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Identifying Child Molesters: Preventing Child Sexual Abuse by Recognizing the Patterns of the Offenders

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... van Dam (2001) reports that during treatment, offenders' talk about ''grooming themselves''. They were referring to the justification or denial of their offending behaviour. ...
... Grooming the child begins with identifying a vulnerable child (van Dam, 2001). Child sex offenders seem to have a special ability in recognizing vulnerable children (Conte et al., 1989). ...
... Offenders then begin grooming the adults in this community, specifically those who are significant to their potential victim, with the aim of creating an opportunity to access and abuse a child or children. van Dam (2001) reports that offenders are frequently charming, very helpful, and have insider status. This is often an important factor in gaining access to potential victim(s). ...
Article
The current review aims to outline the existing understanding of sexual grooming. Issues of poor definition, the adoption of the term ''grooming'' and the prevalence of sexual grooming will be discussed. Consideration will be given to how prominent theories of child sexual abuse often neglect sexual grooming. This will be followed by a detailed account of the existing knowledge within the literature. Three types of sexual grooming were thus identified: self-grooming, grooming the environment and significant others and grooming the child. Based on these findings, a new definition of sexual grooming is suggested. Furthermore, the findings correspond well with current models of the sexual offence process. A more comprehensive understanding of sexual grooming is required to facilitate a preventative approach to child protection.
... indicated that offenders reported having had worked in an organisation for an average of 16 years before being caught. Another important facet of this phenomenon as pointed out by van Dam (2001) is that many offenders can move from one organisation to another without being reported to authorities if discovered because work colleagues may be reluctant to tell on them due to personal relationships. This context, in part, increases the risk of offenders sexually abusing a high number of victims as indicated in the literature (e.g., Erooga et al. 2012;Sullivan and Beech 2004). ...
... In terms of the strategies adopted by offenders to sexually abuse children (sometimes labeled as 'grooming') in youth-oriented organisations, manipulation emerges by far as the norm (Colton and Vanstone 1996;Erooga et al. 2012;Leclerc et al. 2005;van Dam 2001). Leclerc et al. (2005) examined the strategies adopted by these offenders to gain victims' trust and cooperation in addition to maintaining victims' silence following abuse incidents. ...
... In order to gain cooperation, most offenders indicated giving children attention, non-sexual touching, and saying nice things about them while gradually introducing sexual touching into the relationship (100, 96, 96, and 83 %, respectively). The underlying theme emerging from this evidence on modus operandi is that offenders are in close proximity to potential victims and as a result, have the opportunity to develop a trust-based relationship with them often without the need to ask them to maintain silence once sexual activities have been introduced into the relationship (e.g., Leclerc et al. 2005;van Dam 2001). Another interesting finding is that the majority of offenders sexually abused their victims outside of the organisational setting, which again is facilitated by the nature of the relationship they have built with their victims initially. ...
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How to prevent child sexual abuse in youth-oriented organisations is a concern in our society for a number of reasons. One of these is that evidence indicates that sexual offenders, once they are recruited by a youth-oriented organisation, have the opportunity to abuse children for years before being detected and/or arrested. This phenomenon is also under intense media scrutiny, which is likely to lead parents and society in a direction of panic. In the tradition of offender-based research, and using a sample of 23 Canadian adult sex offenders who offended in a youth-oriented organisation (e.g., schools), we examined self-reported data from a situational crime prevention perspective. We specifically focused on information provided by offenders on three dimensions: (1) how to identify potential offenders during recruitment interviews; (2) what policies or regulations to implement in youth-oriented organisations to prevent child sexual abuse; and, (3) what parents could do to reduce the risk of sexual victimisation of their children. Then, the 25 situational prevention measures table is adopted to provide an organisational framework to map out suggestions made by offenders to inform prevention.
... Craven et al.'s (2006) literature review identified three types of sexual grooming: self-grooming, grooming the environment and significant others and grooming the child. Self-grooming involves the justification or denial of the offending behaviour as a precursor to the move from thinking about the act to being motivated to abuse (Van Dam, 2001). Self-grooming is likely to be affected by the response of both the wider community and the child and the success of the grooming process. ...
... Grooming the environment begins with identifying the vulnerable child (Conte, Wolf, & Smith, 1989;Van Dam, 2001). Offenders groom the wider environment in the form of parents, carers, teachers, social workers etc. by integrating themselves into places and community networks where they are likely to have contact with children. ...
... Craven et al. (2006) commented on the ways that sex offenders exploit opportunity, in that they seek to ingratiate themselves into a community and places where they are likely to meet children and will often assume a position of trust. Van Dam (2001) reported that many descriptions of abusers amongst research respondents are that they are frequently "charming", "very helpful" and have "insider status". Another tactic is to become indispensable to the wider community. ...
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INTRODUCTION: This article focuses on the problem of risk instrumentalism in social work and the way it can erode the relationship-based nature of practice and with it, the kinds of critical reflexivity required for remedial interventions to keep children safe.METHOD: By exploring the relationship between the process of grooming and the condition known as Stockholm syndrome, the article seeks to address this problem by offering some concepts to inform a critical understanding of case dynamics in the sexual abuse of children which can explain the reluctance of victim-survivors to disclose.FINDINGS: Beginning with an overview of the development of actuarial risk assessment (ARA) tools the article examines the grooming process in child sexual abuse contexts raising the question: “Is grooming a facilitator of Stockholm syndrome?” and seeks to answer it by examining the precursors and psychological responses that constitute both grooming and Stockholm syndrome.CONCLUSION: The article identifies the underlying concepts that enable an understanding of the dynamics of child sexual abuse, but also identifies the propensity of practitioners to be exposed to some of the features of Stockholm syndrome.
... The offender engages in strategies including selecting a vulnerable victim, gaining access to the victim, developing trust, and then desensitizing the victim to touch. 128 Many of the grooming behaviors appear innocent in nature. 129 Approximately 60% of the perpetrators are known to the child but are not family members; 30-45% are family members; 42% acquaintances; 3-10% are strangers to the child; and approximately 23% of cases the perpetrator is under age 18, and 90% of the perpetrators are male. ...
... Many of the grooming occurred to allow for in person contact within 3 days 208 whereas others take their time to develop the relationship. 128,209 Some have sexual online user names. ...
... 132 The offender engages in strategies including selecting a vulnerable victim, gaining access to the victim, developing trust, and then desensitizing the victim to touch. 128 Many of the grooming behaviors appear innocent in nature. 129 Approximately 60% of the perpetrators are known to the child but are not family members; 30% are family members; 10% are stranger to the child; and approximately 23% of cases the perpetrator is under age 18, and 90% of the perpetrators are male. ...
... Proces poszukiwania usprawiedliwienia dla czynu przed jego popełnieniem nazywany jest często self-groomingiem (Craven, Brown, Glichrist, 2006;van Dam, 2001). Podobnie jak część sprawców podejmuje działania, żeby przygotować do wykorzystania dzieci, ich otoczenie i ważnych dorosłych, tak znaczna część sprawców przygotowuje do tego zachowania samych siebie 9 . ...
... Proces ten jest opisywany przez niektórych autorów jako forma groomingu, tzw. self-grooming (Craven, Brown, Glichrist, 2006;van Dam, 2001). ...
... Innymi słowy, ma ona charakter egodystoniczny. Sprawca musi zatem usprawiedliwić ją przed samym sobą, dokonać self-groomingu (Craven, Brown, Glichrist, 2006;van Dam, 2001). Usprawiedliwia motywację, tworząc ukryte teorie należące do jednego z pięciu typów wyróżnionych przez Warda i Keenana (1999) i generując w oparciu o nie sądy (poszczególne zniekształcenia). ...
... Successful grooming involves the skillful manipulation of a child and the community so that sexual abuse can be more easily committed without detection (van Dam 2006). Child molesters who groom often do so while keeping a guise of being kind, charming, and helpful (van Dam 2001). ...
... Successful grooming involves the skillful manipulation of a child and the community so that sexual abuse can be more easily committed without detection (van Dam 2006). Child molesters who groom often do so while keeping a guise of being kind, charming, and helpful (van Dam 2001). They strategically manipulate the victim, their family, and the community to hide their deviant intentions and avoid detection. ...
... Deceptive trust development is a child molesters' "ability to cultivate relationships with potential victims and possibly their families that are intended to benefit the perpetrator's own sexual interests" (Olson et al. 2007:240). This step is often regarded as the central role of the grooming process, wherein the offender establishes trust and cooperation with the victim (Salter 1995;van Dam 2001). The offender accomplishes this by befriending the child, by learning about his/her interests, being helpful, showering the child with gifts and attention, or sharing secrets (McAlinden 2006). ...
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It has been proposed that sexual grooming behaviors of child molesters are not easily identified prior to the abuse. The present study investigated whether participants could recognize grooming behaviors, and if so, identify which stages of the process were most easily identified. Participants were randomly assigned to read one of six vignettes describing the stages of the grooming process. Results revealed no differences in likelihood ratings that the person in the vignette was a child molester and would commit sexual abuse between any of the conditions, suggesting that people may be unable to identify potentially predatory behaviors of child molesters prospectively.
... Psychoeducation programmes for the community and helping professions, sexual safety education for children at a young age, and rehabilitation of sexual offenders are among PENGENALAN Istilah antun seksual (sexual grooming) pertama kali dikemukakan oleh Anna Salter (1995) bagi menjelaskan kaedah digunakan pelaku seksual dalam memilih dan mengekalkan eksploitasi seks terhadap kanak-kanak. Istilah antun secara umum merujuk proses yang mana pelaku seksual memanipulasi kanak-kanak bagi tujuan eksploitasi seks selain melindungi rahsia (Wyre, 2000;Van Dam, 2001). Craven et al. (2006) pula mendefinisikan antun seksual sebagai satu proses individu mempersiapkan kanak-kanak, orang dewasa yang berdekatan dengan kanak-kanak dan persekitarannya bagi tujuan melakukan jenayah seksual. ...
... Tahap ketiga ialah membina kepercayaan mangsa dan individu dipersekitarannya. Tahap ini dianggap penting yang mana pelaku membentuk kepercayaan, gambaran imej positif dan mendapat kerjasama dengan mangsa (Salter et al., 2003;Van Dam, 2001). Strategi yang digunakan seperti menjadi kawan kepada mangsa, belajar minat dan kesukaan mangsa, membantu mangsa, memberi hadiah, wang, perhatian, mahupun berkongsi rahsia (McAlinden, 2006). ...
... Kesemua mangsa dalam kajian ini telah sedia ada mempunyai hubungan yang baik serta mempunyai tahap kepercayaan yang tinggi terhadap pelaku. Terdapat usaha membentuk satu hubungan atas dasar kepercayaan dan kerjasama (Salter et al., 2003;Van Dam, 2001;McAlinden, 2006;Mooney & Ost, 2013). Kepercayaan dibina dengan perbuatan dan tingkah laku yang menunjukkan sikap prihatin, mengambil berat dan memberi perhatian. ...
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ABSTRAK Penderaan seksual kanak-kanak jarang berlaku secara spontan sebaliknya merupakan tindakan bermotifkan seksual dan dirancang secara sistematik. Proses ini dinamakan sebagai antun seksual (sexual grooming). Objektif kajian ini ialah meneroka proses antun seksual bersemuka yang melibatkan kanak-kanak mangsa inses. Kajian ini menggunakan reka bentuk kajian kualitatif, iaitu kajian kes untuk meneroka proses antun seksual. Kaedah temubual separa berstruktur digunakan sebagai kaedah mendapatkan maklumat. Seramai tiga (3) orang peserta kajian berusia di bawah 18 tahun terlibat dalam kajian ini. Analisis tematik digunakan untuk membina tema-tema hasil daripada temubual yang dijalankan. Dapatan kajian mendapati bahawa proses antun seksual dalam kes inses melibatkan beberapa proses utama. Ia melibatkan proses seperti (1) mendapatkan akses; (2) membina kepercayaan; (3) disensitisasi dan (4) kawalan kerahsiaan. Kesemua mangsa melalui proses antun seksual lebih dari setahun. Kajian ini memberi implikasi tentang pentingnya program pencegahan dan perlindungan berterusan dalam masyarakat untuk melindungi kanak-kanak dari menjadi mangsa jenayah seksual. Antara cadangan yang perlu diberi perhatian ialah program psikopendidikan bagi masyarakat dan profesion tolong bantu, pendidikan keselamatan seksual untuk kanak-kanak diperingkat usia muda dan pemulihan pelaku jenayah seksual bagi mengurangkan risiko relaps dan jenayah berulang. Cadangan bagi fokus kajian akan datang turut dibincangkan. Kata kunci: inses, penderaan seksual kanak-kanak, antun seksual, jenayah seksual, sumbang mahram ABSTRACT Child sexual abuse is rarely unintentional; rather, it is a sexually driven and methodical act. This is referred to as sexual grooming. The objective of this study was to explore the process of face-to-face sexual grooming involving incest victims. To investigate the sexual grooming process, this study used a qualitative study design, that is, a case study. The information was gathered using the semi-structured interview method. Participants for this study included three (3) young children under the age of eighteen. Themes generated from the interviews were constructed using thematic analysis. According to the study's findings, sexual grooming in incest cases entails a number of crucial processes. It entails strategies like (1) getting access, (2) building trust, (3) desensitization, and (4) maintaining confidentiality. All the victims were sexually groomed for more than a year. The need of continual prevention and protection initiatives in society to safeguard children from becoming victims of sexual crimes is discussed in this study. Psychoeducation programmes for the community and helping professions, sexual safety education for children at a young age, and rehabilitation of sexual offenders are among
... The information below represents areas for investigation that may often be overlooked. within 3 days [16,11] whereas others take their time to develop the relationship [17,18]. This poses a concern that perhaps the majority of solicitation offenders are contact-driven versus fantasy-driven. ...
... Most solicitation offenders are likely contact-driven versus fantasy-driven given that most fantasy-driven offenders engage in contact offenses. Some take time to establish and develop a relationship with the victim whereas others move quickly to establish offline contact with victims, but most all eventually engage in contact offending [16,60,18,17,11]. ...
... A hebephilic has a primary sexual attraction to early adolescents (approximately ages [11][12][13][14]. A ephebophilic has a primary sexual attraction to late aged adolescents (approximately ages [15][16][17][18][19]. Any of these three types of sexual abusers may engage in sexual contact with adults for primarily nonsexual needs, such as gaining access to children or for impression management (to appear "normal") or because there are situational offenders. ...
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This article highlights important areas to consider and pay attention to when investigating sex crimes, especially focussed on those who have child victims. However, the information also pertains to any violent offender, though the focus of this article is on the child sexual predator. Use of the term “child porn” is necessary because much of the research utilizes that term. The term “Child Sexually Exploitive Material (CSEM)” includes child porn, but also includes any object or material that the individual finds sexually arousing. If the offender finds children's underwear or pictures of clothed children sexually arousing, these are now part of the offender’s CSEM. It is important to understand that violent and sexual predators think in very similar ways and investigative strategies for sex offenders apply to any violent offender.
... Esta última estratégia verifica-se tanto no aliciamento presencial como no aliciamento em linha, objeto do presente estudo (Whittle, et al., 2013). A "preparação de si", ou self-grooming; diz respeito às justificações ou negações dos ofensores acerca do seu comportamento (van Dam, 2002), e desempenha um papel na passagem da motivação à escolha da vítima. Estas justificações e negações manifestam-se, nos ofensores, sob a forma de distorções cognitivas ou, como proposto por Ward e Keenan (1999), sob a forma de teorias implícitas normalmente presentes nos abusadores sexuais, num total de cinco: a perceção das "crianças como objeto sexual", isto é, a perceção de que as crianças são capazes de apreciar, e de desejar, sexo; a "titularidade" ou direito do indivíduo a manifestar as suas necessidades e esperar que tal seja aceite pelos outros; a "teoria do mundo perigoso" que enfatiza os desejos dos outros, por um lado, traduzindo a convicção de que estes se comportam de forma inaceitável para promover os seus interesses e, por outro, de que os adultos não são confiáveis, ao contrário das crianças, afetuosas e leais; a noção de "incontrolabilidade" do desejo sexual, visto como algo externo ao ofensor e que o iliba de responsabilidade face à sua conduta; e, por fim, a "natureza do dano", que implica a perceção de que há gradientes de prejuízo e que a atividade sexual não é, inerentemente, passível de causar dano (Ward & Keenan, 1999). ...
... A "preparação do ambiente e do outro significativo", grooming the environment, envolve, após a identificação do seu alvo, potencial ou real, a integração social do ofensor, inclusivamente em lugares onde terá probabilidade de entrar em contacto com crianças, conquistando a confiança dos adultos responsáveis por estas, de que são exemplo os pais, professores ou outros cuidadores (Craven et al., 2006), até conseguir acesso ao menor. Tal ocorre, regra geral, muito tempo antes da concretização do abuso (van Dam, 2002). 7 A "preparação da criança" pode envolver ou não uma componente relacional, como complemento ao desejo de gratificação sexual do ofensor, e este fator depende diretamente da sua motivação para o abuso (Craven et al., 2006). ...
... De acordo com Berliner e Conte (1990), o ofensor adota várias estratégias de aliciamento físico e psicológico, sendo que se verifica uma sexualização gradual da relação entre ofensor e menor, como consequência direta de uma normalização dos contactos entre crianças e adultos, que legitima, por sua vez, o posicionamento do ofensor no papel de educador sexual, responsável pela preparação da criança para o futuro. Enquanto alcança progressivamente a confiança da criança, pode começar a ultrapassar os limites do seu espaço pessoal (van Dam, 2002), dessensibilizando a criança ao toque e progredindo para toques de cariz sexual (Berliner & Comte, 1990). Ao que indica, os aliciadores sexuais de menores conseguem descobrir as vulnerabilidades das crianças e explorá-las até obterem controlo sobre estas, dispensando a necessidade de recorrer a formas alternativas, porventura violentas, de coação (Berliner & Conte, 1990). ...
Thesis
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O aliciamento sexual de menores em linha, ou grooming online, é, em termos gerais, o processo através do qual um adulto recorre a ferramentas digitais, como é o caso da Internet, telefones móveis, salas de conversação (chat) ou jogos em rede, para procurar ativamente o contacto com um menor com o objetivo de desenvolver com este uma relação e/ou comportamento sexualmente abusivo. Este processo tem sido alvo de investigação nos últimos anos, porém, tanto em Portugal como noutros países, a investigação sobre o fenómeno é escassa. O presente estudo teve como principal objetivo explorar e compreender, em profundidade, as perspetivas de menores e ofensores sobre o processo de aliciamento sexual de menores na Internet, procurando aprofundar os contributos de estudos anteriores. Para tal, recorreu-se a uma metodologia qualitativa, tendo sido realizadas entrevistas em profundidade a seis participantes, entre os quais se contam um ofensor condenado por crimes relacionados com o aliciamento sexual de menores em linha e pornografia infantil e cinco participantes do sexo feminino que tiveram experiências de aliciamento antes de atingirem a maioridade. As entrevistas foram transcritas verbatim e objeto de análise temática, que envolveu a codificação completa dos dados e posterior constituição de uma grelha de análise e mapa temático. Os resultados deste estudo centram-se em três grandes temas: no modo como os participantes se movimentam no espaço online; na forma como percecionam e significam as estratégias que são usadas no aliciamento de menores em linha, designadamente, as envolvidas no acesso a, seleção das e contacto com as vítimas, de entre as quais se destacou, neste estudo, a pornografia infantil; e, por fim, num conjunto de perceções, motivações e justificações dos participantes relativas ao processo de aliciamento. Os resultados demonstraram que, de acordo com a informação partilhada pelos participantes, todas estas dimensões estão interrelacionadas, se situam no contexto pessoal, social e virtual em que estes se vão movimentando e conferem ao processo de aliciamento em linha um carácter dinâmico. Palavras-Chave: Aliciamento sexual; Internet; Grooming sexual; Ofensores; Menores.
... abuse, known as "sexual grooming," may decrease the likelihood of its detection and disclosure (Van Dam, 2001). ...
... It is estimated that almost half of the cases of CSA involve some element of sexual grooming (Canter et al., 1998). While there has yet to be a universally agreed upon definition in the literature, the term sexual grooming typically refers to the process by which an offender skillfully manipulates a potential victim into situations in which sexual abuse can be more readily committed, while simultaneously preventing disclosure (Van Dam, 2001;Wyre, 2000). Importantly, it is unclear what specific behaviors constitute sexual grooming, given that the behaviors may not be unlike normal adult/child interactions (Craven et al., 2006), and there has yet to be a validated model of the sexual grooming process. ...
... The purpose of familial grooming is to gain the trust of caregivers in order to increase access to the victim and decrease the likelihood of disclosure. An offender may also engage in community or institutional grooming, such as becoming a respected member of society or seeking careers or volunteer positions that allow access to children (e.g., Boy Scouts, schools, foster care; McAlinden, 2006;Sullivan & Beech, 2002;Van Dam, 2001). Given the complicated nature of identifying sexual grooming, it has been proposed that recognizing sexual grooming behaviors following the disclosure of the sexual offense is much easier than prospective identification (Craven et al., 2006). ...
Article
Sexual grooming has been deemed an integral part of the child sexual abuse process. However, there has yet to be a universally accepted model for this process and as a consequence there is no clear understanding of which behaviors constitute sexual grooming. One proposed model of in-person sexual grooming outlined five stages of the process: 1) victim selection, 2) gaining access and isolating a child, 3) trust development, 4) desensitization to sexual content and physical contact, and 5) maintenance following the abuse (Winters & Jeglic, 2017). The present study sought to validate this Sexual Grooming Model (SGM) and identify behaviors that may be employed during each stage of the process. First, a thorough review of the literature was conducted to identify a comprehensive list of sexual grooming behaviors (n = 77). Second, 18 experts in the field completed a survey which asked them to rate the extent to which each of the five stages and potential grooming behaviors were relevant to the sexual grooming process. Results provided support for the SGM and produced 42 behaviors that were considered to be grooming tactics within these stages. From this, the first validated, comprehensive model of in-person sexual grooming is proposed. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications and future directions in the field.
... They infiltrate families and institutions in a community, all the while grooming children for sexual abuse. Grooming is typically a long-term process, requiring planning and strategy to cloak the child molester's deviant intentions (McAlinden, 2006;van Dam, 2001). While the research examining grooming behaviors has increased in recent years (Craven, Brown, & Gilchrist, 2006), there is still much to be learned and understood about the sexual grooming behaviors of child molesters. ...
... For many years, public perceptions were that child abuse is a product of "stranger danger" and that child molesters are lurking, menacing males ready to snatch a child up off the streets (van Dam, 2001). However, research has shown that the majority of child sexual abuse is perpetrated by someone known to the victim, with as many as 80-90% of victims having known their abuser (Douglas & Finkelhor, 2005;Dubé & Hébert, 1988). ...
... In general, sex offenders are a largely heterogeneous group, thus making identification of a specific sex offender profile impossible (van Dam, 2001). Even among those who abuse children, there are several profiles that describe the behaviors. ...
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abstrac Recent high profile cases of child sexual abuse have increased interest in the grooming behaviors of child molesters and why these offenders are not identified sooner. This study examined one possible explanation-the hindsight bias. Five hundred and twenty-six undergraduates were randomly assigned to read one of six vignettes and asked to rate the likelihood the person in the story is a child molester. Results supported the presence of the hindsight bias, with participants who were given outcome information overestimating the likelihood they would have predicted that the person was a child molester. Also, participants were able to recognize sexual grooming behaviors when the potential child molester was a relative and nonrelative. Findings indicated that sexual grooming behaviors may be more easily identified than previously proposed, but individuals greatly overestimate the likelihood they would have predicted a person was a child molester once they are given outcome information.
... Inductive approaches Attempts to conceptualise grooming have, to the large part, adopted a bottom-up descriptive approach, with efforts having been made to identify and to categorise grooming tactics in a variety of contexts (Black et al, 2015;Kloess, Hamilton-Giachritsis & Beech, 2019;Knoll, 2010;McAlinden, 2006;Pranato, Gunawan & Soewito, 2015;Rigg & Phippen, 2016;Salter & Dagistanli, 2015;Williams, Elliott & Beech, 2013;Wolf & Pruitt, 2019) and/or to thematically categorise such tactics in terms of different phases or stages in the grooming process. (Colton, Roberts & Vanstone, 2012;Gallagher, 2000;McAlinden, 2006;O'Connell, 2003;Olson, Daggs, Ellevold & Rogers, 2007;Van Dam, 2001;Winters & Jeglic, 2017). ...
... In such situations, offenders may employ control strategies in order to monitor, and to address, discrepancies between an individual's current emotional state and a desired emotional state that is deemed to be optimal for goal attainment (Koole & Aldao, 2016). Although emotion self-regulation has not been a primary focus of research on grooming, a number of authors have noted that offenders may experience cognitive dissonance (leading to feelings of guilt and/or distress) as a result of their participation in grooming activities (Craven et al, 2006;Van Dam, 2001), with available evidence suggesting that offenders make efforts to self-regulate undesirable emotional states by employing cognitive distortions -e.g., employing victim blaming strategies or minimising selfperceptions of the harmful nature of sexual exploitation -in order to achieve an emotional state that is more conducive to efficient goal attainment (cf., Bennett & O'Donohue, 2014;Chiang & Grant, 2017;Craven et al, 2006;De Santisteban et al, 2018;Ost & Mooney, 2013;Van Dam, 2001;Webster et al, 2012). A further limitation of Elliott's (2017) model is that it largely neglects the influence of social influence on self-regulatory processes. ...
... In such situations, offenders may employ control strategies in order to monitor, and to address, discrepancies between an individual's current emotional state and a desired emotional state that is deemed to be optimal for goal attainment (Koole & Aldao, 2016). Although emotion self-regulation has not been a primary focus of research on grooming, a number of authors have noted that offenders may experience cognitive dissonance (leading to feelings of guilt and/or distress) as a result of their participation in grooming activities (Craven et al, 2006;Van Dam, 2001), with available evidence suggesting that offenders make efforts to self-regulate undesirable emotional states by employing cognitive distortions -e.g., employing victim blaming strategies or minimising selfperceptions of the harmful nature of sexual exploitation -in order to achieve an emotional state that is more conducive to efficient goal attainment (cf., Bennett & O'Donohue, 2014;Chiang & Grant, 2017;Craven et al, 2006;De Santisteban et al, 2018;Ost & Mooney, 2013;Van Dam, 2001;Webster et al, 2012). A further limitation of Elliott's (2017) model is that it largely neglects the influence of social influence on self-regulatory processes. ...
... As a result, women end up with " hunky men, rich, influential men, drug dealers … " (Selby, 2006, p. 9); even ugly beasts of men can be esthetically ideal when perceived as wealthy and generous. Van Dam (2013) argued that undesirable men draw on these social expectations and reinvent themselves with heterosexual identities to meet the approval of others. And the politics of love in which women are seduced with his gifts and social respect influence women's reciprocity in an economy that demands her dedication towards him (Berlant, 2011). ...
... For women who learn that their men have immoral secrets, energy gets invested into maintaining illusions of being with a loving man who is good looking, a soulmate, or otherwise wealthy, generous, or so forth. And because child sexual abuse is socially constructed socially as abhorrent, it is difficult for women to speak out and it is also difficult for others to fathom that the people they love could be doing such things (Van Dam, 2013). Even professional responses may draw on heteronormative discourses with disbelief that the women either did not know about the child sexual abusing or couldn't do anything to stop it. ...
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Understanding the paradox of heteronormative power in which women are forced into subjectivity and simultaneously constructed with agency as they take up available discourses is critical for breaking women's silence and for responding to child safety concerns. This paper draws from multiple interviews with fourteen women who partnered with men they later knew were sexually abusing children. Transcripts were analyzed by applying feminist interpretations of Foucauldian discourse theory that searched for repetitions of discourse in the language that women used to describe the heteronormative dating scripts used by their partners. The women indicated, once child sexual abuse became known, that the same heteronormative discourses operated to shame, blame and silence them. These discursive pressures compelled the women to maintain facades that represented heteronormative relationship ideals, which served to increase the men's control over them and strengthen the men's ability to keep their sexual abuse of children secret.
... It does not exclude that that victim may experience sexual arousal or gratification as a side effect of offenders acting (however that is not the primary purpose of the offender). 4) the need of keeping the activity secret -the offender tries to protect him/herself against disclosure and its consequences by keeping total secret around his activity [9][10]. The person who considers reporting need not to have 100 % certainty that crime has been committed (it is up to professionals to investigate what has indeed happened). ...
... It is not cruel to hold him accountable for his deeds -really cruel is to let him go freely in a community that is unaware and put children at risk of traumatization -a negative impact which is often life-long. [23,10,24] ...
Chapter
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The chapter refers to a variety of ethical dilemmas faced not only by professionals but also by lay people in the occurrence of child sexual abuse cases – from the reluctance to report the case or what level of information to let be available to the public, through the uncertainty concerning the approach toward the accused or convicted, how to behave toward the victim, how to organize relationships in the family of the victim, to the dilemmas regarding the attitude toward the individual, who was released from prison and what preventive measures can be used.
... Most studies on manipulation or grooming in the context of CSA have focused on the perpetrator's perspective (e.g., Craven et al., 2006;Ward et al., 1995;Whittle et al., 2012). With respect to self-grooming, van Dam (2001) reported that during treatment, offenders described "grooming themselves" to justify or deny their abusive behavior. However, studies on perpetrator self-grooming are sparse. ...
... Most researchers addressing the phenomenon have indicated that the grooming process begins with identifying a vulnerable child (Conte et al., 1989;van Dam, 2001). Following the identification of a target, perpetrators often verbally and physically desensitize the child to sexual contact (Olson et al., 2007). ...
Article
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The literature on child sexual abuse (CSA) has contributed greatly to the understanding of child–perpetrator dynamic while mainly addressing the concepts of grooming and manipulation. Considerably less attention has been dedicated, however, to child–perpetrator dynamic in intrafamilial child sexual abuse (IFCSA). The current study examined how children perceive and experience the dynamic with their perpetrator parents in the context of IFCSA, as conveyed by victims. Analysis of 29 forensic interviews with children aged 8 to 14 years suggested above all, across all identified themes, the unspoken nature of IFCSA. Specifically, the children shared their surprise at the abusive incidents despite having described a long and unspoken grooming process. The children shared their understanding of the secretive nature of IFCSA although that too was unspoken, while illustrating the fear and terror in the family dynamic. Finally, the children discussed the elusiveness of the dynamic in terms of the natural and unnatural aspects of the relationship. The discussion addresses the unique nature of IFCSA and the family dynamic. The main implication for practice is the urgent need to modify existing instruction and training programs for practitioners to better adjust them to IFCSA survivors. More specifically, the elusive nature of IFCSA must be conveyed to both clinical and forensic practitioners who need to evaluate and intervene in with child survivors of IFCSA. In addition, the fear and terror that characterize the family dynamic and the unspoken, unbridled rule of the perpetrator fathers are of central importance in adapting interventions to children and their families in the context of IFCSA.
... Principles and specific behaviour guidelines for staff are outlined in (Brewster 2001). When supervisors or other staff challenge inappropriate or concerning behaviour, it is important to listen to the content of the excuses while not being mesmerised by the delivery and to stand firm in the face of intimidation or attack (van Dam, 2001). There should be organisational guidelines established to reflect this knowledge by stating clearly what are or are not acceptable interactions with children. ...
... Critics of the view that child sex offenders possess motivations that are pathological and long-standing and which differentiate them from non-sexual offenders, consider attempts at classification of sex offenders to be very limited because the classifications rely on what the client admits to during an assessment. Most child abusers engage in a variety of different sexual activities with children and operate both within and outside the family (Abel and Osborn 1992), making classification efforts artificial (van Dam 2001). What the research shows is that child sex abusers and probably other types of maltreatment perpetrators are far from being an easily identified group with a discrete set of characteristics. ...
Article
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No selection processes can guarantee exclusion from organisations of all individuals who pose a risk to children. Employment screening is one component of a broader approach to minimise the risk of child abuse. Environmental conditions play an influential role in facilitating child abuse. Child abuse and maltreatment can be minimised through appropriate organisational management. There is a greater risk of child maltreatment in the absence of clear guidelines and protocols for dealing with accused or convicted perpetrators. Comprehensive child abuse prevention strategies seek to minimise the risk of child abuse occurring in organisational settings by targeting at least four distinct domains, including victims (and potential victims), offenders (and potential offenders), specific places and circumstances, and whole communities.
... Oftentimes, offenders are in positions of trust with the family or community (Craven et al., 2006;M. Elliott et al., 1995;Lanning & Dietz, 2014; van Dam, 2001). Many times, perpetrators will establish relationships with the caregivers to reduce suspicions ( van Dam, 2006;Wortley & Smallbone, 2006) or to decrease the likelihood of disclosure if victims do not think parents will believe them (Warner, 2000). ...
... The third stage is the emotional recruitment or manipulation of the victim (Winters & Jeglic, 2017) to develop trust, essential for gaining compliance (see Bennell, Alison, Stein, Alison, & Canter, 2001;Christiansen & Blake, 1990;Salter, 1995; van Dam, 2001). Common tactics in this stage include manipulation, seduction and enticement, game playing, and providing drugs or alcohol to a potential victim (Terry, 2008). ...
Article
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Research has established that sexually abusive priests often use grooming strategies on victims. Recently, researchers have proposed a behavioral taxonomy used specifically by clergy who sexually abuse children. Because this nascent taxonomy has only been studied once using a limited sample of sexually abusive priests, we seek to replicate and expand on its findings using a sample of abusive clergy from a separate institution. Specifically, we analyzed files of 18 monks in Minnesota who were credibly accused of sexual abuse. Using a deductive approach, we searched through these files in an effort to find all instances of eight clergy sexual grooming behaviors that were identified in previous research by Spraitz, Bowen, and Strange. Our findings suggest there is evidence to support the existence of this taxonomy of priest sexual grooming, although we argue that certain aspects of the centerpiece technique of their classification scheme are faulty and must be studied more extensively.
... Van Dam (2001) pointed out that many child molesters spend years gaining the trust of members in the community before actually sexually abusing any children. She hypothesized that these offenders use several social psychological techniques to groom the community effectively. ...
Article
Abstract There have been claims that some child molesters engage in a "seduction stage" prior to committing abuse. These behaviors, commonly known as "grooming," are understood as methods child molesters use to gain access to and prepare future victims to be compliant with abuse. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding exactly what this process entails and how it is clearly distinguished from normal adult-child interactions. It is important to devise an accurate definition of grooming for scientific, clinical, and forensic purposes. We critically evaluate the various definitions and reveal problematic heterogeneity. Furthermore, there are no methods of known psychometrics to validly assess grooming. We review the empirical literature regarding the occurrence of grooming and propose future directions for research.
... Während die Täter beim traditionellem Grooming ihre Opfer überwie- gend aus einem engen sozialen Umfeld (z.B. Familie, Freunde der Familie, Nachbarn, Arbeitsumfeld der Eltern) auswählen (van Dam 2001), scheinen Cybergroomer hingegen ihre Opfer landesweit oder gar weltweit zu suchen. ...
Article
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Die Nutzung von Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologie birgt nicht nur neue Chancen, sondern auch neue Gefahren für Jugendliche in sich. Eine solche Gefahr stellt Cybergrooming dar. Diese besondere Form sexueller Onlineviktimisierung avanciert zu einer zunehmenden Herausforderung für Jugendliche, Eltern und Schule. Ziel des Beitrags ist es, eine De-finition von Cybergrooming zu geben, Besonderheiten dieses neuen Ge-waltphänomens herauszustellen, Prävalenzraten darzulegen, zentrale Befunde zu Viktimologie und Täterforschung zu referieren und erste Ideen für Präventionsmaßnahmen zu entwickeln. Deutlich wird, dass bisher noch zu wenig Wissen über Cybergrooming als empirisch abgesichert betrachtet werden kann und größere Bemühungen von Wissenschaft und Praxis vonnö-ten sind, um Jugendliche in Zukunft besser vor Cybergrooming zu schützen.
... This could create a potential risk for the child or young person's safety. Also, perpetrators of child abuse can work hard to shift responsibility from themselves to others and some kinds of child abusers (specifically sexual abusers) are charismatic people who can concoct plausible excuses for their behaviour and seek to shift the blame to others (van Dam, 2001). Confronting an alleged perpetrator of sexual or other types of abuse should only be done by professional child protection workers or the police. ...
Article
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This paper discusses the topic of children and young people’s disclosures of abuse. It outlines what we know through research and practice about how, why, what and when children and young people are likely to disclose. It offers suggestions for parents, family members, friends, professionals or others to help respond to children and young people at the time of disclosure and in the longer term. Most research into children and young people’s disclosures has focused on disclosures of child sexual abuse, however, many of the issues canvassed are also likely to be relevant to disclosures of other types of abuse (i.e., physical, psychological and emotional abuse). The information in this paper is drawn from a range of sources developed through both research and practice.
... A lack of supervision is another facilitating condition that enables offenders to gain victim trust. Training sessions on modus operandi strategies adopted by offenders and abuse situations could be provided for parents, and potential guardians working in settings where children congregate (see also, van Dam, 2001). Increasing supervision by monitoring friends and acquaintances, for instance, might also help prevent some offenders from securing victim trust. ...
Article
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The current study describes and examines the crime-commission process followed in child sex offending. There are two major aims in this study. The first aim is to propose a script model in child sex offending. The second aim is to show the relevance of completing crime scripts to identify situational crime prevention measures. One of the weaknesses in the current crime script literature is the absence of proposed prevention measures. Besides Cornish, only Clarke and Newman have used crime scripts for its main purpose, which is to offer a way to develop situational crime prevention techniques. In this study, situational prevention measures are mapped onto the crime-commission process in child sex offending.
... However, in the literature the act of arousing the libido or sexual interest of a minor is referred to as grooming (Craven et al. 2002;Gillespie 2004); adults manipulating children by being sympathetic to their wishes in order to persuade them to engage in sex. In the course of grooming, intimate contact is gradually intensified and the child is made an accomplice to the sexual event (see also Finkelhor 1984;Leberg 1997;Fernandez et al. 1999;Warner 2000;Van Dam 2001;Gooren 2011d). Notwithstanding a romantic relationship, a much older person who has sex with a teenager is always playing a dangerous game. ...
Article
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Those between 12 and 18 years of age are protected by Dutch criminal law against sexual contact. Based on criminal cases of sexually active youngsters this article will show that promiscuous teenage sexual activity poses some dilemmas for the just application of law enforcement operating on the basis of age limits. This relates to the fact that sexual contact with minors can be a crime regardless of whether the act can be qualified as consensual. Taking ‘consent’ as a starting point the focus will be on criminalizing sex with youngsters from the standpoint of the alleged victim, the alleged offender and society at large. What will be shown is that sex at an illegal age is much more likely to be authorized when the age discrepancy is trivial and when the act of sex is accompanied by an affective relationship over time. Most notably this poses some conflict for promiscuous sexual contact among youngsters exploring their sexual desires and consequently constituting a temporal relationship. After presenting a legal framework and analyzing some empirical data this article will offer some theoretical reflections on teenage sexual experimentation as linked to social conditions at a more abstract level. In conclusion it will be argued that the legal application of parameters controlling teenage sexual activity is done in order to preserve more than just the sexual integrity of a minor.
... Frequently, offenders will also establish a position of trust with the parents of the prospective victim and within the community, thus giving themselves access to a victim (Knoll 2010;van Dam 2001). The purpose of familial and community grooming is to gain the trust of adults and significant others in the victim's life who can allow the perpetrator access to the child (Craven et al. 2006). ...
Article
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Sexual grooming is generally thought of as the way that would-be abusers build trust and camaraderie with their victims in order to lower the victims’ inhibitions and eventually take advantage of the situation. Minimal levels of empiricism have focused on the sexual grooming patterns of abusive Catholic priests in the United States. In order to help close this gap, we conducted a retrospective content analysis of publicly available documents of credibly accused priests from one diocese in Illinois. Findings suggest that accused priests from this diocese used any of eight grooming techniques in order to abuse their victims; one of these tactics is specific to priest offenders. Using that knowledge, we propose and discuss a behavioral taxonomy of priest sexual grooming as well as the direction that future research should take in assessing this potential taxonomy.
... Children want to please teachers, who they understand to hold the keys to their success, at school and after graduation (Shoop, 2004). This need to please can be exploited by potential offenders (Van Dam, 2001), who can use this power to "groom" a student for eventual abuse or misconduct. Grooming involves easing a targeted student into a misconduct situation by providing special attention and rewards while gradually increasing the frequency and intensity of inap- propriate sexual behaviors, such as touching (Salter, 2003;Shoop, 2004). ...
Article
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This treatment-only study examines the impact of Making Right Choices, an online course prevention program designed to promote the knowledge, awareness, and prevention of school employee sexual misconduct. The sample included 13,007 school employee participants who took the Making Right Choices course between May 6, 2011, and March 12, 2017, in California and New York. The 20-item measure, Preventing Misconduct Assessment, was administered to participants at the end of the online course; completion of the measure was voluntary. Descriptive statistics revealed that a large majority of participants reported increasing their knowledge and awareness of school employee sexual misconduct because of their participation in the Making Right Choices online course. This study yields important findings regarding the impact of a sexual misconduct prevention program and, specifically, the difference it may make for non-licensed school employees. These findings indicate that school employees are accepting of sexual misconduct training programs and rate them as having value.
... Emotional self-regulation. Interviews with convicted child sexual offenders indicate that some proportion of groomers experience undesirable emotional states (related to guilt or self-recrimination) as a result of their participation in the grooming process (Craven et al, 2006;Van Dam, 2001). In addition to causing subjective distress, such emotional reactions can impact negatively on the efficiency of goaldirected behaviour (Scholar & Higgins, 2011;Tamir, 2016). ...
... Close contact with students, who are often eager to please their teachers, allows offenders to "groom" 1 a student for eventual abuse, by giving special attention and rewards while slowly increasing the amount of touching or other sexual behaviors (Robins, 2000;Salter, 2003;Shoop, 2004). In this way, offenders exploit students' need to please and take advantage of the tremendous power they have over students (Van Dam, 2001, p. 106). ...
Article
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“Passing the trash,” enabling teachers who sexually abuse students to pursue another job with no record of their sexual misconduct, is common practice for K–12 school district administrators who fear legal liability and tarnished reputations. The “Prohibition on Aiding and Abetting Sexual Abuse” provision in the United States Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) of 2015 aims to eliminate passing the trash. This study explores states’ progress toward developing and implementing relevant law and policy to comply with the provision. Researchers collected data from representatives of state departments of education, asking whether representatives were aware of the provision and what progress their state had made toward complying with it. Overall, researchers found that just four states had fully complied; several others were in the process of creating relevant policy and legislation and a few began the process in response to researchers’ queries. However, the overwhelming majority of states—39—had no plans to create relevant legislation or policy, either because they were unaware of the provision or because they believed, erroneously, that existing laws fulfilled the ESSA mandate. Passing the trash is clearly an unacceptable practice, yet research suggests it still occurs, and state-level laws and policies to prevent it are slow to emerge. The lack of knowledge or awareness exhibited by many state representatives suggests a need to educate policymakers and education leaders about what aiding and abetting sexual offenders consists of, what consequences it can have for vulnerable students, and what provisions states can enact to prohibit it.
... This kind of close contact and intense engagement with students, often around activities students enjoy, provides the opportunity for an offender (or potential offender) to "groom" students-establishing an emotional connection and normalizing sexual behavior by giving special attention and rewards while slowly increasing the amount of touching or other sexual behaviors (Robins, 2000;Salter, 2003;Shoop, 2004). In the grooming process, offenders exploit students' need to please and take advantage of their control over grades, discipline, playing time, and other rewards students may covet (van Dam, 2001). ...
Article
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Purpose: To help protect students from school employee sexual misconduct, this qualitative case study examines implementation of school employee sexual misconduct policies in five geographically and demographically diverse school districts that experienced incidents of school employee sexual misconduct in 2014. Method: Data were collected from 92 school employees and county officials from five school districts from January 2016 to September 2017 via interviews (N = 41) and 10 focus groups (N = 51), as well as through document and policy reviews. Findings: This article outlines findings with regard to the key elements of Title IX guidance including: (a) policies and procedures; (b) prevention; (c) training for staff, students, and parents; (d) reporting; (e) investigations; and (f) response. Although participants reported improvements in these areas after incidents, various challenges, including a lack of understanding of Title IX requirements, continue to affect district-level approaches to sexual misconduct policies. Implications: Recommendations are that school districts review their policy and implementation efforts to determine if they are compliant with Title IX guidance. Researchers also recommend that the federal and state departments of education establish accountability measures to track policy implementation and ensure school districts comply with Title IX guidance and provide high-quality low-cost training options. Further examination of how often these cases occur, victim and offender characteristics, effects on victims and school communities, criminal justice responses, and the effectiveness of prevention efforts are also recommended.
... VAN DAM, C. (2002). Identifying Child Molesters: Preventing Child Sexual Abuse by Recognizing the Patterns of the Offenders. ...
Book
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Monografia neprináša právnu analýzu problematiky sexuálneho zneužívania detí (hoci na viacerých miestach odkazuje na relevantné legislatívne aspekty a ponúka tiež stručný právny predhovor), ale kladie si za cieľ sprístupniť aktuálne vedecké poznatky, bez zohľadnenia ktorých môže byť aj právne uchopenie problematiky náchylnejšie na omyly. V prvej kapitole autorka približuje skutočnosť, že definície a chápanie sexuálneho zneužívania detí sa v epidemiologických štúdiách, politických a práv¬nych dokumentoch rôznia. Analyzujúc tieto rozdiely a opierajúc sa o poznatky zo sociálnych vied, práva, vývinovej psychológie a etymológie, ponúka konceptuálny model sexuálneho zneužívania detí, v ktorom sú identifikované kľúčové komponenty tohto fenoménu. Úvodná kapitola prináša aj údaje o prevalencii sexuálneho zneužívania detí a o faktoroch, ktoré sa podieľajú na latencii tohto fenoménu. Dotýka sa tiež problematiky výskytu krivých obvinení ako aj obvinení zo sexuálneho zneužívania detí v kontexte poručenských sporov po rozchode alebo rozvode rodičovského páru. Druhá kapitola sumarizuje kľúčové vedecké poznatky o mužoch, ženách i mladistvých osobách, ktoré sa dopúšťajú sexuálneho zneužívania detí. Zdôrazňuje skutočnosť, že nie všetci páchatelia sexuálneho zneužívania detí sú sexuálne deviantní a teda negatívny nález pri sexuologickom znaleckom vyšetrení nemožno chápať ako dôkaz, že osoba skutok spáchať nemohla. Kapitola prehľadne sumarizuje aj teórie vysvetľujúce sexuálne delikventné správanie a detailne približuje grooming (manipuláciu) ako súčasť konania a uvažovania páchateľov. Pozornosť venuje aj významu a kľúčovým komponentom intervencií voči páchateľom (vrátane terapeutických intervencií, probačného dohľadu a ochranných opatrení). Tretia kapitola monografie je zameraná na obete sexuálneho zneužívania detí. Okrem ich profilu približuje následky primárnej viktimizácie, fenomén tzv. kontraintuitívnych reakcií na primárnu viktimizáciu, poukazuje na riziko a časté podoby sekundárnej viktimizácie obetí a problematiku vyhodnocovania všeobecnej a špecifickej vierohodnosti obetí. Štvrtá kapitola sa sústredí na problematiku výsluchu detí – suspektných obetí sexuálneho zneužívania. Sumarizuje aktuálne vedecké poznatky o pamäti a výpovedi obetí sexuálneho zneužívania, objasňuje základné podmienky výsluchu detskej obete, opisuje postup výsluchu detskej obete a načrtáva stratégie na vysporiadanie sa so situáciami, kedy detské obete pri výsluchu neodhaľujú svoje zážitky. Záverečná, piata kapitola upriamuje pozornosť na ľudský faktor a s ním späté riziká zlyhania v procese zhromažďovania a posudzovania dôkazov v prípadoch podozrení zo sexuálneho zneužívania detí. V tomto ohľade poukazuje na riziko predsudkov a kognitívnych skreslení u profesionálov, na prvky zabezpečujúce efektivitu výcviku profesionálov realizujúcich výsluchy poškodených, a napokon aj na potrebu reflektovania a prevencie sprostredkovanej (sekundárnej) traumatizácie profesionálov. V prílohe publikácie zároveň čitatelia a čitateľky nájdu prehľadne štruktúrovaný návod na vedenie výsluchu u detí, u ktorých je podozrenie že sa stali obeťami sexuálneho zneužívania detí. Ide o slovenský preklad tzv. NICHD protokolu, ktorý je vo svete považovaný za zlatý štandard vo vedení takéhoto výsluchu.
... Grooming metotları olarak tanımlanan bu davranışlar, failin çocukla fiziksel olarak bir araya gelmesine yardımcı olan ve cinsel istismarın uygulanmasını kolaylaştıran yöntemlerdir (2,5,10,11). Böylece, istismar sürecinde başvurulan grooming metotları ile istismarın ortaya çıkması ve ifşa edilme olasılığı azalmaktadır (12). Literatüre göre cinsel istismar vakalarında genel olarak grooming yöntemlerine başvurulduğu görülmüştür (13,14). ...
Chapter
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Cinsel istismar faillerine yönelik araştırmalarda son yıllarda önemli bir artış olduğu gözlemlenmektedir (1). ABD, Kanada, Avustralya gibi ülkelerde cinsel istismar failleri üzerine yapılan çalışmalarda, bu kişilerin mağdurlara yaklaşmak ve onları cinsel bir aktivite içine çekmek için çeşitli stratejiler izleyen kişiler oldukları yönünde bulgular ortaya konmuştur (2, 3, 4). Özellikle son yıllarda çocuklara yönelik cinsel şiddet vakalarındaki artış istismar faillerinin nasıl tipler olduğu ve çocuklara nasıl yaklaştıkları (çocuğa yaklaşma, fiziksel olarak yakın hale gelebilme gibi) gibi konularda daha fazla bilgi sahibi olmayı gerekli hale getirmiştir (2). Cinsel istismarı çocuklar açısından tehlikeli ve ciddi bir mağduriyet haline getiren etkenlere bakıldığında; i-çocukların fizyolojik ve psikososyal açıdan dezavantajlı durumuna bağlı olarak savunmasız pozisyonları, ii-çocukların koruyucusu konumunda olan ebeveynlerin ve profesyonellerin bilgi ve farkındalık eksiklikleri gibi nedenlerle etkin bir bakım ve gözetimi yerine getirememesi ve iii-istismar faillerinin çocukları kandırma, manipüle etme, zorlama konusunda bir takım yöntemleri benimsemesidir (5). Gönültaş (5) bu üç etkeni bütüncül olarak ele almış ve “cinsel istismar girdabı” olarak tanımlamıştır. Bu üç etken bir araya geldiğinde bir girdap etkisi oluşturarak çocukların mağduriyet süreçlerini hızlandırmakta ve gördükleri zararı ise arttırmaktadır. Burada başta faillerin yaklaşım şekilleri ve kullandıkları metotlar, girdabın en tehlikeli halkası olmaktadır. Çünkü alanda yapılan çalışmalarda (örn. 6, 7, 8) failler uyguladıkları yöntemlerle sadece çocukları kandırma-manipüle etme konusunda yetenekli olmadıkları aynı zamanda koruyucusu rolündeki ebeveyn, öğretmen gibi yetişkinleri de kandırma-manipüle etmede başarılı oldukları ortaya konmuştur (9, 10). Bu bağlamda, çalışma bir cinsel istismar vakasını ala alarak; ebeveynlere yönelik grooming metotlarını ortaya koymayı ve bu nedenle istismar sürecinde ebeveynlerin çocuklarını etkin koruma-gözetme konusunda nasıl etkisizleştiği konusunda birtakım değerlendirmeler yapmayı amaçlamaktadır. Bu amaçla bir cinsel istismar vakası üzerinden analiz yapılmaya çalışılacaktır.
... Close contact with students, who are often eager to please their teachers, allows offenders the opportunity to "groom" 4 students for eventual misconduct, by giving special attention and rewards while slowly increasing the amount of touching or other sexual behaviors (Robins, 2000;Salter, 2003;Shoop, 2004). In this way, offenders exploit students' need to please and take advantage of the power they have over grades, discipline, playing time, and other rewards students may covet (Van Dam, 2001). ...
Technical Report
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An estimated 10% of K–12 students will experience sexual misconduct by a school employee by the time they graduate from high school. Such misconduct can result in lifelong consequences for students including negative physical, psychological, and academic outcomes. To prevent incidents from occurring, school districts are tasked with complying with Title IX, a federal law that provides guidelines for prevention efforts and responses to school employee sexual misconduct in K–12 schools. Key elements of Title IX guidance include requirements for 1) comprehensive policies and procedures, 2) prevention efforts, 3) training for staff, students, and parents, 4) timely reporting, 5) thorough and coordinated investigations, and 6) effective response. Taken together, these six elements are intended to reduce the risk of school employee sexual misconduct and eliminate mismanagement of cases when misconduct does occur. The purpose of this study is to examine Title IX policy implementation in school districts that experienced a case of school employee sexual misconduct in 2014. After experiencing incidents of school employee sexual misconduct school district participants in this study reported reformulation of some policies and procedures to address gaps highlighted by the incidents and improvements in awareness, communication, and district leadership. Although participants reported improvements, a lack of understanding and various challenges and fears continued to affect school district policy development and implementation in spite of Title IX requirements. Districts in this study lacked one or more of the key elements of Title IX; the study identified gaps in policies with regard to 1) having comprehensive policies and procedures, 2) providing trainings for staff, students, and parents, and 3) properly responding to and investigating cases. Participants reported various challenges that affected their implementation of the key elements of Title IX, including district budget limitations, low parent engagement, fear of the consequences of reporting, and poor responses by criminal justice and child welfare agencies. To prevent or respond effectively to incidents, participants recommend that districts 1) be proactive, 2) develop clear and comprehensive policies and procedures, 3) improve communication about policies and procedures, 4) offer annual in-person staff, student, and parent trainings, 5) have clear guidance for reporting procedures, 6) develop protocols and checklists, 7) establish accountability measures, 8) have strong leaders communicate and enforce policies and procedures, and 9) develop collaborative relationships with criminal justice and child welfare agencies. Researchers recommend that school districts review their policy and implementation efforts to determine if they are compliant with the key elements of Title IX guidance. Researchers also recommend that the federal and state departments of education establish accountability measures to track policy implementation and ensure school districts comply with Title IX guidance and provide high-quality low-cost training options. Further examination of prevalence data, victim and offender characteristics, effects on victims and school communities, criminal justice responses, and the effectiveness of prevention efforts are also recommended.
... As Craven et al. note, a desire on the part of the parent to avoid this "cognitive dissonance" results in the parent changing their thoughts (dismissing their concerns by justifying the abuser's interest in their child) to be consistent with the behavior. Thus, according to van Dam (2001), offenders gain insider status long before they proceed to abusing the child. ...
Article
In recent years, legislation recognizing the grooming of a child for the purposes of sexual abuse as a criminal offense has been introduced. However, there is a limited evidence base on the mechanisms involved in grooming behavior, particularly from the perspective of those who have experienced grooming. This article, drawing on an in depth case study of a 52-year-old man, using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, explores the experience of grooming from childhood into adulthood. Four key themess were identified: abuser as benefactor, a substitute parent, abuser as mind controller, and facilitating system. The findings suggest that two key relationship dynamics are helpful in understanding the process of grooming; the traumatic bond established between the abuser and the abused and relationships within the child’s wider system that facilitated the child’s silence. These dynamics illustrate how the sexual abuse experience is normalized, and how the occurrence of abuse and maintenance of the secret is facilitated by those in the victim’s wider ecological system over a number of decades. A better understanding of the process of grooming can enhance professionals’ responses to those who have experienced grooming, in particular helping to alleviate self blame associated with experiences of sexual abuse and non-disclosure.
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Die fokus van hierdie artikel is om aan te toon dat pedoseksualiteit en pedofilie ’n uitdaging aan die pastoraat en die kerk stel. Nie net in Suid-Afrika nie, maar ook internasionaal is pedoseksuele gedrag ’n wydverspreide probleem. Navorsing op hierdie gebied is ’n pastorale uitdaging. Volgens baie mense is seksueel-afwykende gedrag nie iets wat in die Christengemeenskap voorkom nie. Dit is egter ver van die waarheid af. Pedoseksualiteit en pedofilie kom voor in alle beroepe, op alle sosio-ekonomiese vlakke, in alle ouderdomme, kulture en seksuele oriëntasies en in alle gelowe. Pedofilie word in twee hoofgroepe verdeel, naamlik die situasionele kindermolesteerder en die voorkeur-kindermolesteerder. Die wortels van pedofilie lê normaalweg in die kinderjare terwyl die seksuele wanorde gedurende adolessensie ontwikkel. Drie tipes lewenservaring op ’n vroeë ouderdom word aangedui as aanleidend tot pedoseksualiteit, naamlik seksuele kontak vóór die ouderdom van 16 jaar met ’n aansienlik ouer persoon; seksuele kontak voor die ouderdom van 13 jaar met lede van die eie portuurgroep; en nie-seksuele geweld wat hoofsaaklik deur ouers teenoor kinders gepleeg is. Aangesien daar geen rehabiliteringsprogramme in Suid-Afrika bestaan vir persone met seksueel-afwykende gedrag nie en seksuele waardes vinnig in die breë samelewing afgeneem het, behoort die kerk op die voorgrond te tree op hierdie gebied.The focus of this article is to show that paedosexuality and paedophilia poses a challenge to both the pastorate and the church. Not only in South Africa, but also internationally, has paedosexual behaviour become a widespread problem. Research in this field poses a pastoral challenge. According to the opinion of most people sexually deviant behaviour is not something that occurs in the Christian community. This assumption, however, is not the truth. Paedosexuality and paedophilia are present in all occupations, on every socio-economic level, in all age groups, all cultures, in all sexual orientations and religions. Paedophilia can be divided into two main groupings, namely the situational and the preference child molester. The roots of paedophilia can usually be traced back to childhood and the dishevelment developed during adolescence. Three types of life experiences are indicated as causal factors in paedosexuality, namely sexual contact before the age of 16 with someone much older; sexual contact before the age of 13 with members of their peer group; and non-sexual violence committed against them – usually by a parent. The church must take the lead on this matter, as there are no existing rehabilitation programs in South Africa for persons with sexual deviant behaviour while sexual values are waning among the general population.
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This study's purpose was to discover commonalities and differences among female predators and Florida female teachers who are perceived and reported to harass students sexually. When perceived and reported female sexual harasser and student safety was researched, a breath of studies did not occur. When current studies were reviewed, teacher sexual harassment continued to occur. In this qualitative study, ten Florida public school female teachers who were perceived and reported to sexually harass students were randomly selected. Findings indicted that further research is still needed on female teachers who are perceived and reported to sexually harass students. When researching the female teacher as a sexual predator, implications such as student safety in the public school system, school districts not reporting sexual harassment, and the need for additional research due to the minimal amount of completed research on the topic. When the differences and commonalities between female teachers who are perceived and reported to harass students sexually and female predators was studied, the results were not conclusive. The data displayed minimal commonalities and differences leaving no definitive answer but created numerous questions for future research. In addition, recommendations were made for school leaders and for future research.
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60 Περίληψη Στη σύγχρονη εποχή οι απαιτήσεις αυξάνονται και οι δυσκολίες που αντιμετωπίζει ένας παιδαγωγός είναι ποικίλες και ίσως να μην έχει προετοιμαστεί κατάλληλα για αυτό. Σύμφωνα με τον Schulte-Körne (2016), το ποσοστό παιδιών και εφήβων που αντιμε-τωπίζουν κάποιο ζήτημα ψυχικής υγείας κυμαίνεται από 10% έως 20%. Εκδηλώσεις όπως ελλείμματα προσοχής, γνωστικές διαταραχές, έλλειψη κινήτρων και αρνητική διάθεση επηρεάζουν αρνητικά τη σχολική ανάπτυξη παιδιών και εφήβων. Λαμβάνο-ντας υπόψη τα υψηλά ποσοστά επικράτησης των προβλημάτων ψυχικής υγείας σε παι-διά και εφήβους και τη σημασία τους για τη σχολική ανάπτυξη των νέων, η παρούσα εργασία έχει σκοπό να αναδείξει και να διαχωρίσει αυτά τα προβλήματα. Λέξεις-Κλειδιά: προβλήματα ψυχικής υγείας, παιδιά, έφηβοι Mental health issues of children and adolescents Papadopoulou Kyriaki, Preschool teacher Abstract In modern times the demands are increasing and the difficulties faced by a educator are varied and may not have been properly prepared for it. According to Schulte-Körne (2016), the percentage of children and adolescents experiencing a mental health issue ranges from 10% to 20%. Manifestations such as attention deficits, cognitive disorders, lack of motivation and negative mood adversely affect the school development of children and adolescents. In view of the high prevalence of mental health problems in children and adolescents and their importance for the school development of young people, this work is intended to highlight and separate these problems. Ταξινόμηση προβλημάτων ψυχικής υγείας παιδιών και εφήβων Τα προβλήματα συμπεριφοράς που αντιμετωπίζουν οι μαθητές κατά τη διάρκεια της σχολικής κοινότητας διακρίνονται σε δύο ομάδες, σε προβλήματα εσωτερίκευσης και σε προβλήματα εξωτερίκευσης. Τα πρώτα σχετίζονται με προβλήματα ενδοπροσωπι-κής προσαρμογής, ενώ τα προβλήματα εξωτερίκευσης ορίζονται αυτά που σχετίζονται με προβλήματα διαπροσωπικής προσαρμογής. Τα παιδιά που έχουν αναπτύξει τέτοιου είδους συμπεριφορά από την παιδική τους ηλικία όχι μόνο δεν πρόκειται να ξεπερά-σουν αυτή την αποκλίνουσα συμπεριφορά, αλλά αυτή η συμπεριφορά αποτελεί ένδειξη παραβατικότητας στην εφηβεία (Heward, 2011).
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The focus of this article is to show that paedosexuality and paedophilia poses a challenge to both the pastorate and the church. Not only in South Africa, but also internationally, has paedosexual behaviour become a widespread problem. Research in this field poses a pastoral challenge. According to the opinion of most people sexually deviant behaviour is not something that occurs in the Christian community. This assumption, however, is not the truth. Paedosexuality and paedophilia are present in all occupations, on every socio-economic level, in all age groups, all cultures, in all sexual orientations and religions. Paedophilia can be divided into two main groupings, namely the situational and the preference child molester. The roots of paedophilia can usually be traced back to childhood and the dishevelment developed during adolescence. Three types of life experiences are indicated as causal factors in paedosexuality, namely sexual contact before the age of 16 with someone much older; sexual contact before the age of 13 with members of their peer group; and non-sexual violence committed against them - usually by a parent. The church must take the lead on this matter, as there are no existing rehabilitation programs in South Africa for persons with sexual deviant behaviour while sexual values are waning among the general population.
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RESUMEN: En este trabajo se hace una revisión del ciberdelito de grooming, su descripción y los estudios que desde la lingüística forense contribuyen a identificar a groomers que ocultan su identidad en las redes para llevar a cabo acciones delictivas de abuso sexual a menores. Se aportan datos de prevalencia del grooming y aproximaciones a los perfiles cognitivos y criminales de este tipo de ciberdelincuentes sexuales y su tipificación en el Código Penal español. Por último, se exponen los estudios que desde una perspectiva exclusivamente lingüística se han llevado a cabo en distintos países, presentando a continuación las deficiencias de este tipo de estudios sobre este ciberdelito en el ámbito español. ABSTRACT: 2 In this work we review the cybercrime of grooming, its description and the studies that from the Forensic Linguistics perspective contribute to identify groomers who hide their identity in the network to carry out criminal actions of sexual abuse to minors. Data on the prevalence of grooming are provided but also information on the cognitive and criminal profiles of this kind of cybersex offender and how this crime is categorized in the Spanish Criminal Code. Finally, the studies carried out in different countries from an exclusively linguistic viewpoint are provided, likewise the deficiencies in type of studies on this cybercrime in the Spanish context are outlined. INTRODUCCIÓN Las redes sociales online son estructuras sociales compuestas que reúnen a las personas que comparten un interés común, relación o actividad a través de internet y se producen interacciones en tiempo real, la mayoría de las veces, o en diferido y permiten crear, compartir o participar en sus contenidos previa configuración de un perfil (Comisión Redes Sociales IAB
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Disclosure rates of child sexual abuse (CSA) to both social supports and law enforcement are concerningly low, although more research is needed to understand factors that impact disclosure. Thus, the present study examined rates of informal (i.e., to a social support) and formal (i.e., to law enforcement) disclosure of CSA, as well as victims' self‐reported experiences with telling others about their own abuse and their perceptions of the overall advantages and disadvantages of disclosure. In all, 76 undergraduate women (who collectively experienced 105 instances of abuse) participated in a semi‐structured interview regarding their history of CSA. Results revealed that approximately 50% of cases involved the victim informally disclosing, and only 10% of cases being formally disclosed to authorities. The quantitative and qualitative data shed light on a number of factors that lead victims to not disclose, as well as the identification of factors that may promote a victim to share their abuse with others. The implications for improved prevention and responses to CSA disclosure are discussed.
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This study examined details of behavioural sequences that constitute male-on-male child molestation within the Boy Scouts of America based on the narratives reported by child victims. Previous studies largely focused on convicted offenders when reconstructing the circumstances of child molestations. Also, sex crime literature did not consistently distinguish victim's gender and age when it comes to child victims and child molestation in an educational setting. Such loopholes have made the significances of the behavioural patterns in male-on-male child molestation unknown. This qualitative study analyses the verbal and behavioural patterns of male adult scoutmaster perpetrators against boy victims at the physical contact stage. Using a fishing metaphor, we identify unique behavioural sequences of scoutmaster perpetrators and explain the implications of such behaviours in male-on-male child molestation. Details of three unique behavioural patterns of scoutmaster perpetrators in male-on-male child molestation within the Boy Scouts of America are discussed.
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This article considers the position of law as a macro-level intervention into the vulnerability of children to rape or sexual assault as a result of the process of sexual grooming. It situates grooming within the context of the South African narrative of rape, and describes features of the process that are drawn on by South African courts. This article offers a critique of the existing law concerning sexual grooming by examining the different manifestations of the concept in law: first, as a stand-alone statutory offence, second, as a means of establishing lack of consent in the crime of rape or sexual assault, and finally, as a factor when sentencing a person convicted of the rape or sexual assault of a child. While the law may offer some pathways to resilience by having named the offence and created the possibility of legal recourse, the existing shortcomings in the law, combined with its interpretation by the courts in emerging jurisprudence suggest that there are obstacles to it being a singular curative of vulnerability to grooming. The law occupies a central position in the broader narrative as a site for justice for victims and has the potential to strengthen the social ecologies of children, and improve the potential for resilience, if it properly fulfills this role.
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Law enforcement agencies worldwide are concerned about cyber sexual grooming (CSG), particularly because of its potential to increasingly become transnational and global. The Internet medium facilitates CSG, where predators can draw children into a façade relationship through systematic grooming, inappropriate sexual advances and manipulation, for the purpose of sexual victimization. This article discusses four main issues. First, it discusses the definition of CSG and its inadequacies. Second, it reviews the behavioral characteristics of CSG perpetrators and victims, exposing the prevailing myths that offenders are violent paedophiles and strangers to their victims. Third, it illustrates how the CSG process unfolds through five different psychological and behavioral stages. Finally, recommendations are provided for caregivers, schools, law enforcement authorities, and adolescents to remain proactive in the prevention of and intervention in CSG.
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Podľa výskumov sa asi dvadsať percent žien a päť až desať percent mužov na celom svete stalo obeťami sexuálneho zneužívania detí (CSA). CSA je vo väčšine legislatív sveta chápané ako závažný zločin. Tento zločin ťažko napáda ľudské práva a v rôznych oblastiach života obetí zanecháva dlhodobý negatívny dopad. Dalo by sa predpokladať, že ľudia zaujímajú k CSA jednoznačne negatívny postoj, ktorý sa prejaví aj v ich praktickom správaní sa v situáciách, keď sa stretnú s konkrétnym prípadom: teda, že podniknú kroky na ochranu, podporu a rehabilitáciu obeti CSA a páchateľa nejakým spôsobom sankcionujú za porušenie noriem. V skutočnosti je však takýto scenár skôr výnimočný. Príspevok poukazuje na niektoré poznatky sociálnej psychológie, vysvetľujúce prečo ľudia niekedy pomáhajú a inokedy nie; predstavuje stručný prierez vývojom celospoločenského postoja k problematike sexuálneho zneužívania detí (CSA), a prostredníctvom analýzy základných etických dilem ohľadne prípadov CSA odhaľuje individuálne hodnoty a motívy, z ktorých rôznorodé postoje voči CSA pramenia. Príspevok predstavuje vybrané komponenty sociálnej nezodpovednosti v problematike CSA a podnecuje čitateľa k preskúmaniu svojej vlastnej postojovej pozície k tomuto závažnému fenoménu.
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Child-Focused Prevention EffortsParent-Focused Prevention EffortsCommunity- and Society-Focused Prevention EffortsConclusion
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According to prior research, approximately 14% of sexual victimizations by priests are reported to civil authorities. Victim grooming by the abuser is a main reason the number of reported incidents is low. The concept of reverential fear and religious duress is related to grooming, but very little empirical research focuses on the concept. Reverential fear and religious duress is a type of fear that limits the ability of clergy sexual abuse victims to disengage from their abuser; it intensifies when one has reverence and respect for the clergyman who abused them. In this article, available data from personnel files from several Catholic institutions are analyzed to gain a deeper understanding of reverential fear and religious duress. Findings suggest victims of clergy sexual abuse experience reverential fear and religious duress. The discussion focuses on why victims remain silent and provides recommendations for new policy and for improving existing policy.
Chapter
“Grooming” (also known as “entrapment,” “engagement,” “subjection,” etc.) is the seduction stage which can precede incidences of child sexual abuse (e.g., Elliott, Browne, & Kilcoyne, Child Abuse & Neglect, 19(5), 579–594, 1995; Conte, Wolf, & Smith, Child Abuse & Neglect, 13(2), 293–301, 1989; Budin & Johnson, Child Abuse & Neglect, 13, 77–87, 1989; Burgess & Holmstrom, The sexual victimology of youth, Charles C Thomas, Springfield, IL, pp. 67–82, 1980). During this stage, child molesters may use various techniques which function to gain access to the child, increase the child’s compliance with the sexual abuse and also decrease the likelihood of the child disclosing the abuse to anyone. Child abusers may also use threats during the grooming process and subsequently during the abuse to keep the child compliant as well as prevent the child from disclosing (e.g., Elliott, Browne, & Kilcoyne, Child Abuse & Neglect, 19(5), 579–594, 1995; Faller, Journal of Family Violence, 3(4), 283–298, 1988). This chapter will review the empirical literature regarding what is known about grooming and threatening techniques, as well as provide suggestions on what to look for in a forensic interview regarding evidence of grooming.
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This study explored police officers’ perceptions of specialist training for sexual offence investigations, as well as the skills and qualities needed to investigate sexual crime. The sample included 41 Australian police officers who completed anonymous questionnaires before, immediately after, and 9–12 months following a 4-week intensive course that focused on the Whole Story framework for conducting sexual offence investigations. Results indicated that the training changed officers’ perceptions to be more consistent with the information learned in the specialist course. Following training, officers placed greater importance on the specialist nature of sexual offence investigations, the specialist nature of interviewing adults and children, and evidence about the relationship between the suspect and the victim. Empathy, good communication, and open-mindedness were deemed to be particularly important attributes for investigating sexual crime. Potential implications for police forces and trainers are discussed, along with suggestions for future research.
Article
Purpose: Cases of child sexual abuse are becoming a serious social problem in Indonesia. The rising number of child sexual abuse cases from year to years are reported in various related institutions. It makes worried to the all of community because they can not keep an eye on their children for 24 hours. Methodology: The design of this study is qualitative research with literature review and theoretical review in which will looking for the right strategies for preventing child sexual abuse base on child developmental stage theory. Results: The results of research show that the place of child sexual abuse occurs not only in quiet places, even at home, as well as in the school where the child is studying .The gap between the child’s knowledge of how to protect themself from the threat of sexual abuse has led to the need to establish a program of preventing child sexual abuse and needs the right strategy for preventing child sexual abuse based on their developmental stages, so the cases of sexual abuse in children can be minimized. Implication: One effective strategy to minimize cases of child sexual abuse is self-protection training program. This program lead to equip children with knowledge to identify patterns of sexual abuse and how to deal with them. This program also primarily aimed at every child who is vulnerable to becoming a victim of sexual abuse. That is why a special appropriate strategy for the prevention of child sexual abuse is required for children. In the future, every child will get information on the prevention of sexual abuse more accurately based on the their stage of development.
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Cieľom publikácie je pozdvihnúť kvalitu sociálnej práce s obeťami a páchateľmi sexuálneho zneužívania detí (CSA) v podmienkach Slovenska. Autorka ponúka najprv stručný úvod do forenznej sociálnej práce a následne prechádza k analýze systému, do ktorého je forenzná sociálna práca „votkaná“ v podmienkach Slovenska. Analýza zároveň upozorňuje na nedostatky týkajúce sa forenznej sociálnej práce s páchateľmi a obeťami CSA na Slovensku. Ďalej sa zameriava na páchateľov CSA, pričom uvádza kľúčové poznatky, ktorými by mali disponovať (nielen) sociálni pracovníci, prichádzajúci do kontaktu s touto klientelou. Zároveň navrhuje model multidisciplinárneho prístupu k týmto jedincom a podrobnejšie popisuje intervencie, ktorých sa môžu zhostiť špecializovaní sociálni pracovníci. Pozornosť venuje aj obetiam CSA, pričom zhromažďuje kľúčové poznatky nevyhnutné pre porozumenie tejto obzvlášť zraniteľnej klientele. Ponúka taktiež model komplexnej starostlivosti o obete, s dôrazom na rolu špecializovaných sociálnych pracovníkov. Napokon navrhuje súbor opatrení pre skvalitnenie forenznej sociálnej práce všeobecne i špecificky vo vzťahu k problematike CSA.
Article
Internet predation of minors has become a focus of child sexual abuse research and legislation. Studies reveal that many American youth report experiencing sexual solicitation and sexual grooming online, but the youth perspective of these experiences has not been examined. This study examined retrospective perspectives of online sexual solicitation and grooming experienced as a minor. Participants were 1,133 undergraduate college students at two public institutions in the United States who completed an online survey retrospectively exploring Internet behaviors, experiences of online sexual solicitation or online grooming, and perceptions of the experience. Results showed that one-quarter of total participants conversed with adult strangers online as minors. Importantly, 65% of participants who chatted with adult strangers as minors experienced sexual solicitation from an adult stranger. Twenty-three percent of 1,133 total participants recalled having a long, intimate conversation as a minor with an adult stranger from an online chatroom that followed a pattern of online sexual grooming. While less than half (38%) of the youth who engaged in an intimate online relationship with an adult stranger met the adult in-person, a large majority of those who did meet in-person (68%) reported physical sexual intercourse. Implications for Internet safety and guidelines are discussed.
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