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Mindfulness and Online Music for Channeling Stress in Primary School Students During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Spain

Authors:
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125
Международный отдел International Division
GEMMA RUIZ VARELA , FIDEL RODRÍGUEZ LEGENDRE
Universidad Francisco de Vitoria, Madrid, Spain
ORCID: 0000-0002-9957-8050, g.ruiz@ufv.es
ORCID: 0000-0002-8329-3712, f.rodriguez.prof@ufv.es
ISSN 1997-0854 (Print), 2587-6341 (Online) DOI: 10.33779/2587-6341.2021.1.125-136
UDK 378.1+78.01
Mindfulness and Online Music for Channeling Stress
in Primary School Students During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Spain
On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization declared an international pandemic state of
emergency, in the face of the public health crisis caused by COVID-19. Since that day, Spaniards
have faced the situation of connement in their homes, while sanitary containment measures have
restricted mobility, reducing economic and social activity, in addition to paralyzing productive
work in numerous sectors.
In these circumstances the scope of which cannot be predicted in all its consequences and
dimensions as of now, one of the most aected social sectors has been the population of children,
adolescents and young people. At this point, this sector has been aected in its educational work,
as well as in leisure time activities, having been deprived of the social interactions necessary for
the process of socialization and formation of personality.
Based on the aforementioned situation, when an important record was detected on the levels
of stress, anxiety and behavioral problems, it was seen t to implement Mindfulness and Music
Education sessions online, with the main objective of channeling the problems of behavior, stress
and anxiety generated by connement through an online methodology. The dynamics was studied
with primary school students in Madrid. In order to evaluate the impact of this interventional action,
a quasi-experimental design was structured from the methodological point of view, establishing the
application of Mindfulness and Online Music Education sessions as an independent variable, and
changes as a dependent variable, behavior, stress and anxiety. Next, an incidental non-probabilistic
sampling was established, with a total of 130 participants (77% girls and 23% boys), with the mean
age of the children of 9.407 (DT = 2.393), 100% of whom were Primary Education students.
The following social networks were used as tools for communication and socio-digital
interaction: WhatsApp, Zoom and Instagram, in order to implement the exercises used in the
MindfulnessBased Stress Reduction (MBSR) program by Kabat-Zinn (1979) of the activities
of the Musical Education area corresponding to Primary Education, while for data collection an
adaptation of the questionnaire “Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire” (FFMQ) by Baer et al.
(2006), as well as the JASP 0.13.1 application, SPSS and an excel spreadsheet for processing.
Regarding the results and the main objectives, the attempt was made to channel the level of
stress and anxiety among the participants, in terms of behavioral problems, achieving a partial
reduction. In this way, and based on inferential statistics, the presence of a strong positive linear
correlation between age, conceived as a quantitative ratio variable, and online sessions, as the
independent variable is deduced, resulting in 0.979. As a recommendation for future work, a larger
sample must be taken in order to establish more general results, reinforce the guidelines dictated to
teachers both to carry out Mindfulness and Music Education activities online and establish criteria
for inclusion and exclusion.
Keywords: Mindfulness, Music Education, COVID-19 and Online Music, digital divide, stress
and anxiety.
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ГЕММА РУИС ВАРЕЛА, ФИДЕЛЬ РОДРИГЕС ЛЕГЕНДРЕ
Университет Франсиско де Витория, г. Мадрид, Испания
ORCID: 0000-0002-9957-8050, g.ruiz@ufv.es
ORCID: 0000-0002-8329-3712, f.rodriguez.prof@ufv.es
Медитация и Онлайн-музыка для устранения стресса
у учеников начальной школы
во время пандемии COVID-19 в Испании
11 марта марта 2020 года Всемирная организация здравоохранения объявила
международное чрезвычайное положение в связи с пандемией перед лицом кризиса
общественного здравоохранения, вызванного COVID-19. С того дня испанцы столкнулись с
ситуацией изоляции в своих домах, в то время как санитарные меры сдерживания ограничили
мобильность, снизили социальную активность, а также парализовали продуктивную работу
во многих секторах экономики.
В этих обстоятельствах, масштабы которых невозможно предсказать во всех их
последствиях и измерениях, самыми уязвимыми являются дети, подростки и молодёжь. На
данный момент возникают трудности в образовательной работе, а также в проведении досуга,
поскольку он лишён социальных взаимодействий, необходимых для процесса социализации
и формирования личности.
Исходя из ситуации, когда появились признаки роста уровней стресса, тревожности
и поведенческих проблем, было сочтено целесообразным проводить онлайн-занятия по
музыкальному образованию с основной целью – преодолеть названные проблемы. Динамика
изучалась с учениками начальной школы в Мадриде. Чтобы оценить влияние направленного
действия, квази-экспериментальный план был структурирован с методологической точки
зрения, устанавливая применение сеансов медитации онлайн-музыкального образования
в качестве независимой переменной и изменений в качестве зависимой переменной,
поведения, стресса и беспокойства. Затем была создана случайная, не вероятностная
выборка, всего 130 участников (77% девочек и 23% мальчиков) со средним возрастом детей
9,407 лет (DT = 2,393), 100% из которых были учащимися начальной школы.
В качестве инструментов для общения и социально-цифрового взаимодействия
использовались следующие социальные сети: WhatsApp, Zoom и Instagram для выполнения
упражнений, используемых в программе «MindfulnessBased Stress Reduction» (MBSR)
Кабат-Зинна (1979) в рамках деятельности, соответствующей начальному музыкальному
образованию, а для сбора данных адаптирована анкета «Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire»
(FFMQ) Баэра и др. (2006), а также приложение JASP 0.13.1, SPSS и электронная таблица
Excel для обработки.
Была предпринята попытка частичного снижения уровня стресса и тревоги среди
участников с точки зрения поведенческих проблем. На основе выводимой статистики
определено наличие сильной положительной линейной корреляции между возрастом,
For citation / Для цитирования: Ruiz Varela G., Rodríguez Legendre F. Mindfulness and
Online Music for Channeling Stress in Primary School Students During the COVID-19 Pandemic
in Spain // Проблемы музыкальной науки / Music Scholarship. 2021. 1. С. 125–136.
DOI: 10.33779/2587-6341.2021.1.125-136.
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рассматриваемым как количественная переменная, и онлайн-сеансами как независимой
переменной, в результате получилось 0,979. В качестве рекомендации для будущей работы
необходимо взять более крупную выборку для получения общих результатов, усилить
методические рекомендации, предписываемые учителем о том, как проводить мероприятия
по медитации и музыкальному образованию в Интернете, и установить критерии для их
оценки.
Ключевые слова: медитация, музыкальное образование, COVID-19 и онлайн-музыка,
цифровой барьер, стресс.
INTRODUCTION
In January 2020, the World Health
Organization (WHO) declared that the
coronavirus outbreak detected in the city
of Wuhan (China) was a public health
emergency of international concern.
Subsequently, on March 11 the WHO
established in its evaluation of Covid-19 that
this new coronavirus can be characterized
as a pandemic. So on 14 March in Spain
a state of alarm was decreed for the sake
of stopping the expansion of this new
coronavirus. In this state of emergency
no one was allowed to leave their homes
with the exceptions established in article
7 of Royal Decree 463/2020 of March 14
which declared the state of alarm for the
management of the health crisis situation
caused by Covid-19.
Although being necessary at that time,
the eects of the connement on citizens
were negative. In the rst place, there were
very negative psychological sequelae, such
as increased stress, anguish, confusion,
anger, boredom and frustration, as well as
an increase in dangerous addictions.
In the eld of education, one of the main
problems caused by the pandemic was the
growth of the digital divide among students
from dierent social classes, in addition to
problems in the learning process due to the
substitution of face-to-face teaching with
online classes, as well as a signicant drop
in student achievement.
To the above aspects must be added the
bombardment of information about this new
disease and the consequent situation of stress
and anxiety generated in the population
in addition to the connement itself,
whose eect has been counterproductive,
leaving a series of very serious negative
consequences. It is precisely within the
framework of the previous scenario that
Mindfulness was applied, which according
to the experts worth highlighting two very
relevant gures: Thich Nhat Hanh and Jon
Kabat-Zinn. Kabat-Zinn (1979), Lazar et
al. (2005), Kemeny (2012), Páez, Díaz and
Hernández (2016) Segovia (2019), after
eight weeks of practice you can reduce
stress and anxiety levels (in combination
with Music Education activities as was our
case).
Based on the above considerations, it
is worth highlighting two very relevant
gures: Thich Nhat Hanh and Jon Kabat-
Zinn. Kabat-Zinn, used Mindfulness as a
complement to medical treatments for pain
(Parra et al. 2012) and in 1979, founded
a Stress Reduction and Relaxation clinic
in Massachusetts creating the program
called MindfulnessBased Stress Reduction
(MBSR) eight weeks long (Melero, 2015).
Numerous studies establish that this
technique signicantly reduces levels of
stress and anxiety in humans.
Regarding Music Education, which is
the other factor of study in this proposal,
it is indispesable to mention Marta Toro,
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the creator of the "Grow with Condence"
method for improving care (2011), which,
being based on music and relaxation,
improves the attention span and reduces
anxiety in children between 7 and 12 years
old. This is a digital platform for supporting
parents and educators which aims to
improve the well-being of children and their
environment during the various stages of
their growth. It is ideal for use in schools,
in consultations and at home. The method
has been scientically tested by the Faculty
of Sciences of the University of Vienna in
a clinical trial with 156 children with very
positive results (Toro, 2011).
In short, this pandemic has generated
signicant levels of stress, anxiety, and
fear as the result of the total connement of
the population, to which should be added
the increase in behavioral problems and
psychological imbalances. Therefore, the
introduction of the combined techniques
of Mindfulness and Music Education by
means of an online methodology has been
rightly estimated.
MINDFULNESS PRACTICE AS A FORM
OF IMPROVING YOUR HEALTH.
REVIEW OF STUDIES
Currently there exists a disconnection
between the body and the mind; In other
words, people live with the body in the present
time and in the physical space in which they
are temporarily located, but with the mind
elsewhere, and sometimes automatically
thinking about the past or the future, leaving
aside living in the present or concentrating
on this very moment. This process is what is
known as the autopilot. Martín-Ausero and
García de la Banda (2007), dening it as “an
attitude in which the person is aware of the
thoughts that refer to the past or the future,
instead of focusing on the present” (p.23).
This expresses the frequent occurrence
when a person, when performing a particular
task, tends to anticipate or focus on issues
that have no relation to what he or she is
doing at that very moment, thereby creating
unconscious habits.
Segal, Williams, and Teasdale (2017)
comment that we can spend hours on that
automatic pilot, without realizing what we
are really doing. During the period in which
our mind wanders, without being present or
aware of what is being done, we are much
more vulnerable to problematic or negative
situations. When our mind acts in the like
manner on an automatic pilot, our brain
activates judgments, previous concepts,
comparisons, anticipations, memories ... and
our mind wanders without any guidance,
usually taking into account the past or the
future (Losa and Simón, 2013).
On automatic pilot, all the thoughts,
sensations, feelings (of which we are not
aware) can produce old habits of thought
that what they do is worsen our mood (Segal,
Williams, & Teasdale, 2017). Santamaría
et al. (2006) comment that the practice of
Mindfulness would allow us to become
aware of the present moment, to attract our
mind to the circumstance that we have to
carry out immediately.
For Melero (2015), the concept of
Mindfulness and its practice would make
us aware of our thoughts, feelings and
bodily sensations. In addition it would
teach us to make relevant decisions, instead
of automatically reacting to thoughts and
feelings as if they were real.
Kabat-Zinn (1990) observed the eect
that the practice of Mindfulness tends to
reduce emotional reactivity. This reactivity
refers to the distancing of emotions
(accepting them), so that they do not
aect us so much; that means accepting
emotions as they come. In other words, it
seeks to become aware of the need not to
make judgments about thoughts that are
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passing through the mind, and if negative
circumstances are occurring or have
happened we must learn to accept them,
trying not to be reactive with harmful
emotions.
In this sense, and in relation to the
previous assessment, Simón (2010) points
out that when we practice Mindfulness
we become aware of the mental activity
experienced at that time, while Melero
(2015) highlights the absence of reactivity
such as the ability of “knowing how to
respond, instead of reacting impulsively
to situations, thoughts, emotions, etc. In
other words, not being trapped by them or
rejecting them” (p. 208).
At the neurobiological level, this
reactivity is found in the amygdala and the
prefrontal cortex, while Hözel et al. (2010)
cited in Hita E. M. (2018), discover in their
results that, after practicing Mindfulness, the
amygdala became smaller and connectivity
with other areas of the brain decreases.
On the other hand, and in line with
everything that happens in our brain when
practicing Mindfulness, Lazar et al. (2005),
“used magnetic resonance imaging to
observe the brain of expert meditators”
(Tealde, 2016, p. 8), verifying that the
regions associated with attention, internal
consciousness and sensory processing
(prefrontal cortex and the right anterior
insula) they evidenced a thickening of these
parts. On the contrary, the amygdala was more
reduced in the meditators than in those who
did not meditate (Hervás, Cebolla & Soler,
2016, p. 119). “The amygdala is a subcortical
structure associated with emotions, whose
main function is to send information related
to fear and anxiety” (Villegas et al., 2015,
cited in Tealde, 2016, p. 4).
Finally, it should be noted that after eight
weeks of practice the changes occurring in
the brain begin to be apparent, achieving
an improvement in working memory and
sustained visual attention as well as an
increase in performance and a noticeable
decrease in distraction after this training in
mindfulness (Segovia, 2019).
Furthermore, Kemeny et al. (2012) found
in their study that after eight weeks of the
practice of Mindfulness, teachers exhibited
fewer negative emotions, a reduction in
negative feelings, a reduction in anxiety and
an increase in states of positive moods (cited
in Body, Ramos, Recondo and Pelegrina,
2016).
MUSICAL EDUCATION AS A FORM
OF IMPROVING YOUR HEALTH.
REVIEW OF STUDIES.
Music has been shown to have
incredible benets in people with stress,
depression, with dierent pathologies and
addictions. This practice has had benecial
repercussions on the physical as well as on
the emotional level.
According to studies conducted by
Vaillancourt (2009), music can fulll various
functions: it can be listened to without further
ado, it can be used as an educational method,
it can be studied for the sake of interpreting
it, and it can be used in therapy as a means
for improving, maintaining or restoring the
physical and psychological condition of a
person. In the same way Killingsworth and
Gilbert (2010) establish that when a subject
achieves mindfulness in the present moment
(by focusing on the content of his mind at
the same moment), he will achieve a greater
state of well-being, because he is living fully
consciously at the present moment, here
and now. In this sense, as the result musical
education focus on attention is improving
notably, since the practice itself requires the
mechanism of concentration as an essential
element to practice it.
In addition to the previous point,
Martín et. al (2014) arm that emotional
intelligence can be educated through music,
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since this is a good vehicle to allow us to
aect our emotions, detect them, label
them correctly, regulate them using our
control capacity and take advantage of them
constructively. In this sense, Correa (2010)
contributes in his studies the psychological
eects of music, demonstrating its aid in
the control of pain, fear, or anxiety...and
providing the strategies for the functional
use of music in the dierent subjects
which are taught in educational centers.
Likewise, Lacárcel (2003) researches
Music Education from the perspective of it
providing a path that contributes to psychic
and emotional development, providing us
with the necessary balance for achieving an
adequate level of well-being and happiness,
since it not only fullls a strictly educational
function, when we speak of musical
learning, but also serves other purposes,
since it encourages the discovery of our
own inner world, communication with "the
other" and the capture and appreciation of
the world around us.
Albornoz (2008) studies how music,
with the help of techniques and models
adapted to the individual and/or group
needs of the classroom, encourages
emotional exploration by establishing self-
knowledge and with it the development
of meaningful strategies to face and solve
learning problems, since it embraces the
emotional dimension, which contributes
to developing the motivation to learn. In
addition, the process of approaching and
understanding emotional life could imply
the increase of a positive concept about
oneself, or a considerable improvement of
self-esteem. Ruiz and Rodríguez (2018)
came to the conclusion in their study that the
correlations between the “psychoaective
context,” the “aective management
context,” the “psycho-aective context,”
and “socio-perceptual context” are all very
strong in the musical practice.
In summary, emotional well-being is
an indicator of the students' motivation in
the activities and tasks proposed to them
in the classroom. Thus, when we identify
disinterest, there is an emotion which
sustains it. Recognizing emotions in learning
processes means stimulating and enhancing
creative activity for the sake of promoting
meaningful learning, which translates into
global well-being. Therefore, working by
means of Mindfulness and music around
the diculties related to anxiety, stress and
behavior problems in the conned state of
the COVID pandemic, seeking personal
and academic development, presents a
way for permeating study and stimulating
motivation, responsibility and commitment,
in order to adopt a posture which contributes
to facing the challenge of study.
METHODOLOGY
For the sessions, the main Mindfulness
training techniques used in the Kabat-
Zinn Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction
(MBSR) program were implemented:
1. A Mindfulness breathing exercise
2. A body-scan (the awareness of your
body sensations)
3. Mindfulness in activities of daily life
(washing, showering ...).
Dierent types of relaxations were
also performed in which the mind is fully
conscious (Jacobson relaxation and guided
massages). During the live sessions, direct
observation was used in which the following
aspects were observed: it was necessary
to detect if all the participants were doing
the session, how they behaved, if they had
their eyes closed, and if they were still and
comfortable in their places.
At the same time of the Mindfulness
sessions, the program Grow with condence
by Marta Toro (2010) was used, aimed at
children between 7 and 12 years old, taking
advantage of the windows of opportunity
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or stages of development that open during
this age and that would be decisive in the
child’s development. This is a supportive
musical method for parents and teachers
which teaches children how to relax and,
at the same time, increase their capacity for
concentration and attention, trying to gain
condence and selfcondence.
The method is based on various concepts
of modern neuropsychiatry, such as the
epigenetic origin (the genes that are more
responsive to the environment) of disorders
such as ADHD (correcting ADHD), and
the knowledge of the dierent stages or
jumps of neurological development of
a being human. During their respective
stages of growth, children develop certain
types of brain waves that will determine
their behavior, their ability to learn and
their emotions. On the other hand, sounds
are vibrations with dierent frequencies
transformed into electrical signals that are
connected to our CNS (central nervous
system) and to neurological networks.
By means of music, relaxation is sought
and taught in children and, in addition to
increasing their capacity for concentration
and attention, improves their caution
and their condence. For this purpose,
seven musical pieces are used with voice
guidance of 5 to 8 minutes each. These
contain specic sounds, spoken texts, and
cyclical rhythms designed to create an
environment suitable for relaxation and
concentration. The language is simple and
the instructions are easy to follow. In this
sense, we will go on to detail the dierent
steps and components:
1. A special place: Here the children
will learn to congure their personal space
in a positive and creative way; an inner place
where they will feel safe and condent, and
that they can evoke whenever they want or
need to do so. Similarly to a laboratory, in
this special place they will be able to process,
explore and create their own references and
patterns of balanced maturation. It will be
an indispensable tool that will serve them
for a lifetime.
2. Respiration: A vital process that
allows the oxygenation of the body.
Conscious rib and abdominal breathing is
learned easily.
3. Hemispheric Harmonization:
improves the cognitive and emotional
capacity. The two cerebral hemispheres,
reexes, laterality and sensations are
provided with exercises.
4. The body scheme: improves the body
image and must be perceived as a crucial
aspect in the evolution of children, in self-
esteem and self-concept, and is essential in
the development of social relationships.
5. Energy balance: Attention, memory
and emotional balance are worked on
by means of an exercise dedicated to
stimulating maturation patterns.
6. Decision making: A counterpoint is
established between internal and external
sensations, so that children become able
to learn to dierentiate their internal world
from their external perceptions and to
balance these two. This chapter also de-
dramatizes mistakes in its search for an easy
and eective solution.
7. Urban life: Although many times
it is thought that the ideal is to live in the
countryside, close to nature, there are many
people who live in the city where they also
learn things which the countryside does not
give you. It simply requires a dierent kind
of attention and rhythm. This chapter works
on developing a sense of personal autonomy
in the city itself.
Next, the guidelines that were followed
to apply the method were those indicated by
the author:
Listen to the melodies and observe the
indicated procedures at least twice a week
in order to establish a routine.
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Listen to 1 exercise per session (for 7
minutes a day).
Always start with the rst piece.
From here, the order is random and
will depend on the children.
The listening time will be adapted to
the children's plan.
During the listening, children must
seek a relaxed posture.
DATA ANALYSIS: EVALUATION OF
THE ACTIVITY
Next, we will give an account of the
aspects related to the sample and the data
that were the object of the processing,
obtained once the activity explained in the
previous section has been completed, by
applying a questionnaire.
Methodology
For the present investigation a quantitative
methodology and a non-experimental design
were used. The “survey” was applied as a
method of collecting information from our
sample, consisting of the students who have
participated in the activity. As an evaluation
instrument, the Five Facet Mindfulness
Questionnaire (FFMQ) (Baer et al. 2006),
cited in Melero (2015) was used. It is a
test to achieve the state of self-assessment,
which was posed in each session, through
multiresponse questions, with the usual
format in this type of research (Martín,
2004). This measures the general trend of
mindfulness in the state of ‘here and now’
from the following ve skills:
1. Observation: knowing and feeling
the external and internal experiences,
such as sensations, emotions or thoughts.
2. Description: being able to detail those
sensations, thoughts, emotions ... that were
felt during the practice.
3. Acting with awareness: being able to
act with awareness at the present moment in
the here and now and to be able to lead the
mind to this very moment.
4. An absence of judgment: perceive the
thoughts which go through your head while
you are practicing Mindfulness, but do not
judge them.
5. An absence of reactivity: do not
react impulsively to various situations and
feelings.
The FFMQ includes 39 items with a
scale from 1 to 5 according to the degree
of each statement, from “very rarely” to
“always.” Each factor has 8 items. The
alpha quotient for each factor is between
0.75 and 0.91. In this study the version
translated into Spanish by Cebolla et al.
(2011) is the one which possesses the alpha
coecient of 0.88 (Melero 2015). However,
the presence of such young participants
creates the necessity for an adaptation to
this questionnaire.
Statistics and Samples
The population is dened by the totality
of Primary Education students between
7 and 12 years old in Madrid. Based on
this point, an accidental non-probabilistic
sampling technique was used and the process
consisted of making the activity known to
all students from the Madrid educational
centers who could participate voluntarily
in the class which took place on April 18,
2020. This study involved 130 pupils aged
between 7 and 12 years who attended the
online dynamics class taught.
Analysis of the Data
The SPSS Statistics 22 program was used
for data analysis. The analyzes developed are
divided into two types: descriptive analysis
and correlational analysis. Basic descriptive
analyses are carried out (absolute frequencies,
percentages and measures of central
tendency and dispersion for the variables
contemplated in the study). Regarding the
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correlational analysis, Pearson's correlation
coecient was applied to assess whether
there were any relationships between the
variables studied, especially for assessing the
possible relationships between the variables
in the study.
Once these considerations have been
established, we will now present the results
obtained in the investigation.
The Instrument
The FFMQ questionnaire designed
for this activity establishes the scale of 39
items, with the evaluation scale from 1 to
5 (from “very rarely” to “always”). The
alpha quotient for each factor is between
.75 and .91. This study makes use of the
version translated into Spanish by Cebolla
et al. (2011), which possesses the alpha
coecient of .88 (Melero 2015)
Results of the Evaluation
of the Main Variables
In the rst place, and in relation to
the main objective, when channeling the
problems of behavior, stress and anxiety
generated by the connement through
Mindfulness and Music Education, it has
been proven that some levels of anxiety and
stress become very well channeled However,
behavioral problems have continued in the
case of some of the children (Figure 1).
With regard to the behavioral problems,
a greater channeling eect has possibly
not been achieved, since we consider that
a greater margin of time would have been
necessary to achieve a positive eect of this
parameter.
In terms of attention and mindfulness
(concentrating on the “here and now”), better
results were achieved than with the anxiety
levels, since all the participants acquired
essential and simple guidelines with daily
exercises to perform individually at home.
In addition, they were also given a guide so
that they themselves could carry out a daily
follow-up of how they were before doing
the practice, how the day had developed
and what was the bodily and mood-related
situation after engaging in this practice.
With regard to the acquisition of
awareness of the breath and its emotions,
important achievements are recorded since
breathing exercises were carried out every
day with a full awareness of the sensations
they were experiencing during that time
(Graph 2).
Graph 2. The Relative Frequencies of
Consciousness
Source: SPSS
Finally, it became possible to verify the
benet derived from the use of Mindfulness
and Music Education after its application.
Graph 1: Stress Levels, Anxiety
and Behavioral Problems
Source: SPSS
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In each session, they asked one by one what
they had noticed and what their mood was,
being themselves the people who expressed
what they felt in a state of total calm, very
relaxed and even feeling as having escaped
from external problems. They were given
weekly exercises in Mindfulness and
Music Education activities related to daily
life actions (brushing their teeth, taking a
shower ...), where they themselves recorded
the data in a weekly diary in order to check
all the benets they had felt (Graph 3).
Graph 3. Verication of the Benets
Source: SPSS
Regarding the time spent in this practice,
it has been determined that the duration of
half an hour of the session, which included
the explanation of its activities, the
comments on its benets, and the questions
at the end of it have been most satisfying.
In the following table (Table 1), the weekly
mean of participants who have attended the
two weekly sessions is observed.
Table 1: Weekly Attendance Percentage
Source: SPSS
In conclusion to this section, a graph is
shown below with the correlation between
the qualitative variable of age ratio and the
independent variable, the online application
of the sessions (Graph 4). Thus having a
strong positive linear correlation, this results
in the correlation coecient of .97.
Graph 4: The Correlation Between Age
and the Level of Attention and Concentration
in Online Sessions
Source: SPSS
DIDACTIC IMPLICATIONS
In the present study it has been veried
that by practicing Mindfulness and Music
Education activities online, behavioral and
anxiety-related problems can be channeled
the ones which for this particular case
have been generated by the connement
because of the COVID19 pandemic in
2020. In regard to the specic objectives
set, an attempt has been made to provide all
the main guidelines and elements to work
in both programs, to connect with each of
the participants’ "I" in the present, with
the "here" and the "now". However, given
the non-total continuity of the participants
and the deescalation in the phases during
the connement, it has meant that the
objectives raised previously have not been
fully achieved.
It has been proven in many research
investigations, such as that of Ruiz and
Rodríguez (2020), they conrm that music
as a social practice becomes an important
component both for the educational process
Week Average Attendance
1 70%
2 76%
3 74%
4 80%
5 86%
6 82%
7 87%
8 90%
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and for practices linked to creativity and the
acquisition of social competences; Chiesa
and Starri (2009), that Mindfulness and
Music can reduce stress levels in healthy
people. In this vein Hervás, Cebolla, and
Soler (2016) have discovered that they
improved their mental health by reducing
repeated anxiety-generating thoughts.
As an important fact in relation to the
previous assessments, Kabat-Zinn founded
in 1979 a clinic which elaborated the program
called Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction
(MBSR) for people with chronic stress, sleep
disorders, anxiety and addictions and it has
been proven that following eight weeks of
practice all negative levels were noticeably
reduced. Therefore, this present study has
corroborated the benets of Mindfulness in
children who attend the primary educational
level of school, albeit, the results should be
taken with caution.
However, with regard to this study,
a deepening of the investigative work is
required in order to give it greater solidity.
Regarding this proposal as a line of research,
it is essential to carry out the study with a
much larger sample, to be able to generalize
the results for which a method or strategy
must be used which allows the participants
to control the applied care, so that the eects
can be veried, and to improve the access
routes for connection to the sessions by
using other types of platform which do not
create possible diculties for participants.
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About the authors:
Gemma Ruiz Varela, Ph.D. (Education and Humanities, Universidad Francisco de
Vitoria), Vice Dean of Academic and Quality Management, Faculty of Education and
Humanities, Faculty Member of the Department of Humanities, Universidad Francisco de
Vitoria (28223, Madrid, Spain), ORCID: 0000-0002-9957-8050, g.ruiz@ufv.es
Fidel Rodríguez Legendre, Ph.D. (Communication Sciences and Sociology, Universidad
Complutense de Madrid), Ph.D. (History, Central University of Venezuela), Professor, Vice
Dean of Academic and Quality Management, Department of Education and Humanities,
Universidad Francisco de Vitoria (28223, Madrid, Spain), ORCID: 00000002-8329-3712,
f.rodriguez.prof@ufv.es
Об авторах:
Руис Варела Гемма, Ph.D. (Образование и гуманитарные науки, Университет
Франсиско де Витория), заместитель декана по учебной работе и управлению
качеством образования Факультета образования и гуманитарных наук, преподаватель
кафедры гуманитарных наук, Университет Франсиско де Витория (28223, г. Мадрид,
Испания), ORCID: 0000-0002-9957-8050, g.ruiz@ufv.es
Родригес Легендре Фидель, Ph.D. (Коммуникации и социология, Мадридский
университет Комплутенсе), Ph.D. (История, Центральный университет Венесуэлы),
профессор, заместитель декана по учебной работе и управлению качеством
образования Факультета образования и гуманитарных наук, Университет Франсиско
де Витория (28223, г. Мадрид, Испания), ORCID: 0000-0002-8329-3712,
f.rodriguez.prof@ufv.es
RR
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Los beneficios de la música
  • E Correa
Correa E. Los beneficios de la música. Innovación y experiencias educativas. Granada, 2010, pp. 1-10.