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1
Rivalry with and without crowds: an analysis of four regional soccer tournaments in Brazil
before and during the Covid-19 pandemic
Alexandre Loures, Claudio D. Shikida, Rodrigo N. Fernandez
Abstract
The Covid-19 pandemic caused an interruption in Brazilian soccer in 2020. Since early July, the
presence of fans at stadiums was strictly forbidden by law. The literature states that crowds'
pressure could result in a referee's bias against the away team and increase the home team's
pressure to score goals. Using a sample of the four 1st leagues’ main regional leagues of Brazilian
soccer, we found, at best, mixed results regarding yellow cards issued in games played before and
during the Covid-19. One effect in line with the literature is that derbies are associated with less
home advantage than other matches, regardless of the pandemic.
Keywords: Covid-19, Sports Economics, Sports Economics, Soccer
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Rivalry with and without crowds: an analysis of four regional soccer tournaments in Brazil
before and during the Covid-19 pandemic
Alexandre Loures
1
Claudio D. Shikida
2
Rodrigo Nobre Fernandez
3
1. Introduction
Soccer is a highly competitive sport. The support of crowds is supposed to be an important factor
in generating pressure over the teams and referees. Support of fans at stadiums is recognized as an
essential incentive. One of the official punishments for violent crowds in soccer is the imposition
of the so-called ghost games. According to Endrich and Gesche (2020), the crowds' presence can
stimulate the effort on the part of the players, i.e., it increases the competitiveness between the
teams and, consequently, increases the referees' pressure. Furthermore, Bryson et al. (2020) argue
that the results reported by his study "have implications for the influence of social pressure and
crowds on the neutrality of decisions." Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, the second type of ghost
game arose last year due to health concerns.
We exploit this natural experiment with data from the four most relevant Brazilian regional
professional leagues of 2020. The Covid-19 pandemic translated itself in two main effects on
professional soccer: first, the absence of crowds (with the subsequent impact on the revenue of the
teams) and, second, the change in the rules regarding the substitution of players that were
introduced, among others, to correct for the health restrictions introduced to avoid the
dissemination of the virus among the athletes.
1
Professor of Economics at Federal University of Paraíba (UFPB) and post-doctoral student at and
Program of Graduate Studies in Organization and Markets at Federal University of Pelotas (PPGOM-
UFPel).
2
General Research Coordinator at National School of Public Administration (Enap) and professor of
Economics at Program of Graduate Studies in Organization and Markets at Federal University of Pelotas
(PPGOM-UFPel).
3
Professor of Economics at Program of Graduate Studies in Organization and Markets at Federal University
of Pelotas (PPGOM-UFPel).
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In Brazil's case, the national GDP's regional composition shows higher participation of four states:
Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, and the Rio Grande do Sul. These four states alone
concentrate more than half of the Brazilian GDP and 70% of the Brazilian soccer fans in 2019
4
.
The Brazilian regional tournaments share some standard rules
5
, but specific rules are different
among the states and through time
6
.
As a significant result, it stands out that the Covid-19 pandemic has virtually no effect on our
sample of Brazilian soccer tournaments in the 2020 season. In turn, we found that derbies are
essential in several proxies of home advantage, signaling that the rivalry between the teams does
not depend on the presence or absence of crowds.
The rest of the paper is organized as follows: section 2 is the literature review. We derive our two
main hypotheses at the end of this section. A discussion about our sample of Brazilian regional
tournaments is in section 3. The test of the hypothesis is followed by a discussion about our results
in section 4. Finally, section 5 concludes.
2. Literature Review
The literature on the relationship between soccer and the Covid-19 pandemic has been trying to
answer the same questions initially from the sports economics' field. Usually, they try to check the
effect of crowds' absence on some proxy measure of referee's bias and the home advantage, and
the results are mixed.
4
See GloboEsporte.com (2019).
5
In the specific case of or our sample, it is interesting to note that: (a) the referees are always from the same state of
the tournament; (b) the regional tournaments in Brazil do not use the VAR (Video Assistant Referee) technology
which was introduced only to the 1st division of the national championship in 2019.
6
A remarkable example is Rio de Janeiro. The following quote shows how the incentives changed since the eighties:
“Between 1982 and 2013, with the exception of 1994 and 1995, the winner of the Guanabara Cup faced the winner of
the Rio Cup to define the champion of the Carioca Championship. Between 2014 and 2016, the preliminary single
round of the championship became valid as the Guanabara Cup, while the Rio Cup was handed over to the club among
those considered "small" to get more points in the games between them in 2014 and 2015 and in the year of 2016 was
a tournament of the clubs not classified for the Guanabara Cup, being also the descent group of the Carioca
Championship. In 2017, both the Guanabara Cup and the Rio Cup return to being Carioca's turn and return, but now,
classifying the champion of each turn to the semifinals” [Wikipedia (2020a)]
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For example, in their review about the relationship between soccer and the Covid-19 pandemic,
Singleton et al. (2021) highlight that the literature found "(…) no significant general impacts from
playing behind closed doors in the 2019/20 season on match outcomes or score lines, but there
were significantly fewer yellow cards awarded to away teams". Sors et al. (2020) analyze 841
matches from the first and second divisions of Spain, England, German, and Italy's national
tournaments and found that the reduced crowd due to the pandemic generated a reduced home
advantage, but they did not find any referee bias.
On the other hand, Jiménez Sánchez; Lavín (2021) also analyzed national tournaments from
Germany, Spain, Italy, England, and Austria. Using linear probability models for wins draws and
losses before and during the pandemic did not find significant differences in terms of home
advantage.
Bryson et al. (2021) found evidence of less home advantage proxied by the number of yellow cards
issued through an extensive database of 6481 matches from 17 tournaments. As a robustness test,
the authors check each league's last five seasons' results and conclude that the smaller number of
yellow cards for visiting teams with closed gates is not related to the change in playing as the
season approaches the end. In another recent paper, Scoppa (2021a), applying a differences in
differences (diff-in-diff) on a sample of matches from European tournaments, found a decrease in
home advantage during the Covid-19 pandemic
7
.
Several authors consider that the empty stadiums during this pandemic are like the so-called ghost
games, which is usually an exception applied as a punishment to one or both teams due, for
example, to a previous episode of violence between fans. However, a pandemic is not the same as
a punishment. Theoretically, punishments have virtually no impact on the uncertainty regarding
the future, precisely the pandemic case.
For example, Drewes et al. (2020) speculate that the uncertainty due to the Covid-19 pandemic
could increase national tournaments' relative importance relative to the international ones for
European soccer. This could be explained by the close ties between local politicians and clubs
7
For more on home advantage in Brazil, see: Pollard et al. (2008) and Shikida et al. (2018).
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(which is not rare
8
) or because it is in the interest of national and regional leagues to subsidize
domestic teams to maintain the tournaments' attractiveness.
We are interested in investigating the short-run effects of the pandemic. We speculate that, in the
long run, many teams will have to rebuild their financial architecture
9
. However, in the short run,
the pandemic's impact on soccer could be more negligible as many teams still have cash from the
beginning of the year. We want to test if the crowds' absence impacts the number of yellow cards
issued in a match and the teams' performance (goals). As the literature review showed, both could
be thought of as the output of fans' pressure at stadiums. Less attendance could decrease a supposed
referee's bias, resulting in fewer yellow cards issued to away teams. Also, both teams' performance
in a match could worsen due to the lack of crowds in terms of goals.
In the next section, we present the sample we will use to test these hypotheses.
3. Data
In Brazil, the professional soccer league in each state of the federation follows different rules. Each
Brazilian state has its federação ("federation," which could be alternatively translated as
"leagues"), and all of them are under the authority of the CBF (Brazilian Confederation of
Football). The four richest Brazilian states are: São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Rio
Grande do Sul. Together, they represented 57.7% of the Brazilian GDP in 2018
10
.
This economic concentration is reflected in soccer. The so-called "big twelve"
11
clubs are all from
these four states. From São Paulo we have Corinthians, Palmeiras, São Paulo, and Santos. From
Rio de Janeiro: Botafogo, Flamengo, Fluminense and Vasco da Gama. Atlético Mineiro and
Cruzeiro are from Minas Gerais and, finally, Rio Grande do Sul has Grêmio and Internacional
12
.
Among these clubs are champions of several national tournaments' editions: the Campeonato
8
For example, in the case of Brazil, it is not rare to see politicians involved with the club’s administration.
9
One indirect implication of the ongoing pandemic is the need to rethink the economic use of stadiums, as stressed
by Reade; Singleton (2020).
10
See IBGE (2020).
11
See: Wikipedia (2020b).
12
We will use the simplified name of the clubs.
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Brasileiro de Futebol (popularly known as "Brasileirão") and Copa do Brasil and, also, champions
of Libertadores and FIFA Club World Cup.
In 2020, all regional tournaments were interrupted due to the Covid-19 pandemic in late March.
Almost all came back in mid-July in the new format. Our sample has four regional tournaments.
The “Campeonato Paulista”, from the state of São Paulo, the “Campeonato Carioca”, from Rio de
Janeiro, the “Campeonato Mineiro”, from Minas Gerais and the “Campeonato Gaúcho”, from Rio
Grande do Sul. The sample has 56 teams (including the "big twelve"). Carioca and Paulista had 16
teams each. Mineiro and Gaúcho only had 12 teams each
13
.
There are incentives to a good performance in the regional tournaments. For example, the
"Federação Mineira de Futebol" (FMF), the league that regulates the "Campeonato Mineiro,"
established that the four best-placed teams would be qualified for the 2021 edition of the Copa do
Brasil, one of the two most important national tournaments in Brazil in terms of financial rewards.
In the case of "Gaúcho," "Carioca" and "Paulista," only the two best-placed would qualify to the
same tournament. However, in the case of "Carioca," a third club is also qualified for the Copa do
Brasil
14
.
Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, Brazilian regional tournaments were interrupted in March and
were started again around July without crowds
15
. At the end of the year, a private consulting firm
estimated that the clubs' total revenue in 2020 would decrease 46% relatively to 2019 due to the
pandemic
16
. However, it is not clear if the temporary loss of revenue will have a permanent and
negative impact on clubs' financial situation. It is reasonable to suppose that this revenue loss will
make it more difficult for teams to deal with the 2021 tournaments
17
.
13
In the specific case of or our sample, it is interesting to note that: (a) the referees are always from the same state of
the tournament; (b) the regional tournaments in Brazil do not use the VAR (Video Assistant Referee) technology
which was introduced only to the 1st division of the national championship in 2019.
14
The rule established that, except for the four biggest teams, the team with the biggest sum of points considering the
two stages of the tournament would have assured its participation in Copa do Brasil.
15
As this paper were finished, some states interrupted the 2021 tournaments again due to the worsening health
conditions in Brazil.
16
Main factors would be the recalculation of contractual values with TV sponsors, the loss of other sponsors and the
absence of public in stadiums, according with this article in Brazilian press: Conteúdo (2020).
17
Additionally, in our sample the pandemic affected only 32% of the whole sample of games.
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Our sample has 368 matches from the four states’s 1st leagues’ tournaments. From these total, 32%
(117 games) were disputed without fans
18
and under the pandemic protocols, including the new
rule for the substitution of players designed to alleviate the pandemic's adverse effects. The home
teams won 45% of their matches, and the away teams won 30%. This proxy of home advantage
shows that teams had 47% of the wins at home before the pandemic, and this number changed to
40%. In contrast, the away teams had experienced a larger increase in their wins, from 27 to 34%,
which could be interpreted as anecdotal evidence of the decrease of the home advantage effect
during the pandemic.
Some preliminary data is in Table 1. We only found that only the absolute value of the difference
of home and visitor's yellow cards showed some evidence of a difference between the pre-
pandemic and pandemic matches
19
.
Table 1
Variable
Before
During Covid-
19
Mean
Difference
(t-test)
Non-
derbies
Derbies
Mean
Difference
(t-test)
Total goals
2.24
2.27
-0.20
2.29
1.79
1.95
(0.83)
(0.06)
Home goals
1.29
1.18
0.85
1.27
1.04
1.22
(0.39)
(0.23)
Away goals
0.95
1.09
-1.17
1.02
0.75
1.50
(0.24)
(0.14)
Abs diff goals
1.27
1.2
0.59
1.27
0.92
1.76
(0.55)
(0.09)
Diff goal
0.33
0.09
1.39
0.25
0.29
-0.13
(0.17)
(0.90)
Total yellow
4.02
4.08
-0.21
4.07
3.64
0.93
(0.83)
(0.36)
Yellow home
2.32
2.27
0.32
2.29
2.50
-0.82
(0.75)
(0.42)
Yellow Away
1.7
1.8
-0.57
1.78
1.14
1.97
(0.57)
(0.06)
Abs diff yellow
1.79
1.56
1.66
1.70
1.93
-1.04
18
In Bryson et al. (2020) only 23% of games in the sample (i.e. 1,498 games) was played with closed gates.
19
The correlation matrix for these variables is in Appendix 1.
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(0.10)
(0.30)
Diff yellow
0.62
0.47
0.68
0.51
1.36
-2.41
(0.50)
(0.02)
N
251
117
368
340
28
Notes: (1) p-value in parentheses. (2) The variables were built as Abs diff yellow = |yellow cards home yellow cards away|, Total yellow = yellow
cards home + yellow cards away, Abs diff goals = |home goals away goals|, Diff yellow = yellow cards home yellow cards away, Diff goal =
home goals away goals.
The three first columns of Table 1 do not show evidence of differences between the means of the
variables before and during the pandemic. This result contrasts with the literature. For example,
Bryson et al. (2021), using an aggregated database for 17 countries in the 2019/2020 seasons,
found that the absence of crowds could determine the number of yellow cards issued at the
matches. The away teams seem to have suffered more in terms of fouls and yellow cards, a result
that Endrich also finds in the top two divisions of Germany's Bundesliga.
Evidence of the importance of derbies was found in some variables (last three columns of Table
1). From the literature (e.g., Witt (2005)), the teams from the same city or near cities/regions
share fans on the same local base. This could be a factor of a more intense ("physical") performance
during the game, resulting in more yellow cards.
Figures 1 and 2 below show the yellow cards for home and away teams for those two different
dimensions: pandemic and derbies.
Figure 1
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We can see positive and similar correlations between the number of yellow cards for home and
away teams in pre-and post-Covid-19. When we look for derbies and non-derbies, the correlation
pattern shows a more positive correlation between the yellow cards in derbies, which is expected
as derbies are characterized by rivalry or decisiveness, and semifinal matches involve derbies. This
visual analysis suggests that derbies should be considered in our econometric analysis.
Figure 2
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A similar analysis, using goals, is shown in the following figures 3 and 4.
Figure 3
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Figure 4
Figure 3 shows that goals before and after the Covid-19 (Figure 3) are negatively correlated. In
general, the sample has more victories than ties
20
. Figure 4 shows that the correlation between
goals in derbies is lower than in non-derbies. Comparing both derbies and non-derbies matches,
we can see the tightness of the first as the number of goals that is usually less than three per match.
Could the crowd's absence in the matches affect the teams' performance or the referee's bias? How
would the answers change in the case of derbies? We attempt to address these questions in the next
section.
4. Estimation and Results
Our sample has the 2020 season of the four main regional tournaments in Brazilian soccer. We
tested several dependent variables: goals, home goals, away goals, home's yellow cards and away's
yellow cards, home minus away's yellow cards (in absolute value and as a simple difference), total
20
In our sample, we have 94 ties which represents 26% of the whole sample.
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of yellow cards, and the difference between the home and away goals (also in absolute value as
well as a simple difference).
All dependent variables in this study are characterized as count variables, i.e., discrete variables,
and therefore two statistical distributions could be used for the empirical analysis: Poisson or
Negative Binomial (NB). However, since the mean and variance are different, we applied NB. For
specifications 5 and 10, which could have negative variables, we applied an OLS. All regressions
used robust standard errors.
We hypothesize that referee bias would imply fewer yellow cards for the home team (or more
yellow cards to the away team). As stated by Endrich; Gesche (2020), and Scoppa (2021b), the
Covid-19 with the empty stadiums could change this bias because of the absence of pressure from
the crowds. Another possible effect of the lack of public due to the pandemic is that the home
advantage measured by the home team goals has been decreased, as stated by Sors et al. (2020).
Our preliminary results are in Table 2 below. We find almost no effect of pandemic except a small
positive effect on the away team goals. The derby's dummy's impact on goals is negative: The
difference between home and away teams' yellow cards is positive, leading to refuting the
existence of a pro-home team's bias.
Table 2
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
Home
goals
Away
goals
Abs diff
goals
Diff
goal
Total
yellow
Yellow
home
Yellow
away
Abs
diff
yellow
Diff
yellow
covid
-0.10
0.20*
-0.04
-0.30
-0.05
-0.04
-0.07
-0.09
0.04
(0.10)
(0.11)
(0.09)
(0.19)
(0.05)
(0.07)
(0.07)
(0.08)
(0.21)
derby
-0.24
-0.77***
-0.61**
0.36
0.12
0.19
0.08
0.37**
0.51
(0.27)
(0.29)
(0.28)
(0.45)
(0.13)
(0.14)
(0.23)
(0.16)
(0.48)
_cons
-0.37
0.05
-0.70
-0.43
1.36***
0.38**
0.92***
-0.01
-1.18
(0.44)
(0.81)
(0.88)
(0.87)
(0.20)
(0.16)
(0.31)
(0.49)
(0.94)
N
368
368
368
368
368
368
368
368
368
adj. R2
-0.034
0.223
pseudo R2
0.048
0.050
0.053
0.105
0.034
0.280
0.064
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The derby dummy shows a negative effect on total, away goals and the absolute difference of goals
in a match, which is, again, evidence of these matches' tightness. These results are consistent with
Pollard; Leite (2018) 's finding of lower home advantage in derbies.
Our main results are in Table 3 below, which considered the regional tournaments' idiosyncratic
factors as fixed factors
21
.
Table 3
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
Total
goals
Home
goals
Away
goals
Abs diff
goals
Diff goal
Total
yellow
Yellow
home
Yellow
away
Abs
diff
yellow
Diff
yellow
Covid
0.04
-0.07
0.18
-0.02
-0.27
-0.05
-0.05
-0.06
-0.12
-0.01
(0.08)
(0.11)
(0.12)
(0.10)
(0.18)
(0.06)
(0.07)
(0.08)
(0.09)
(0.20)
Derby
-0.27*
-0.19
-0.38*
-0.34*
0.12
0.04
0.13
-0.11
0.10
0.42
(0.14)
(0.18)
(0.23)
(0.20)
(0.27)
(0.10)
(0.11)
(0.20)
(0.11)
(0.33)
Carioca
0.09
0.12
0.06
0.16
0.09
-0.58***
0.06
-2.94***
0.29***
2.08***
(0.09)
(0.12)
(0.15)
(0.12)
(0.23)
(0.07)
(0.08)
(0.28)
(0.09)
(0.22)
Gaúcho
-0.01
0.07
-0.10
-0.07
0.18
0.28***
0.21**
0.35***
0.01
-0.37
(0.11)
(0.14)
(0.18)
(0.14)
(0.23)
(0.06)
(0.09)
(0.09)
(0.11)
(0.29)
Mineiro
0.05
0.09
0.01
0.12
0.11
0.15**
0.14
0.17*
-0.07
-0.06
(0.09)
(0.13)
(0.17)
(0.14)
(0.26)
(0.07)
(0.10)
(0.09)
(0.12)
(0.29)
Constant
0.78***
0.19**
-0.04
0.19*
0.24
1.44***
0.75***
0.75***
0.49***
0.01
(0.07)
(0.09)
(0.12)
(0.10)
(0.17)
(0.04)
(0.07)
(0.06)
(0.07)
(0.20)
N
368
368
368
368
368
368
368
368
368
368
adj. R2
-0.007
0.248
pseudo R2
0.003
0.002
0.004
0.006
0.080
0.005
0.248
0.015
We found some regional differences on yellow cards: the away teams receive more yellow cards
in Gaúcho and Mineiro than in reference (Paulista)
22
. The opposite is found for the Carioca's
tournament, in which the away team was less penalized with yellow cards. Additionally, the yellow
cards to home teams were slightly bigger than the reference (Paulista) in the Gaúcho's tournament.
21
We tried some alternative specifications with interaction between the dummies of pandemic and derby, but they
were not statistically significant.
22
At the return of the games without crowds, the Federação Gaúcha de Futebol changed the rules concerning the
relegation of teams from the main division (“A1 division”) to the second one (“A2 division”). Formerly, the two worst
teams would be relegated. Under the new rule, they would not be relegated, but would receive just the half of the
resources the federation allocated to the others.
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It seems that there is no evidence of the referee's bias (but, in general, the goodness-of-fit of the
regressions was low)
23
.
Furthermore, from Table 3, an important result of this article is that the new coronavirus SARS-
CoV-2 pandemic does not affect the four main Brazilian soccer tournaments in the 2020 season.
Therefore, these results address the first question: could the public's absence in matches affect the
teams' performance or the referee's bias?
It is important to highlight that, in general, the results reported by this article, both for the Covid's
dummy and derby's dummy, ratify the results found in Singleton et al. (2021) and Jiménez
Sánchez; Lavín (2021). With the results reported for Covid's dummy, it is clear that, in the short
run, the pandemic has virtually no impact on the four regional tournaments in our sample.
However, in the long run, as mentioned above, many teams will have to use financial engineering
to recover lost revenue from tickets purchased by fans, who, due to the pandemic, are forbidden to
attend the matches at stadiums
24
.
5. Conclusion
The Covid-19's pandemic changed the life of fans and players in the year 2020. Soccer tournaments
suffered a short interruption and were restarted with some changes in the second half of the year.
In the supply side, a change in the rule regarding players' substitution helped keep the teams'
performance. From the demand side, crowds were not allowed in the stadiums. The teams had to
deal with a new scenario of an increased shortage of financial resources.
In Brazil, these changes took place in the middle of the regional tournaments before the beginning
of the Campeonato Brasileiro and in the third stage of the Copa do Brasil. All regional leagues
ordered interruption in their matches. Besides that, the regional changes were not homogeneous.
23
It is interesting to notice that the yellow cards to home teams seem to be positively correlated with the away team’s
wins.
24
See also Hammerschmidt et al. (2021) for the importance of a more ‘crisis-robust’ soccer entrepreneurship.
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The pandemic implied two main changes in the games' rules: (a) the prohibition of crowds'
presence in stadiums and (b) the change in the rules of substitution of players.
Our results for the regional leagues 1st division tournaments showed virtually no evidence of
differences between matches before and during pandemic (in goals or yellow cards). We found
that derbies are important in some proxies of home advantage. It seems that the rivalry prevailed
over the absence of the crowd. The pandemic did not seem to influence the regional tournaments.
We also found some mixed regional evidence regarding the yellow cards. In the Carioca's
tournament, away teams received fewer yellow cards, and the opposite was found in the Gaúcho's
tournament.
Maybe the uncertainty due to the pandemic was not large enough to change the clubs' previous
campaign's inertial effect. Additionally, at the time of the interruptions, politicians, regional soccer
federations, and fans hoped the pandemic would be finishing in Brazil by the early days of 2021.
It is also possible that the loss of efficacy of the teams in the field was avoided due to the new
substitution rules. In the long term, we speculate that the loss of revenues will reach all clubs and
highlight the importance of Brazilian soccer entrepreneurship. In this case, it will probably increase
inequality among them, worsening the competitive balance.
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Preprint not peer reviewed
18
Apendix Additional Figures
A.1. Correlation Matrix
diff_yc
abs_diff_yc
total_yc
home_yc
away_yc
diff_goals
abs_diff_goals
total_goals
home_goals
away_goals
diff_yc
1
0.211
-0.169
0.598
-0.736
-0.099
0.024
-0.033
-0.095
0.05
abs_diff_yc
0.211
1
0.221
0.335
0.021
-0.035
-0.049
-0.085
-0.083
-0.032
total_yc
-0.169
0.221
1
0.689
0.791
-0.082
-0.099
-0.004
-0.063
0.058
home_yc
0.598
0.335
0.689
1
0.101
-0.139
-0.062
-0.027
-0.12
0.084
away_yc
-0.736
0.021
0.791
0.101
1
0.005
-0.083
0.018
0.016
0.008
diff_goals
-0.099
-0.035
-0.082
-0.139
0.005
1
0.11
0.007
0.736
-0.731
abs_diff_goals
0.024
-0.049
-0.099
-0.062
-0.083
0.11
1
0.531
0.44
0.281
total_goals
-0.033
-0.085
-0.004
-0.027
0.018
0.007
0.531
1
0.682
0.677
home_goals
-0.095
-0.083
-0.063
-0.12
0.016
0.736
0.44
0.682
1
-0.076
away_goals
0.05
-0.032
0.058
0.084
0.008
-0.731
0.281
0.677
-0.076
1
This preprint research paper has not been peer reviewed. Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3833338
Preprint not peer reviewed
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
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Causal effects of an absent crowd on performances and refereeing decisions during Covid-19
  • A Bryson
  • P Dolton
  • J J Reade
  • D Schreyer
  • C Singleton
BRYSON, A.; DOLTON, P.; READE, J. J.; SCHREYER, D.; SINGLETON, C. Causal effects of an absent crowd on performances and refereeing decisions during Covid-19. Economics Letters, v. 198, p. 109664, 2021. Elsevier B.V. In: <https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econlet.2020.109664>..
Exploring the sports economic impact of COVID-19 on professional soccer
  • M Drewes
  • F Daumann
  • F Follert
DREWES, M.; DAUMANN, F.; FOLLERT, F. Exploring the sports economic impact of COVID-19 on professional soccer. Soccer and Society, v. 00, n. 00, p. 1-13, 2020. Routledge. In: <https://doi.org/10.1080/14660970.2020.1802256>.