in response to the activation of the automatic braking system in straight riding conditions. The results showed that body movement can be used as an indicator of the riders’ ability to control the vehicle under automatic braking conditions. In addition, in tests conducted with 0.5 g automatic decelerations, riders showed to be able to recover to natural riding position within the timeframe of the automatic braking activation event. This study defined an innovative method for evaluating the response of motorcyclists to the braking intervention and provides insights into the applicability of MAEB on standard vehicles.
... Based on the results of previous studies Terranova et al. 2020) a set of crash configurations were identified (using DCA codes). MAEB was recently tested in lateral maneuvers including lane-change reproducing a swerve before a crash , and identified as "possibly applicable." ...
Objective Recent field-tests on Motorcycle Autonomous Emergency Braking system (MAEB) showed that higher levels of deceleration to improve its effectiveness were feasible. However, the potential of MAEB in mitigating rider injuries is not well understood, particularly in scenarios where the efficacy of standard MAEB is limited because the rider is manually braking. The purpose of this study was first, to assess the injury mitigation potential of MAEB and second, to test MAEB as an enhanced braking system applied in circumstances where the rider is braking before a crash. Methods Data from previously investigated motorcycle injury crashes that occurred on public roads in Victoria, Australia were reconstructed using a 2D model. The intervention of MAEB was applied in the simulations to test both MAEB standard and MAEB working as enhanced braking system. The effects of MAEB in mitigating crashes were separated by crash configuration and evaluated based on the modeled reductions in impact speed and injury risk, employing injury risk functions available in the literature. Results After modeling was applied, MAEB was found to be applicable in 30 cases (91% of those in which was estimated as “possibly applicable”). The modeled Impact Speed Reduction (ISR) among the 30 cases averaged 5.0 km/h. In the cases without manual braking, the mean ISR due to standard MAEB was 7.1 km/h, whereas the relative injury risk reduction ranged from 10% for MAIS2+ to 22% for fatal injuries. In the 14 cases with manual braking, the modeled application of MAEB as enhanced braking led to an average ISR ranging from 5.3 km/h to 7.3 km/h. This resulted in an injury risk reduction ranging from 9% to 12% for MAIS2+ and from 16% to 21% for fatal injuries, depending on the different modes of MAEB. Conclusions This study modeled the potential benefits of the highest levels of intervention for MAEB field-tested to date. The findings estimate the degree to which MAEB could mitigate motorcycle crashes and reduce injury risks for motorcyclists. New strategies for MAEB intervention as enhanced braking were modeled through crash simulations, and suggest improvements in the benefits of MAEB when riders are braking before the crash. This highlighted the requirement to perform new field-based tests to assess the feasibility of MAEB deployed as enhanced braking system.
Objective: Motorcycle riders are involved in significantly more crashes per kilometer driven than passenger car drivers. Nonetheless, the development and implementation of motorcycle safety systems lags far behind that of passenger cars. This research addresses the identification of the most effective motorcycle safety solutions in the context of different countries. Methods: A Knowledge-Based system of Motorcycle Safety (KBMS) was developed to assess the potential for various safety solutions to mitigate or avoid motorcycle crashes. First, a set of 26 common crash scenarios was identified from the analysis of multiple crash databases. Second, the relative effectiveness of 10 safety solutions was assessed for the 26 crash scenarios by a panel of experts. Third, relevant information about crashes was used to weigh the importance of each crash scenario in the region studied. The KBMS method was applied with an Italian database, totalizing more than one million motorcycle crashes in the period 2000-2012. Results: When applied to the Italian context, the KBMS suggested that automatic systems designed to compensate for riders' or drivers' errors of commission or omission are the potentially most effective safety solution. The KBMS method showed an effective way to compare the potential of various safety solutions, through a scored list with the expected effectiveness of each safety solution for the region to which the crash data belong. A comparison of our results with a previous study that attempted a systematic prioritization of safety systems for motorcycles (PISa project) showed an encouraging agreement. Conclusions: Current results revealed that automatic systems have the greatest potential to improve motorcycle safety. Accumulating and encoding expertise in crash analysis from a range of disciplines into a scalable and re-usable analytical tool, as proposed with the use of KBMS, has the potential to guide research and development of effective safety systems. As the expert assessment of the crash scenarios is decoupled from the regional crash database, the expert assessment may be re-utilized, thereby allowing rapid re-analysis when new crash data becomes available. In addition, the KBMS methodology has potential application to injury forecasting, driver/rider training strategies, and redesign of existing road infrastructure.