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200 th Anniversary of Special Relativity

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200th Anniversary of Special Relativity
Özgen Ersan (
Abstract: The special theory of relativity has been honored with high interpretations about human
mental performance for more than a century and it played a role in increasing interest in science. With
the improvement of methodology and its becoming more competent, the flaws of the theory and its
superficial analyzing became transparent, and in its 200th anniversary it became the case for the error
file in the history of science. Through this widely known example, this study summarizes the reasons
why humanity is deceived oneself while searching for reality.
Keywords: Philosophy of Science; Methodology; Atomically precise; Relational integrity.
The Special Theory of Relativity (SR) was improved by Lorentz and Poincaré by inspiring the prophecy
of Fitzgerald contraction, and it was published as an article by Einstein. The theory did not catch any
significant interest for a period of time; however SR became the idol of humanity thanks to the media's
efforts on theory's interesting inferences; It had been the subject of tens of thousands of publications,
had became a part of the general culture, was celebrated on its first century anniversary, and its
reputation reached its peak. These celebrations brought along antitheses and caused to be
reconsidered by some scientists that they have advanced scientific paradigm. These discussions were
reflected in scientific articles and the process of making clear the arguments about the theory's flaws
began. The defenders of the theory even took chauvinistic attitudes, but one by one withdrew from
the arena in the face of alternative and more sophisticated definitions. This table has increased the
importance of philosophy of science and methodology. The fame of the theory has caused to interest
of more competent thinkers. The protecting of the theory by its admirers also motivated the
Mental analysis by atomically precise
The organism called human is structured in a necessary and sufficient order in the axis of survival.
Some of the natural phenomena and events can be so complex that this formation cannot cope (e.g.
Galileo phenomenon: Sun-earth rotation relation). Efforts to define the natural realities and events
begin with coarse / shallow approaches (usually accompanied by one or two factors), new intuitions
emerge with the signals presented by the anvil of life (new factors are considered), and a "revised
definition" develops throughout the process, and it approaches to the natural truth. The extreme point
of this process can be called "atomically precise analysis". In other words, it is obvious that a more
accurate definition will be realized when the thinness of the main and intermediate definitions can no
longer divisible. This can be called "seeing the whole picture" or "considering the relational integrity".
Bertrand Russell described himself as "mental atomist": "Analysis lasts until they are based on things
that can no longer be resolved, which are "mental atoms." [1].
The special theory of relativity was exempted from being deeply scrutinized (by mental atomic level
analysis) due to chauvinistic positive discrimination and remained undeveloped in its original form.
According to the advanced and competent methodology, the issues that prevent the internalization of
the SR and cause its defects to be hidden are as follows:
1- The coding of "light" was used as the test subject in most explanations of the SR theory; and
the mean of continuity of light caused confusion and misunderstanding or aborting of
understanding. Advanced and competent methodology has emphasized the need for a
"defined single photon" as the test subject.
2- Similarly, it was neglected to state that the light / photon was directed by a perforated plate
filter in the narratives, and the question of which photon paths in 41253 spherical degrees
(and fractions) to be preferred was left idle for the mind. This ambiguity made it easier for the
narrator to manipulate the analysis process according to his own goal. SR only performed the
analysis in the + x direction (both the source and the photon traveled in the + x direction);
other directions were neglected, no discussion of other directions (e.g. while the source is
going in the - x direction) was brought to the agenda for 150 years. It can be perceived that
technical analysis / internalization of SR was not performed except few people. Analysis was
neglected in other aspects, although the principle of their methodology required this option.
Since photons traveling in different directions from the source will have a diverging speed
from their source by the value ' c ' in line with the definition of "exact relative", the different
rate of time tempo and length contraction would be required for each direction, this is
impossible when all of them are considered simultaneously; it is against causality.
3- In SR theory, the measured speed of light had been labeled and used as the increasing speed
of the distance between the photon and its source (that is, "exact relative") . It was presumed
that the light velocity measurement experiment (organized by a round trip double-track and
continuous photon current) can measure the velocity in this definition (The speed of moving
away from its source). This was a habit or shallow first approach from mechanical experience,
and for the last fifty years it has been realized that this arrangement can measure the relative
speed value of light according to only space (or according to the light itself by abstract
thinking; -effectively- to Light Coordinate System: LCS) [2]. The presence of other hypotheses
except initial intention (that are supported by the same experiment) had not yet been
investigated; there was no such consciousness and protocol; the result of the experiment was
interpreted in line with the initial intention. In the experiment of measuring the speed of light,
this initial intention functioned as a sort of hidden postulate (as the "speed of moving away
from the source").
4- In theory, the types of relativity had never been considered. The velocity of light ' c ' had been
used directly by the meaning of "genuine relative" according to its source (without examining
the essence of relationship between photon and source). If the example of the movement
relationship between the player and the ball in the definition of "hypothetical relativity" could
be internalized [3] (if it could be examined at the mental atomically level), this fallacy of
science that lasted more than a 150 years would not have been experienced.
5- Although the "common reference frame" was used as the gold standard in the analyses during
the period, theory SR preferred to analyze was made by isolating the "photon / light and its
source" from the whole universe, and then the superposition process was not applied. Routine
reduction method was used excessively in theory SR analysis; Even the hierarchical ranking of
formations (reference frames) in the universe [micro systems, satellites, star systems,
galaxies, galaxy clusters,… universe, multiverse, macro system (space/LCS)] had not
considered. Consequently, the motion option of the photon velocity with the different relative
velocities of the moving object relative to consecutive reference systems has also been
neglected. At least if this could be done, probably it could be perceived that the photon
velocity is identical to the outermost frame possible (LCS: Light Coordinate System or outer
space). In the current light kinematics principles, the c value of the speed of light and the value
of the vectorial resultant velocity (VU : the speed of local object on universal scale) of the light
source according to outmost reference frame (space) including the entire universe can be
processed together (Physical quantities - for analysis - must take values according to the same
common frame: calibration of parameters)
6- Since there is no protocol for the accurate determination of the theory and analysis target,
the theory / analysis presuppositions and process were chosen in accordance with the wrong
purpose (for confirming the Fitzgerald contraction). Nowadays, the subject of the theory
under the principles of competent methodology is "light kinematics". While the light
kinematics should be analyzed with minimum ten main factors [2], the Special Theory of
Relativity is built on only two postulates. Similarly, the "Phlogiston theory", which is the first
description of the burning event, was unaware of the "oxygen and oxidation" factor, and
sought ad-hoc defense with a fantasy prophecy such as "negative weight". Connective
integrity should be ensured by analysis or superposition with the required and sufficient
number of factors.
7- A considerable number of scientists and people -who are interested in light kinematics and
who can perform the analysis personally- revealed some flaws of the theory in the 2000s. But
they could not create a leavening effect. Most physics academicians - despite their
competence - did not take the burden of analyzing more than two factors simultaneously, and
they preferred to disdain those who objected by relying on the general acceptance of SR. It
was only in the last fifty years that the weakness of the theory began to be perceived when
methodology gained competence with its experience from energy-based technical
researches. SR became a cherished myths or most favorite example of the title of errors in
science in textbooks.
8- The essence of the theory SR had not been understood properly and sufficiently. However, it
was idolized and exempted from being scrutinized due to its mystic/ fantastic inferences like
"time travel". The theory has not function except astronomy and cosmology (that it has a
prevention role for cosmological analyses because of non-simultaneity). While most people
focus on fantastic inferences such as time travel, they have not been able to see the inference
of the SR mentality requires that the way of the photon (that has not gone yet) will be
shortened because of the speed of its source. Einstein concealed this absurd inference - in his
book - by organizing the "gedanken/mental" experiment within the train; the train is
shortening due to train's speed; those who ordinary read think -indirectly- that the light path
is also shortened; when considering the outer space conditions, this inappropriateness can be
seen in all its nakedness.
9- In the SR analyses, the "observer" was considered as an actor of the event. The observer
cannot see natural phenomena simultaneously because of finite/limited speed of light and
therefore limits each event to the speed "c". The upper limit for the analyses without observer
and hypothetically relativity is "2c" (The diameter of the light sphere -whose radius increases
with speed c-, inevitably increases with speed 2c). This has taken its place in the history of
science as a typical example of the anthropocentric stigma.
10- At the end of the past 200 years, supporters of the theory SR can still be encountered. These
are probably the ones who usually can't give up their relish of mysteries. Of course,
multifactorial analysis requires serious training and high paradigm for science; this is also a
serious factor to overcome the SR.
11- The "essence" is unavoidably forcemajor. "Truth" is always above the benefit. Advertising
cannot provide what is not in the emtia. Propaganda success did not save Hitler. The special
theory of relativity has also gone down in history as a "second Galilei event" despite being
idolized by thousands of publications, chauvinist patronage and mystery lovers.
12- In 200th anniversary of SR, the off-side positions were registered for some scientists who
declare idea without knowing the essence of SR. In the researching adventure of humanity, a
side branch of physics has entered to a dead end and exited; this period of ~ 200 years was
not lost and was useful for assimilating the precision in methodology. A person who maintains
the belief that the Sun turns around the Earth in the 1900s would not be functional in the
academic field. Similarly a person (who has not overcame the special relativity theory
mentality) will not be a candidate to establish/improve the science in the 2100s, especially in
the area of science philosophy.
We cannot simultaneously see the objects/events because of finite/limited value of light’s velocity.
We see an amazing/illusion view of sky. Each one of celestial objects is perceived at its ancient position
and age; but we see all of them in the same frame (wonder or illusion of nature). The reason of this
illusion is finite/limited value of light’s velocity; this factor is primary reason for light kinematics and
cosmological analyses. A first elaborative cosmological analysis was realized by considering this and
other some factors by LCS method (without the theory SR) [5]. This cosmological analysis distinguished
and presented the flaws of SR (which are explained in this text) as a byproduct.
Humanity has achieved great success in the field of exploration of the universe and life, inventions that
increase comfort, in short, in science. Since the Renaissance, science has been on the rise and the
speed of scientific development has accelerated especially in the last hundred years. This rapid
development has also raised the methodology and made it more competent. Humanity had the dogma
that "the sun turns around the earth" accompanied by visual evidence until Copernicus and Galilei.
Thanks to the holistic view, the insight of this dogma (the mistake of assigning the local body / medium
as a reference frame) was comprehended. The special theory of relativity, which has become a similar
stigma, could not resist this competent methodology - despite being treated as an idol with admiration.
Humanity has spent two hundred years to comprehend the inappropriateness of trying to analyze the
light kinematics with only two postulates; that while light kinematics requires at least ten factors. In
the essence of the first Galilei incident, it was misleading to describe the motion of the reference
system by looking from the relative position; the second Galilei event (the error of special relativity
theory) also caused an illusion in the same context.
[1] Interview with Bertrand Russell
[2] One Way the Speed of Light
[3] Weakest Point of Special Relativity
[4] General Theory of Relativity contravenes SR
[5] Ersan Ö., Ersan I., Physics Essays, 2013, 26, 1 (Doi:10.4006/0836-1398-26.1.49)
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
How is cosmological relativity can be analyzed when the finite value of the velocity of light is considered as the primary reason of the space time illusion/perception? In this study, an analysis of space-time is provided, and a practical model is presented in accordance with Galilean relativity and expansion theory. The results of astronomical observation can be transformed into simultaneous data using this model (with the relations of visible-absolute forms of universe). (C) 2013 Physics Essays Publication. []